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  • High-Energy Multimessenger Transient Astrophysics
    Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. (IF 8.778) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Kohta Murase; Imre Bartos

    The recent discoveries of high-energy cosmic neutrinos and gravitational waves from astrophysical objects have led to a new era of multimessenger astrophysics. In particular, electromagnetic follow-up observations triggered by these cosmic signals have proved to be highly successful and have brought about new opportunities in time-domain astronomy. We review high-energy particle production in various

  • The First fm/c of Heavy-Ion Collisions
    Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. (IF 8.778) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    S. Schlichting; D. Teaney

    We present an introductory review of the early-time dynamics of high-energy heavy-ion collisions and the kinetics of high-temperature quantum chromodynamic matter. The equilibration mechanisms in the quark–gluon plasma uniquely reflect the nonabelian and ultrarelativistic character of the many-body system. Starting with a brief exposé of the key theoretical and experimental questions, we provide an

  • Open Heavy-Flavor Production in Heavy-Ion Collisions
    Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. (IF 8.778) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Xin Dong; Yen-Jie Lee; Ralf Rapp

    The ultrarelativistic heavy-ion programs at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider have entered an era of quantitative analysis of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at high temperatures. The remarkable discovery of the strongly coupled quark–gluon plasma (sQGP), as deduced from its hydrodynamic behavior at long wavelengths, calls for probes that can reveal its inner workings.

  • Future Circular Colliders
    Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. (IF 8.778) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    M. Benedikt; A. Blondel; P. Janot; M. Klein; M. Mangano; M. McCullough; V. Mertens; K. Oide; W. Riegler; D. Schulte; F. Zimmermann

    After 10 years of physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the particle physics landscape has greatly evolved. Today, a staged Future Circular Collider (FCC), consisting of a luminosity-frontier highest-energy electron–positron collider (FCC-ee) followed by an energy-frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh), promises the most far-reaching physics program for the post-LHC era. FCC-ee will be a precision

  • The Short-Baseline Neutrino Program at Fermilab
    Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. (IF 8.778) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Pedro A.N. Machado; Ornella Palamara; David W. Schmitz

    The Short-Baseline Neutrino (SBN) program consists of three liquid argon time-projection chamber detectors located along the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Its main goals include searches for New Physics—particularly eV-scale sterile neutrinos, detailed studies of neutrino–nucleus interactions at the GeV energy scale, and the advancement of the liquid argon detector

  • Nonempirical Interactions for the Nuclear Shell Model: An Update
    Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. (IF 8.778) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    S. Ragnar Stroberg; Heiko Hergert; Scott K. Bogner; Jason D. Holt

    The nuclear shell model has perhaps been the most important conceptual and computational paradigm for the understanding of the structure of atomic nuclei. While the shell model has been used predominantly in a phenomenological context, there have been efforts stretching back more than half a century to derive shell model parameters based on a realistic interaction between nucleons. More recently, several

  • Quantum Monte Carlo Methods in Nuclear Physics: Recent Advances
    Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. (IF 8.778) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    J.E. Lynn; I. Tews; S. Gandolfi; A. Lovato

    In recent years, the combination of precise quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods with realistic nuclear interactions and consistent electroweak currents, in particular those constructed within effective field theories (EFTs), has led to new insights in light and medium-mass nuclei, neutron matter, and electroweak reactions. For example, with the same chiral interactions, QMC calculations can reproduce

  • Neutrino Emission as Diagnostics of Core-Collapse Supernovae
    Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. (IF 8.778) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    B. Müller

    With myriads of detection events from a prospective Galactic core-collapse supernova, current and future neutrino detectors will be able to sample detailed, time-dependent neutrino fluxes and spectra. This will offer significant possibilities of inferring supernova physics from the various phases of the neutrino signal, ranging from the neutronization burst through the accretion and early explosion

  • Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay: Status and Prospects
    Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. (IF 8.778) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Michelle J. Dolinski; Alan W.P. Poon; Werner Rodejohann

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay is a forbidden, lepton-number-violating nuclear transition whose observation would have fundamental implications for neutrino physics, theories beyond the Standard Model, and cosmology. In this review, we summarize the theoretical progress to understand this process, the expectations and implications under various particle physics models, and the nuclear physics challenges

  • Determination of the Proton's Weak Charge and Its Constraints on the Standard Model
    Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. (IF 8.778) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Roger D. Carlini; Willem T.H. van Oers; Mark L. Pitt; Gregory R. Smith

    This article discusses some of the history of parity-violation experiments that culminated in the Qweak experiment, which provided the first determination of the proton's weak charge . The guiding principles necessary to the success of that experiment are outlined, followed by a brief description of the Qweak experiment. Several consistent methods used to determine from the asymmetry measured in the

  • eV-Scale Sterile Neutrinos
    Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. (IF 8.778) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Carlo Giunti; Thierry Lasserre

    We address the phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos, with an emphasis on short-baseline neutrino oscillations. After reviewing the observed short-baseline neutrino oscillation anomalies, we discuss the global fit of the data and the current appearance–disappearance tension. We also review briefly the effects of light sterile neutrinos in β decay, neutrinoless double-β decay, and cosmology. Finally

  • Neutrino Physics with Dark Matter Detectors
    Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. (IF 8.778) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Bhaskar Dutta; Louis E. Strigari

    Direct dark matter detection experiments will soon be sensitive to neutrinos from astrophysical sources, including the Sun, the atmosphere, and supernovae, which will set an important benchmark and open a new window into neutrino physics and astrophysics. The detection of these neutrinos will be complementary to accelerator- and reactor-based experiments that study neutrinos over the same energy range

  • Our Future Nuclear Data Needs
    Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. (IF 8.778) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Lee A. Bernstein; David A. Brown; Arjan J. Koning; Bradley T. Rearden; Catherine E. Romano; Alejandro A. Sonzogni; Andrew S. Voyles; Walid Younes

    A well-established knowledge of nuclear phenomena including fission, reaction cross sections, and structure/decay properties is critical for applications ranging from the design of new reactors to nonproliferation to the production of radioisotopes for the diagnosis and treatment of illness. However, the lack of a well-quantified, predictive theoretical capability means that most nuclear observables

  • Lattice QCD and Three-Particle Decays of Resonances
    Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. (IF 8.778) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Maxwell T. Hansen; Stephen R. Sharpe

    Most strong-interaction resonances have decay channels involving three or more particles, including many of the recently discovered X, Y, and Z resonances. In order to study such resonances from first principles using lattice QCD, one must understand finite-volume effects for three particles in the cubic box used in calculations. We review efforts to develop a three-particle quantization condition

  • Merger and Mass Ejection of Neutron Star Binaries
    Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. (IF 8.778) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Masaru Shibata; Kenta Hotokezaka

    Mergers of binary neutron stars and black hole–neutron star binaries are among the most promising sources for ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors and are also high-energy astrophysical phenomena, as illustrated by the observations of GWs and electromagnetic (EM) waves in the event of GW170817. Mergers of these neutron star binaries are also the most promising sites for r-process nucleosynthesis

  • Function Theory for Multiloop Feynman Integrals
    Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. (IF 8.778) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Claude Duhr

    Precise predictions for collider observables require the computation of higher orders in perturbation theory. This task usually involves the evaluation of complicated multiloop integrals, which typically give rise to complicated special functions. This article discusses recent progress in understanding the mathematics underlying multiloop Feynman integrals and discusses a class of functions that generalizes

  • Sidney David Drell (September 13, 1926–December 21, 2016): A Biographical Memoir
    Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. (IF 8.778) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Robert Jaffe; Raymond Jeanloz

    Sidney David Drell, professor emeritus at Stanford University and senior fellow at the Hoover Institution, died shortly after his 90th birthday in Palo Alto, California. In a career spanning nearly 70 years, Sid—as he was universally known—achieved prominence as a theoretical physicist, public servant, and humanitarian.

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