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  • Author Correction: Coupling dinitrogen and hydrocarbons through aryl migration
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Sean F. McWilliams; Daniël L. J. Broere; Connor J. V. Halliday; Samuel M. Bhutto; Brandon Q. Mercado; Patrick L. Holland

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Receptor binding and priming of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 for membrane fusion
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Donald J. Benton; Antoni G. Wrobel; Pengqi Xu; Chloë Roustan; Stephen R. Martin; Peter B. Rosenthal; John J. Skehel; Steven J. Gamblin

    SARS-CoV-2 infection is initiated by virus binding to ACE2 cell surface receptors1–4, followed by fusion of virus and cell membranes to release the virus genome into the cell. Both receptor binding and membrane fusion activities are mediated by the virus Spike glycoprotein, S5–7. As with other class I membrane fusion proteins, S is post-translationally cleaved, in this case by furin, into S1 and S2

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • How the giant stinging tree of Australia can inflict months of agony
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-17

    A new type of peptide produces pain so intense that sometimes even morphine cannot quell it.

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Who gets a COVID vaccine first? Access plans are taking shape
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Nidhi Subbaraman

    Advisory groups around the world release guidance to prioritize healthcare workers and others.

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Daily briefing: World fails to meet every UN biodiversity goal
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Flora Graham

    We have not met any of the biodiversity targets agreed in 2010 — but there are hopeful signs to build on. Plus, how COVID-19 can damage the brain and a visually sumptuous tour of the latest dinosaur discoveries.

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Possible Phason-Polaron Effect on Purely One-Dimensional Charge Order ofMo6Se6Nanowires
    Phys. Rev. X (IF 12.577) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Xing Yang; Jing-Jing Xian; Gang Li; Naoto Nagaosa; Wen-Hao Zhang; Le Qin; Zhi-Mo Zhang; Jing-Tao Lü; Ying-Shuang Fu
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • News at a glance
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    American Association for the Advancement of Science

    In science news around the world, President Donald Trump admits he knew in February that the coronavirus that causes COVID-19 was "deadly," even as he publicly called the disease no worse than the seasonal flu. Scientists study the long-term health consequences of smoke from record wildfires on the U.S. West Coast. The virus that causes African swine fever, deadly to pigs, is discovered in Germany

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Sailing droplets in superheated granular layer
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 
    Dongdong Liu; Thien-Binh Nguyen; Ngoc-Vu Nguyen; Tuan Tran

    We report instability of a superheated granular layer when a droplet is deposited on top of the layer. We find that the instability caused by evaporating vapor may trap or cause the droplet to sail away from the deposited position. The sailing motion is triggered by an unstable pressure distribution originated from fast fluidization of metallic grains. We provide a predictive model and experimental

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Synergy between Hund-driven correlations and boson-mediated superconductivity
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 
    Laura Fanfarillo; Angelo Valli; Massimo Capone

    Multiorbital systems such as the iron-based superconductors provide a new avenue to attack the longstanding problem of superconductivity in strongly correlated systems. In this work we study the superconductivity driven by a generic bosonic mechanism in a multiorbital model including the full dynamical electronic correlations induced by the Hubbard U and the Hund’s coupling. We show that superconductivity

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Building continuous time crystals from rare events
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 
    R. Hurtado-Gutiérrez; F. Carollo; C. Pérez-Espigares; P. I. Hurtado

    Symmetry-breaking dynamical phase transitions (DPTs) abound in the fluctuations of nonequilibrium systems. Here we show that the spectral features of a particular class of DPTs exhibit the fingerprints of the recently discovered time-crystal phase of matter. Using Doob’s transform as a tool, we provide a mechanism to build classical time-crystal generators from the rare event statistics of some driven

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Precision calculation of hyperfine structure and the Zemach radii of6,7Li+ions
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 
    Xiao-Qiu Qi; Pei-Pei Zhang; Zong-Chao Yan; G. W. F. Drake; Zhen-Xiang Zhong; Ting-Yun Shi; Shao-Long Chen; Yao Huang; Hua Guan; Ke-Lin Gao

    The hyperfine structures of the 23S1 states of the 6Li+ and 7Li+ ions are investigated theoretically to extract the Zemach radii of the 6Li and 7Li nuclei by comparing with precision measurements. The obtained Zemach radii are larger than the previous values of Puchalski and Pachucki [] and disagree with them by about 1.5 and 2.2 standard deviations for 6Li and 7Li, respectively. Furthermore, our Zemach

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Anharmonicity and phase diagram of magnesium oxide in the megabar regime
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 
    François Soubiran; Burkhard Militzer

    With density functional molecular dynamics simulations, we computed the phase diagram of MgO from 50 to 2000 GPa up to 20000 K. Via thermodynamic integration (TDI), we derive the Gibbs free energies of the B1, B2, and liquid phases and determine their phase boundaries. With TDI and a pseudo-quasi-harmonic approach, we show that anharmonic effects are important and stabilize the B1 phase in particular

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Fluctuations and correlations of transmission eigenchannels in diffusive media
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 
    Nicholas Bender; Alexey Yamilov; Hasan Yılmaz; Hui Cao

    Selective excitation of a diffusive system’s transmission eigenchannels enables manipulation of its internal energy distribution. The fluctuations and correlations of the eigenchannels’ spatial profiles, however, remain unexplored so far. Here we show that the depth profiles of high-transmission eigenchannels exhibit low realization-to-realization fluctuations. Furthermore, our experimental and numerical

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Optimal universal programming of unitary gates
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 
    Yuxiang Yang; Renato Renner; Giulio Chiribella

    A universal quantum processor is a device that takes as input a (quantum) program, containing an encoding of an arbitrary unitary gate, and a (quantum) data register, on which the encoded gate is applied. While no perfect universal quantum processor can exist, approximate processors have been proposed in the past two decades. A fundamental open question is how the size of the smallest quantum program

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Micro and macro motility-induced phase separation in a two-dimensional active Brownian particle system
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 
    Claudio B. Caporusso; Pasquale Digregorio; Demian Levis; Leticia F. Cugliandolo; Giuseppe Gonnella

    As a result of non-equilibrium forces, purely repulsive self-propelled particles undergo macro-phase separation between a dense and a dilute phase. We present a thorough study of the ordering kinetics of such Motility-Induced Phase Separation (MIPS) in Active Brownian Particles in two-dimensions, and we show that it is generically accompanied by micro-phase separation. The growth of the dense phase

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Results from the first all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from small-ellipticity sources
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 
    Vladimir Dergachev; Maria Alessandra Papa

    We present the results of an all-sky search for continuous gravitational wave signals with frequencies in the 500-1700,Hz range targeting neutron stars with ellipticity of 10−8. The search is done on LIGO O2 data using the Falcon analysis pipeline. The results presented here double the sensitivity over any other result on the same data . The search is capable of detecting low ellipticity sources up

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Green Bank and Effelsberg radio telescope searches for axion dark matter conversion in neutron star magnetospheres
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 
    Joshua W. Foster; Yonatan Kahn; Oscar Macias; Zhiquan Sun; Ralph P. Eatough; Vladislav I. Kondratiev; Wendy M. Peters; Christoph Weniger; Benjamin R. Safdi

    Axion dark matter (DM) may convert to radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation in the strong magnetic fields around neutron stars. The radio signature of such a process would be an ultra-narrow spectral peak at a frequency determined by the mass of the axion particle. We analyze data we collected from the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope in the L-band and the Effelsberg 100-m Telescope in the L-Band

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Tailoring magnetic fields in inaccessible regions
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 
    Rosa Mach-Batlle; Mark G. Bason; Nuria Del-Valle; Jordi Prat-Camps

    Controlling magnetism, essential for a wide-range of technologies, is impaired by the impossibility of generating a maximum of magnetic field in free space. Here, we propose a strategy based on negative permeability to overcome this stringent limitation. We experimentally demonstrate that an active magnetic metamaterial can emulate the field of a straight current wire at a distance. Our strategy leads

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Emergence and disruption of spin-charge separation in one-dimensional repulsive fermions
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 
    Feng He; Yu-Zhu Jiang; Hai-Qing Lin; Randall G. Hulet; Han Pu; Xi-Wen Guan

    At low temperature, collective excitations of one-dimensional (1D) interacting fermions exhibit spin-charge separation, a unique feature predicted by the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) theory, but a rigorous understanding remains challenging. Using the thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz (TBA) formalism, we analytically derive universal properties of a 1D repulsive spin-1/2 Fermi gas with arbitrary interaction

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Nonclassical chiral elasticity of the gyroid lattice
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 
    D. R. Reasa; R. S. Lakes

    The gyroid lattice is a metamaterial which allows chirality that is tunable by geometry. Gyroid lattices were made in chiral and non-chiral form by 3D printing. The chiral lattices exhibited nonclassical elastic effects including coupling between compressive stress and torsional deformation. Gyroid lattices can approach upper bounds on elastic modulus. Effective modulus is increased by distributed

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Quantum fluctuations hinder finite-time information erasure near the Landauer limit
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 
    Harry J. D. Miller; Giacomo Guarnieri; Mark T. Mitchison; John Goold

    Information is physical but information is also processed in finite time. Where computing protocols are concerned, finite-time processing in the quantum regime can dynamically generate coherence. Here we show that this can have significant thermodynamic implications. We demonstrate that quantum coherence generated in the energy eigenbasis of a system undergoing a finite-time information erasure protocol

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Neural networks for detecting multimode Wigner-negativity
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 
    Valeria Cimini; Marco Barbieri; Nicolas Treps; Mattia Walschaers; Valentina Parigi

    The characterization of quantum features in large Hilbert spaces is a crucial requirement for testing quantum protocols. In the continuous variables encoding, quantum homodyne tomography requires an amount of measurements that increases exponentially with the number of involved modes, which practically makes the protocol intractable even with few modes. Here we introduce a new technique, based on a

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Trials begin for a new weapon against Parkinson's: light
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Gunjan Sinha

    Several studies about to start will explore whether near-infrared (NIR) light can improve symptoms of Parkinson's disease—including a study in France in which a fiber optic cable implanted in patients' brains will deliver NIR directly to the substantia nigra, a region that degenerates in Parkinson's disease. Animal models and small tests in people have suggested benefits, but some mainstream Parkinson's

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Searching for new physics in two-neutrino double beta decay
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 
    Frank F. Deppisch; Lukas Graf; Fedor Šimkovic

    Motivated by non-zero neutrino masses and the possibility of New Physics discovery, a number of experiments search for neutrinoless double beta decay. While hunting for this hypothetical nuclear process, a significant amount of two-neutrino double beta decay data has become available. Although these events are regarded and studied mostly as the background of neutrinoless double beta decay, they can

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Filtered dark matter at a first order phase transition
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 
    Michael J. Baker; Joachim Kopp; Andrew J. Long

    We describe a new mechanism of dark matter production. If dark matter particles acquire mass during a first order phase transition, it is energetically unfavourable for them to enter the expanding bubbles. Instead, most of them are reflected and quickly annihilate away. The bubbles eventually merge as the phase transition completes and only the dark matter particles which have entered the bubbles survive

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Projected Entangled Pair States: Fundamental analytical and numerical limitations
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 
    G. Scarpa; A. Molnár; Y. Ge; J. J. García-Ripoll; N. Schuch; D. Pérez-García; S. Iblisdir

    Matrix Product States (MPS) and Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS) are powerful analytical and numerical tools to assess quantum many-body systems in one and higher dimensions, respectively. While MPS are comprehensively understood, in PEPS fundamental questions, relevant analytically as well as numerically, remain open, such as how to encode symmetries in full generality, or how to stabilize numerical

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • 更新日期:2020-09-18
  • 更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Ancient DNA tracks Vikings across Europe
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Andrew Curry

    A massive new study of DNA sequences from Viking Age burials around Europe presents the story of the Vikings written in genes. The results, published this week in Nature, trace how the Vikings radiated across Europe from their Scandinavian homeland, and how people with roots elsewhere also took up Viking ways, making "Viking" a job description, not a matter of heredity. Researchers gathered human remains

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Nonequilibrium Attractor in High-Temperature QCD Plasmas
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Dekrayat Almaalol; Aleksi Kurkela; Michael Strickland
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Resolution of Gauge Ambiguities in Molecular Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Michael A. D. Taylor; Arkajit Mandal; Wanghuai Zhou; Pengfei Huo
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Global efforts to protect biodiversity fall short
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Erik Stokstad

    A major report card on the state of biodiversity gives failing grades to the world's nations. The United Nations's Global Biodiversity Outlook 5, released this week, concludes the world has not met ambitious targets set 10 years ago to protect nature. The new assessment finds some bright spots, such as a substantial rise in the extent of protected areas. But only six of the U.N. Convention on Biological

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Nonreciprocal Transport of Exciton Polaritons in a Non-Hermitian Chain
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    S. Mandal; R. Banerjee; Elena A. Ostrovskaya; T. C. H. Liew
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Dynamics and Properties of the Cohesive Zone in Rapid Fracture and Friction
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Neri Berman; Gil Cohen; Jay Fineberg
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • The burden of stigma
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Vaishnavi Chandrashekhar

    After Mumbai dentist Azmera Shaikh and her mother tested positive for COVID-19, their neighbors ostracized the rest of her family, refusing to let them put out garbage or help them buy groceries. As the new coronavirus spread around the world early this year, some people around the world responded in similar ways. In Nepal, health workers were thrown out of accommodations. In Chennai, India, some doctors

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • 更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Experimental Tuning of Transport Regimes in Hyperuniform Disordered Photonic Materials
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Geoffroy J. Aubry; Luis S. Froufe-Pérez; Ulrich Kuhl; Olivier Legrand; Frank Scheffold; Fabrice Mortessagne
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Wood Anomalies and Surface-Wave Excitation with a Time Grating
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Emanuele Galiffi; Yao-Ting Wang; Zhen Lim; J. B. Pendry; Andrea Alù; Paloma A. Huidobro
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Terminal Flow of Cluster-Forming Supramolecular Polymer Networks: Single-Chain Relaxation or Micelle Reorganization?
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Anton Mordvinkin; Diana Döhler; Wolfgang H. Binder; Ralph H. Colby; Kay Saalwächter
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Interfacial Interactions DuringIn SituPolymer Imbibition in Nanopores
    Phys. Rev. Lett. (IF 8.385) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Chien-Hua Tu; Jiajia Zhou; Masao Doi; Hans-Juergen Butt; George Floudas
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • 更新日期:2020-09-18
  • The gut microbiota in kidney disease
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Jennifer L. Pluznick

    Chronic kidney disease affects 9% of the global population (1) and can have severe impacts on both the individual and societal levels. Although various conditions, such as diabetes, are well known risk factors for chronic kidney disease, in recent years interest has been growing regarding a potential role for the gut microbiota in modulating outcomes in kidney disease (2). Simultaneously, in the microbiology

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Messengers from the microbiota
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Fyza Y. Shaikh, Cynthia L. Sears

    Immunotherapy sometimes leads to stunning therapeutic success in a wide range of cancers. However—except in melanoma, microsatellite instable (MSI) colorectal cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma—only ∼15 to 30% of cancer patients respond to treatment. Thus, identification of the determinants of response are under intense investigation, and the gut microbiota is proposed to be a critical

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Tempus fugit: How time flies during development
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Ryohei Iwata, Pierre Vanderhaeghen

    “Fugit irreparabile tempus,” wrote Virgil, a reminder that our lives are defined by the irreversible flow of time. As soon as the egg is fertilized, embryonic cells follow a developmental program strictly organized in time. The sequence typically is conserved throughout evolution, but individual events can occur over species-specific time scales. Such differences can have marked effects. For instance

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Multiplicative suppression of decoherence
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Philip Hemmer

    Optically addressed quantum spin systems have been explored for a number of applications, with quantum information being one of the most exciting. However, noise fields destroy quantum information, especially in solids, through a process called decoherence. This process limits how well quantum information devices perform. The spin decoherence problem has been studied for decades, and many protocols

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Advance in global ocean acoustics
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Carl Wunsch

    In the past 50 years, the major conceptual revolution in physical oceanography is the transformation from considering the ocean as a large-scale, extremely slowly changing fluid to a fundamentally turbulent one. The ocean changes across a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, from millimeters to 30,000 km and from seconds to multimillennia, with major regional differences. Because ocean exploration

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Global citizen deliberation on genome editing
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    John S. Dryzek, Dianne Nicol, Simon Niemeyer, Sonya Pemberton, Nicole Curato, André Bächtiger, Philip Batterham, Bjørn Bedsted, Simon Burall, Michael Burgess, Gaetan Burgio, Yurij Castelfranchi, Hervé Chneiweiss, George Church, Merlin Crossley, Jantina de Vries, Mahmud Farooque, Marit Hammond, Baogang He, Ricardo Mendonça, Jennifer Merchant, Anna Middleton, John E. J. Rasko, Ine Van Hoyweghen, Antoine

    Genome editing technologies provide vast possibilities for societal benefit, but also substantial risks and ethical challenges. Governance and regulation of such technologies have not kept pace in a systematic or internationally consistent manner, leaving a complex, uneven, and incomplete web of national and international regulation (1). How countries choose to regulate these emergent technologies

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Why the West is WEIRD
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Pauline Grosjean

    As Joseph Henrich recounts in his new book, The WEIRDest People in the World, the Tajik civil war—which pitted clan against clan and, sometimes, neighbor against neighbor—resulted in a collapse of trust that made people more suspicious of nonrelatives. This trajectory is puzzling, as it contrasts sharply with political development in Western Europe. There, conflict and intergroup competition paved

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • A case study of Oliver Sacks
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Laura J. Snyder

    "I'm an inveterate storyteller," confesses the celebrated neurologist and writer Oliver Sacks at the start of Oliver Sacks: His Own Life. "I tell many stories, some comic, some tragic." Tales of both types abound in this elegiac yet lighthearted film based on director Ric Burns's interviews with Sacks and his friends, colleagues, family members, and patients in the months before and after the physician's

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Species-specific segmentation clock periods are due to differential biochemical reaction speeds
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Mitsuhiro Matsuda, Hanako Hayashi, Jordi Garcia-Ojalvo, Kumiko Yoshioka-Kobayashi, Ryoichiro Kageyama, Yoshihiro Yamanaka, Makoto Ikeya, Junya Toguchida, Cantas Alev, Miki Ebisuya

    Although mechanisms of embryonic development are similar between mice and humans, the time scale is generally slower in humans. To investigate these interspecies differences in development, we recapitulate murine and human segmentation clocks that display 2- to 3-hour and 5- to 6-hour oscillation periods, respectively. Our interspecies genome-swapping analyses indicate that the period difference is

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Evaluating scenarios toward zero plastic pollution.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Winnie W Y Lau,Yonathan Shiran,Richard M Bailey,Ed Cook,Martin R Stuchtey,Julia Koskella,Costas A Velis,Linda Godfrey,Julien Boucher,Margaret B Murphy,Richard C Thompson,Emilia Jankowska,Arturo Castillo Castillo,Toby D Pilditch,Ben Dixon,Laura Koerselman,Edward Kosior,Enzo Favoino,Jutta Gutberlet,Sarah Baulch,Meera E Atreya,David Fischer,Kevin K He,Milan M Petit,U Rashid Sumaila,Emily Neil,Mark V Bernhofen

    Plastic pollution is a pervasive and growing problem. To estimate the effectiveness of interventions to reduce plastic pollution, we modeled stocks and flows of municipal solid waste and four sources of microplastics through the global plastic system for five scenarios between 2016 and 2040. Implementing all feasible interventions reduced plastic pollution by 40% from 2016 rates and 78% relative to

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Following the microscopic pathway to adsorption through chemisorption and physisorption wells
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Dmitriy Borodin, Igor Rahinov, Pranav R. Shirhatti, Meng Huang, Alexander Kandratsenka, Daniel J. Auerbach, Tianli Zhong, Hua Guo, Dirk Schwarzer, Theofanis N. Kitsopoulos, Alec M. Wodtke

    Adsorption involves molecules colliding at the surface of a solid and losing their incidence energy by traversing a dynamical pathway to equilibrium. The interactions responsible for energy loss generally include both chemical bond formation (chemisorption) and nonbonding interactions (physisorption). In this work, we present experiments that revealed a quantitative energy landscape and the microscopic

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Assessing the impact of coordinated COVID-19 exit strategies across Europe.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    N W Ruktanonchai,J R Floyd,S Lai,C W Ruktanonchai,A Sadilek,P Rente-Lourenco,X Ben,A Carioli,J Gwinn,J E Steele,O Prosper,A Schneider,A Oplinger,P Eastham,A J Tatem

    As rates of new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases decline across Europe owing to nonpharmaceutical interventions such as social distancing policies and lockdown measures, countries require guidance on how to ease restrictions while minimizing the risk of resurgent outbreaks. We use mobility and case data to quantify how coordinated exit strategies could delay continental resurgence and limit

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • 90S pre-ribosome transformation into the primordial 40S subunit
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Jingdong Cheng, Benjamin Lau, Giuseppe La Venuta, Michael Ameismeier, Otto Berninghausen, Ed Hurt, Roland Beckmann

    Production of small ribosomal subunits initially requires the formation of a 90S precursor followed by an enigmatic process of restructuring into the primordial pre-40S subunit. We elucidate this process by biochemical and cryo–electron microscopy analysis of intermediates along this pathway in yeast. First, the remodeling RNA helicase Dhr1 engages the 90S pre-ribosome, followed by Utp24 endonuclease–driven

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Cryo-EM structure of 90S small ribosomal subunit precursors in transition states
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Yifei Du, Weidong An, Xing Zhu, Qi Sun, Jia Qi, Keqiong Ye

    The 90S preribosome is a large, early assembly intermediate of small ribosomal subunits that undergoes structural changes to give a pre-40S ribosome. Here, we gained insight into this transition by determining cryo–electron microscopy structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae intermediates in the path from the 90S to the pre-40S. The full transition is blocked by deletion of RNA helicase Dhr1. A series

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Microbiome-derived inosine modulates response to checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Lukas F Mager,Regula Burkhard,Nicola Pett,Noah C A Cooke,Kirsty Brown,Hena Ramay,Seungil Paik,John Stagg,Ryan A Groves,Marco Gallo,Ian A Lewis,Markus B Geuking,Kathy D McCoy

    Several species of intestinal bacteria have been associated with enhanced efficacy of checkpoint blockade immunotherapy, but the underlying mechanisms by which the microbiome enhances antitumor immunity are unclear. In this study, we isolated three bacterial species—Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Olsenella species—that significantly enhanced efficacy of immune checkpoint

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Reversible structural transformations in supercooled liquid water from 135 to 245 K
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Loni Kringle, Wyatt A. Thornley, Bruce D. Kay, Greg A. Kimmel

    A fundamental understanding of the unusual properties of water remains elusive because of the limited data at the temperatures and pressures needed to decide among competing theories. We investigated the structural transformations of transiently heated supercooled water films, which evolved for several nanoseconds per pulse during fast laser heating before quenching to 70 kelvin (K). Water’s structure

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Universal coherence protection in a solid-state spin qubit.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Kevin C Miao,Joseph P Blanton,Christopher P Anderson,Alexandre Bourassa,Alexander L Crook,Gary Wolfowicz,Hiroshi Abe,Takeshi Ohshima,David D Awschalom

    Decoherence limits the physical realization of qubits, and its mitigation is critical for the development of quantum science and technology. We construct a robust qubit embedded in a decoherence-protected subspace, obtained by applying microwave dressing to a clock transition of the ground-state electron spin of a silicon carbide divacancy defect. The qubit is universally protected from magnetic, electric

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • (Sub)stellar companions shape the winds of evolved stars
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    L. Decin, M. Montargès, A. M. S. Richards, C. A. Gottlieb, W. Homan, I. McDonald, I. El Mellah, T. Danilovich, S. H. J. Wallström, A. Zijlstra, A. Baudry, J. Bolte, E. Cannon, E. De Beck, F. De Ceuster, A. de Koter, J. De Ridder, S. Etoka, D. Gobrecht, M. Gray, F. Herpin, M. Jeste, E. Lagadec, P. Kervella, T. Khouri, K. Menten, T. J. Millar, H. S. P. Müller, J. M. C. Plane, R. Sahai, H. Sana, M. Van

    Binary interactions dominate the evolution of massive stars, but their role is less clear for low- and intermediate-mass stars. The evolution of a spherical wind from an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star into a nonspherical planetary nebula (PN) could be due to binary interactions. We observed a sample of AGB stars with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and found that their winds

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Structure-based design of prefusion-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spikes.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Ching-Lin Hsieh,Jory A Goldsmith,Jeffrey M Schaub,Andrea M DiVenere,Hung-Che Kuo,Kamyab Javanmardi,Kevin C Le,Daniel Wrapp,Alison G Lee,Yutong Liu,Chia-Wei Chou,Patrick O Byrne,Christy K Hjorth,Nicole V Johnson,John Ludes-Meyers,Annalee W Nguyen,Juyeon Park,Nianshuang Wang,Dzifa Amengor,Jason J Lavinder,Gregory C Ippolito,Jennifer A Maynard,Ilya J Finkelstein,Jason S McLellan

    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to accelerated efforts to develop therapeutics and vaccines. A key target of these efforts is the spike (S) protein, which is metastable and difficult to produce recombinantly. We characterized 100 structure-guided spike designs and identified 26 individual substitutions that increased protein yields and stability. Testing combinations of beneficial

    更新日期:2020-09-17
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