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  • Effective field theories of post-Newtonian gravity: a comprehensive review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    Michèle Levi

    This review article presents the progress made over the last decade, since the introduction of effective field theories (EFTs) into post-Newtonian (PN) gravity. These have been put forward in the context of gravitational waves (GWs) from the compact binary inspiral. The mature development of this interdisciplinary field has resulted in significant advances of wide interest to physics at several levels

    更新日期:2020-06-18
  • New Opportunities at the Next-Generation Neutrino Experiments (Part 1: BSM Neutrino Physics and Dark Matter.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Yanou Cui,Jaehoon Yu,Albert de Roeck,Alex Sousa,Andre de Gouvea,Peter Denton,Pedro A N Machado

    With the advent of a new generation of neutrino experiments which leverage high-intensity neutrino beams for precision neutrino oscillation parameter and for CP violation phase measurements, it is timely to explore physics topics beyond the standard neutrino-related physics. Given that beyond the standard model (BSM) physics phenomena have been mostly sought at high-energy regimes, such as the LHC

    更新日期:2020-06-15
  • Advances in local area optical data communication systems.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    D G Cunningham,I H White

    This paper reviews optical fibre technology for local area optical communications systems. Technologies used in local systems include single and multimode fibre, single and multimode lasers, optical modulators, photodetectors, wavelength division multiplexing, multilevel modulation formats, electronic packet switching, electronic equalization and error correction. These methods have enabled the local

    更新日期:2020-06-10
  • The emergence of picokelvin physics.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Xuzong Chen,Bo Fan

    The frontier of low-temperature physics has advanced to the mid-picokelvin (pK) regime but progress has come to a halt because of the problem of gravity. Ultracold atoms must be confined in some type of potential energy well: if the depth of the well is less than the energy an atom gains by falling through it, the atom escapes. This article reviews ultracold atom research, emphasizing the advances

    更新日期:2020-06-03
  • Binding and electronic level alignment of π-conjugated systems on metals.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Antoni Franco-Cañellas,Steffen Duhm,Alexander Gerlach,Frank Schreiber

    We review the binding and energy level alignment of π-conjugated systems on metals, a field which during the last two decades has seen tremendous progress both in terms of experimental characterization as well as in the depth of theoretical understanding. Precise measurements of vertical adsorption distances and the electronic structure together with ab initio calculations have shown that most of the

    更新日期:2020-06-03
  • Entanglement: quantum or classical?
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
    Dilip Paneru,Eliahu Cohen,Robert Fickler,Robert W Boyd,Ebrahim Karimi

    From its seemingly non-intuitive and puzzling nature, most evident in numerous EPR-like gedanken experiments to its almost ubiquitous presence in quantum technologies, entanglement is at the heart of modern quantum physics. First introduced by Erwin Schrödinger nearly a century ago, entanglement has remained one of the most fascinating ideas that came out of quantum mechanics. Here, we attempt to explain

    更新日期:2020-05-27
  • Heterodyne terahertz detection through electronic and optoelectronic mixers.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-05-20
    Yen-Ju Lin,Mona Jarrahi

    The high sensitivity detection of terahertz radiation is crucial for many chemical sensing, biomedical imaging, security screening, nondestructive quality control, high-data-rate communication, atmospheric, and astrophysics sensing applications. Among various terahertz detection techniques, heterodyne detection is of great interest for applications that require high spectral resolution. Heterodyne

    更新日期:2020-05-20
  • A review on role of tetra-rings in graphene systems and their possible applications.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Arka Bandyopadhyay,Debnarayan Jana

    Inspired by the success of graphene, various two-dimensional (2D) non-hexagonal graphene allotropes having sp2-bonded tetragonal rings in free-standing (hypothetical) form and on different substrates have been proposed recently. These systems have also been fabricated after modifying the topology of graphene by chemical processes. In this review, we would like to indicate the role of tetra-rings and

    更新日期:2020-05-17
  • Perspectives of quantum annealing: methods and implementations.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Philipp Hauke,Helmut G Katzgraber,Wolfgang Lechner,Hidetoshi Nishimori,William D Oliver

    Quantum annealing is a computing paradigm that has the ambitious goal of efficiently solving large-scale combinatorial optimization problems of practical importance. However, many challenges have yet to be overcome before this goal can be reached. This perspectives article first gives a brief introduction to the concept of quantum annealing, and then highlights new pathways that may clear the way towards

    更新日期:2020-05-10
  • Efficient charge generation at low energy losses in organic solar cells: a key issue review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-05-06
    Ye Xu,Huifeng Yao,Lijiao Ma,Jingwen Wang,Jianhui Hou

    Light absorption generates strongly bound excitons in organic solar cells (OSCs). To obtain efficient charge generation, a large driving force is required, which causes a large energy loss (Eloss) and severely hinders the improvement in the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of OSCs. Recently, the development of non-fullerene OSCs has seen great success, and the resulting OSCs can yield highly efficient

    更新日期:2020-05-06
  • Memory Technology - A Primer for Material Scientists.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-05-01
    Tony Schenk,Milan Pesic,Stefan Slesazeck,Uwe Schroeder,Thomas Mikolajick

    From our own experience in the group, we know that there is quite a gap to bridge between scientists focused on basic material research and their counterparts in a close-to-application community focused on identifying and solving final technological and engineering challenges. In this review, we try to provide an easy-to-grasp introduction to the field of memory technology for materials scientists

    更新日期:2020-05-01
  • Recent advances in infrared imagers: toward thermodynamic and quantum limits of photon sensitivity.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-03-17
    Simone Bianconi,Hooman Mohseni

    Infrared detection and imaging are key enabling technologies for a vast number of applications, ranging from communication, to medicine and astronomy, and have recently attracted interest for their potential application in optical interconnects and quantum computing. Nonetheless, infrared detection still constitutes the performance bottleneck for several of these applications, due to a number of unsolved

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Biologically inspired artificial eyes and photonics.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Jae-Jun Kim,Hewei Liu,Alireza Ousati Ashtiani,Hongrui Jiang

    Natural visual systems have inspired scientists and engineers to mimic their intriguing features for the development of advanced photonic devices that can provide better solutions than conventional ones. Among various kinds of natural eyes, researchers have had intensive interest in mammal eyes and compound eyes due to their advantages in optical properties such as focal length tunability, high-resolution

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Direct real photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-03-17
    Gabor David

    Direct real photons are arguably the most versatile tools to study relativistic heavy ion collisions. They are produced, by various mechanisms, during the entire space-time history of the strongly interacting system. Also, being colorless, most the time they escape without further interaction, \ie they are penetrating probes. This makes them rich in information, but hard to decypher and interpret.

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Single-photon emitters in hexagonal boron nitride: a review of progress
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-03-17
    A Sajid, Michael J Ford and Jeffrey R Reimers

    This report summarizes progress made in understanding properties such as zero-phonon-line energies, emission and absorption polarizations, electron–phonon couplings, strain tuning and hyperfine coupling of single photon emitters in hexagonal boron nitride. The primary aims of this research are to discover the chemical nature of the emitting centres and to facilitate deployment in device applications

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Simultaneous optical trapping and imaging in the axial plane: a review of current progress.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-02-25
    Yansheng Liang,Shaohui Yan,Zhaojun Wang,Runze Li,Yanan Cai,Minru He,Baoli Yao,Ming Lei

    Optical trapping has become a powerful tool in numerous fields such as biology, physics, chemistry, etc. In conventional optical trapping systems, trapping and imaging share the same objective lens, confining the region of observation to the focal plane. For the capture of optical trapping processes occurring in other planes, especially the axial plane (the one containing the z-axis), many methods

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Will a physicist prove the Riemann hypothesis?
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Marek Wolf

    In the first part we present the number theoretical properties of the Riemann zeta function and formulate the Riemann hypothesis. In the second part we review some physical problems related to this hypothesis: the Polya-Hilbert conjecture, the links with random matrix theory, relation with the Lee-Yang theorem on the zeros of the partition function and phase transitions, random walks, billiards etc

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • First-principles calculations of charge carrier mobility and conductivity in bulk semiconductors and two-dimensional materials.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    Samuel Poncé,Wenbin Li,Sven Reichardt,Feliciano Giustino

    One of the fundamental properties of semiconductors is their ability to support highly tunable electric currents in the presence of electric fields or carrier concentration gradients. These properties are described by transport coefficients such as electron and hole mobilities. Over the last decades, our understanding of carrier mobilities has largely been shaped by experimental investigations and

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • It is all about phases: ultrafast holographic photoelectron imaging
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-28
    C Figueira de Morisson Faria and A S Maxwell

    Photoelectron holography constitutes a powerful tool for the ultrafast imaging of matter, as it combines high electron currents with subfemtosecond resolution, and gives information about transition amplitudes and phase shifts. Similarly to light holography, it uses the phase difference between the probe and the reference waves associated with qualitatively different ionization events for the reconstruction

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Review on novel methods for lattice gauge theories.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Mari Carmen Bañuls,Krzysztof Cichy

    Formulating gauge theories on a lattice offers a genuinely non-perturbative way of studying quantum field theories, and has led to impressive achievements. In particular, it significantly deepened our understanding of quantum chromodynamics. Yet, some very relevant problems remain inherently challenging, such as real time evolution, or the presence of a chemical potential, cases in which Monte Carlo

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Optomechanics with levitated particles.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    James Millen,Tania S Monteiro,Robert Pettit,A Nick Vamivakas

    Optomechanics is concerned with the use of light to control mechanical objects. As a field, it has been hugely successful in the production of precise and novel sensors, the development of low-dissipation nanomechanical devices, and the manipulation of quantum signals. Micro- and nano-particles levitated in optical fields act as nanoscale oscillators, making them excellent low-dissipation optomechanical

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Hard x-ray spectroscopy and dynamics of isolated atoms and molecules: a review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    M N Piancastelli,T Marchenko,R Guillemin,L Journel,O Travnikova,I Ismail,M Simon

    We present here a review of the most significant recent achievements in the field of HAXPES (hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) on isolated atoms and molecules, and related spectroscopies. The possibility of conducting hard x-ray photoexcitation and photoionization experiments under state-of-the art conditions in terms of photon and electron kinetic energy resolution has become available only in

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Holographic systems far from equilibrium: a review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Hong Liu,Julian Sonner

    In this paper we give an overview of some recent progress in using holography to study various far-from-equilibrium condensed matter systems. Non-equilibrium problems are notoriously difficult to deal with, not to mention at strong coupling and when including quantum effects. Remarkably, using holographic duality one can describe and follow the real-time evolution of far-from-equilibrium systems, including

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • New materials physics.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-10-25
    Paul C Canfield

    This review presents a survey of, and guide to, new materials physics (NMP) research. It begins with an overview of the goals of NMP and then presents important ideas and techniques for the design and growth of new materials. An emphasis is placed on the use of compositional phase diagrams to inform and motivate solution growth of single crystals. The second half of this review focuses on the vital

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Quantum imaging and information.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Omar S Magaña-Loaiza,Robert W Boyd

    The maturity of fields such as optical physics and quantum optics has brought with it a new era where the photon represents a promising information resource. In the past few years, scientists and engineers have exploited multiple degrees of freedom of the photon to perform information processing for a wide variety of applications. Of particular importance, the transverse spatial degree of freedom has

    更新日期:2019-11-19
  • Multifractal analysis of financial markets: a review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-09-10
    Zhi-Qiang Jiang,Wen-Jie Xie,Wei-Xing Zhou,Didier Sornette

    Multifractality is ubiquitously observed in complex natural and socioeconomic systems. Multifractal analysis provides powerful tools to understand the complex nonlinear nature of time series in diverse fields. Inspired by its striking analogy with hydrodynamic turbulence, from which the idea of multifractality originated, multifractal analysis of financial markets has bloomed, forming one of the main

    更新日期:2019-11-19
  • Fluorite-structure antiferroelectrics.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-10-01
    Min Hyuk Park,Cheol Seong Hwang

    Ferroelectricity in fluorite-structure oxides like hafnia and zirconia have attracted increasing interest since 2011. Two spontaneous polarizations of the fluorite-structure ferroelectrics are considered highly promising for nonvolatile memory applications, with their superior scalability and Si compatibility compared to the conventional perovskite-structure ferroelectrics. Besides, antiferroelectricity

    更新日期:2019-11-07
  • Strong gravitational lensing of explosive transients.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Masamune Oguri

    Recent rapid progress in time domain surveys makes it possible to detect various types of explosive transients in the Universe in large numbers, some of which will be gravitationally lensed into multiple images. Although a large number of strongly lensed distant galaxies and quasars have already been discovered, strong lensing of explosive transients opens up new applications, including improved measurements

    更新日期:2019-11-07
  • Real-time studies of ferroelectric domain switching: a review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-06-11
    Linze Li,Lin Xie,Xiaoqing Pan

    Ferroelectric materials have been utilized in a broad range of electronic, optical, and electromechanical applications and hold the promise for the design of future high-density nonvolatile memories and multifunctional nano-devices. The applications of ferroelectric materials stem from the ability to switch polarized domains by applying an electric field, and therefore a fundamental understanding of

    更新日期:2019-11-07
  • It is all about phases: ultrafast holographic photoelectron imaging.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    C Figueira de Morisson Faria,A S Maxwell

    Photoelectron holography constitutes a powerful tool for the ultrafast imaging of matter, as it combines high electron currents with subfemtosecond resolution, and gives information about transition amplitudes and phase shifts. Similarly to light holography, it uses the phase difference between the probe and the reference waves associated with qualitatively different ionization events for the reconstruction

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Quantum correlations in separable multi-mode states and in classically entangled light.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-03-05
    N Korolkova,G Leuchs

    In this review we discuss intriguing properties of apparently classical optical fields, that go beyond purely classical context and allow us to speak about quantum characteristics of such fields and about their applications in quantum technologies. We briefly define the genuinely quantum concepts of entanglement and steering. We then move to the boarder line between classical and quantum world introducing

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A review of selected topics in interferometric optical metrology.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-02-23
    Peter J de Groot

    This review gathers together 15 special topics in modern interferometric metrology representing a sampling of historical, current and future developments. The selected topics cover a wide range of applications, including distance and displacement measurement, the testing of optical components, interference microscopy for surface structure analysis, form and dimensional measurements of industrial parts

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Pairing in excited nuclei: a review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-02-09
    N Quang Hung,N Dinh Dang,L G Moretto

    The present review summarizes the recent studies on the thermodynamic properties of pairing in many-body systems including superconductors, metallic nanosized clusters and/or grains, solid-state materials, focusing on the excited nuclei, that is nuclei at finite temperature and/or angular momentum formed via heavy-ion fusion, [Formula: see text]-induced fusion reactions, or inelastic scattering of

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The sea of quarks and antiquarks in the nucleon.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-02-09
    D F Geesaman,P E Reimer

    The quark and gluon structure of the proton has been under intense experimental and theoretical investigation for five decades. Even for the distributions of the well-studied valence quarks, challenges such as the value of the down quark to up quark ratio at high fractional momenta remain. Much of the sea of quark-antiquark pairs emerges from the splitting of gluons and is well described by perturbative

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Physics of active emulsions.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-02-08
    Christoph A Weber,David Zwicker,Frank Jülicher,Chiu Fan Lee

    Phase separating systems that are maintained away from thermodynamic equilibrium via molecular processes represent a class of active systems, which we call active emulsions. These systems are driven by external energy input, for example provided by an external fuel reservoir. The external energy input gives rise to novel phenomena that are not present in passive systems. For instance, concentration

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A review of non-fullerene polymer solar cells: from device physics to morphology control.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-02-08
    Robert S Gurney,David G Lidzey,Tao Wang

    The rise in power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices over the last few years has been driven by the emergence of new organic semiconductors and the growing understanding of morphological control at both the molecular and aggregation scales. Non-fullerene OPVs adopting p-type conjugated polymers as the donor and n-type small molecules as the acceptor have exhibited steady progress

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A review of modeling interacting transient phenomena with non-equilibrium Green functions.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-01-15
    Mark R Hirsbrunner,Timothy M Philip,Bora Basa,Youngseok Kim,Moon Jip Park,Matthew J Gilbert

    As experimental probes have matured to observe ultrafast transient and high frequency responses of materials and devices, so to have the theoretical methods to numerically and analytically simulate time- and frequency-resolved transport. In this review article, we discuss recent progress in the development of the time-dependent and frequency-dependent non-equilibrium Green function (NEGF) technique

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Active control of plasmonic colors: emerging display technologies.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-01-15
    Kunli Xiong,Daniel Tordera,Magnus P Jonsson,Andreas B Dahlin

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of plasmonic nanostructures for color generation, a technology that dates back to ancient times. Plasmonic structural colors have several attractive features but once the structures are prepared the colors are normally fixed. Lately, several concepts have emerged for actively tuning the colors, which opens up for many new potential applications

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Attosecond single-cycle undulator light: a review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-12-21
    Alan Mak,Georgii Shamuilov,Peter Salén,David Dunning,János Hebling,Yuichiro Kida,Ryota Kinjo,Brian W J McNeil,Takashi Tanaka,Neil Thompson,Zoltán Tibai,György Tóth,Vitaliy Goryashko

    Research at modern light sources continues to improve our knowledge of the natural world, from the subtle workings of life to matter under extreme conditions. Free-electron lasers, for instance, have enabled the characterization of biomolecular structures with sub-ångström spatial resolution, and paved the way to controlling the molecular functions. On the other hand, attosecond temporal resolution

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Physics with reactor neutrinos.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-12-14
    Xin Qian,Jen-Chieh Peng

    Neutrinos produced by nuclear reactors have played a major role in advancing our knowledge of the properties of neutrinos. The first direct detection of the neutrino, confirming its existence, was performed using reactor neutrinos. More recent experiments utilizing reactor neutrinos have also found clear evidence for neutrino oscillation, providing unique input for the determination of neutrino mass

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The electron-ion collider: assessing the energy dependence of key measurements.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-12-14
    E C Aschenauer,S Fazio,J H Lee,H Mäntysaari,B S Page,B Schenke,T Ullrich,R Venugopalan,P Zurita

    We provide an assessment of the energy dependence of key measurements within the scope of the machine parameters for a US based electron-ion collider (EIC) outlined in the EIC White Paper. We first examine the importance of the physics underlying these measurements in the context of the outstanding questions in nuclear science. We then demonstrate, through detailed simulations of the measurements,

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Progress in Cr- and Mn-based superconductors: a key issues review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-12-14
    R Y Chen,N L Wang

    The presence of magnetic ions was first believed to be detrimental to superconductivity. However, unconventional superconductivity has been widely induced by doping or applying external pressure in magnetic systems such as heavy fermion, cuprate and iron-based superconductors in which magnetic fluctuations are suggested to serve as the pairing glue for Cooper pairs. The discovery of superconductivity

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Ultrafast measurements of the dynamics of single nanostructures: a review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-11-30
    Gary Beane,Tuphan Devkota,Brendan S Brown,Gregory V Hartland

    The ability to study single particles has revolutionized nanoscience. The advantage of single particle spectroscopy measurements compared to conventional ensemble studies is that they remove averaging effects from the different sizes and shapes that are present in the samples. In time-resolved experiments this is important for unraveling homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening effects in lifetime

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Stochastic gravitational wave backgrounds.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-11-22
    Nelson Christensen

    A stochastic background of gravitational waves could be created by the superposition of a large number of independent sources. The physical processes occurring at the earliest moments of the universe certainly created a stochastic background that exists, at some level, today. This is analogous to the cosmic microwave background, which is an electromagnetic record of the early universe. The recent observations

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Structural studies of carbons by neutron and x-ray scattering.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-11-22
    Andrzej Burian,John C Dore,Karolina Jurkiewicz

    Carbon can have many different forms and the characterisation of structural features on a length scale of 1 Å to 10 μm is important in defining its physical and chemical properties for the various forms. The use of either electro-magnetic (x-ray) or particle (neutron) beams plays an important role in determining these characteristics. In this paper, we review the various techniques that are used to

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Photonic quantum information processing: a review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-11-14
    Fulvio Flamini,Nicolò Spagnolo,Fabio Sciarrino

    Photonic quantum technologies represent a promising platform for several applications, ranging from long-distance communications to the simulation of complex phenomena. Indeed, the advantages offered by single photons do make them the candidate of choice for carrying quantum information in a broad variety of areas with a versatile approach. Furthermore, recent technological advances are now enabling

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nonreciprocal hybrid magnetoplasmonics.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-10-03
    Dominik Floess,Harald Giessen

    The Faraday effect describes the phenomenon that a magnetized material can alter the polarization state of transmitted light. Interestingly, unlike most light-matter interactions in nature, it breaks Lorentz reciprocity. This exceptional behavior is utilized for applications such as optical isolators, which are core elements in communication and laser systems. While there is high demand for sub-micron

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Self-force and radiation reaction in general relativity.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-10-03
    Leor Barack,Adam Pound

    The detection of gravitational waves from binary black-hole mergers by the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration marks the dawn of an era when general-relativistic dynamics in its most extreme manifestation is directly accessible to observation. In the future, planned (space-based) observatories operating in the millihertz band will detect the intricate gravitational-wave signals from the inspiral of compact objects

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bacterial growth: a statistical physicist's guide.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-10-03
    Rosalind J Allen,Bartlomiej Waclaw

    Bacterial growth presents many beautiful phenomena that pose new theoretical challenges to statistical physicists, and are also amenable to laboratory experimentation. This review provides some of the essential biological background, discusses recent applications of statistical physics in this field, and highlights the potential for future research.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Making better sense of quantum mechanics.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-09-21
    N David Mermin

    We still lack any consensus about what one is actually talking about as one uses quantum mechanics. There is a gap between the abstract terms in which the theory is couched and the phenomena the theory enables each of us to account for so well. Because it has no practical consequences for how we each use quantum mechanics to deal with physical problems, this cognitive dissonance has managed to coexist

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Topological order, emergent gauge fields, and Fermi surface reconstruction.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-09-14
    Subir Sachdev

    This review describes how topological order associated with the presence of emergent gauge fields can reconstruct Fermi surfaces of metals, even in the absence of translational symmetry breaking. We begin with an introduction to topological order using Wegner's quantum [Formula: see text] gauge theory on the square lattice: the topological state is characterized by the expulsion of defects, carrying

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Correlated materials design: prospects and challenges.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-08-24
    Ran Adler,Chang-Jong Kang,Chuck-Hou Yee,Gabriel Kotliar

    The design of correlated materials challenges researchers to combine the maturing, high throughput framework of DFT-based materials design with the rapidly-developing first-principles theory for correlated electron systems. We review the field of correlated materials, distinguishing two broad classes of correlation effects, static and dynamics, and describe methodologies to take them into account.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The physics of jamming for granular materials: a review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-08-23
    Robert P Behringer,Bulbul Chakraborty

    Granular materials consist of macroscopic grains, interacting via contact forces, and unaffected by thermal fluctuations. They are one of a class systems that undergo jamming, i.e. a transition between fluid-like and disordered solid-like states. Roughly twenty years ago, proposals by Cates et al for the shear response of colloidal systems and by Liu and Nagel, for a universal jamming diagram in a

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Numerical relativity of compact binaries in the 21st century.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-08-18
    Matthew D Duez,Yosef Zlochower

    We review the dramatic progress in the simulations of compact objects and compact-object binaries that has taken place in the first two decades of the twenty-first century. This includes simulations of the inspirals and violent mergers of binaries containing black holes and neutron stars, as well as simulations of black-hole formation through failed supernovae and high-mass neutron star-neutron star

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Interacting topological insulators: a review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-07-31
    Stephan Rachel

    The discovery of the quantum spin Hall effect and topological insulators more than a decade ago has revolutionized modern condensed matter physics. Today, the field of topological states of matter is one of the most active and fruitful research areas for both experimentalists and theorists. The physics of topological insulators is typically well described by band theory and systems of non-interacting

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A spin-orbit playground: surfaces and interfaces of transition metal oxides.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-07-31
    S Gariglio,A D Caviglia,J-M Triscone,M Gabay

    Within the last twenty years, the status of the spin-orbit interaction has evolved from that of a simple atomic contribution to a key effect that modifies the electronic band structure of materials. It is regarded as one of the basic ingredients for spintronics, locking together charge and spin degrees of freedom and recently it is instrumental in promoting a new class of compounds, the topological

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The route to massive black hole formation via merger-driven direct collapse: a review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-07-31
    Lucio Mayer,Silvia Bonoli

    The direct collapse model for the formation of massive black holes has gained increased support as it provides a natural explanation for the appearance of bright quasars already less than a billion years from the Big Bang. In this paper we review a recent scenario for direct collapse that relies on multi-scale gas inflows initiated by the major merger of massive gas-rich galaxies at z  >  6, where

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Dislocations in molecular crystals.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-07-31
    Isabel A Olson,Alexander G Shtukenberg,Bart Kahr,Michael D Ward

    Dislocations in molecular crystals remain terra incognita. Owing to the complexity of molecular structure, dislocations in molecular crystals can be difficult to understand using only the foundational concepts devised over decades for hard materials. Herein, we review the generation, structure, and physicochemical consequences of dislocations in molecular crystals. Unlike metals, ceramics, and semiconductors

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Manipulating the flow of light using Dirac-cone zero-index metamaterials.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-07-18
    Daryl I Vulis,Orad Reshef,Philip Camayd-Muñoz,Eric Mazur

    Metamaterials with a refractive index of zero exhibit properties that are important for integrated optics. Possessing an infinite effective wavelength and zero spatial phase change, zero-index metamaterials may be especially useful for routing on-chip photonic processes and reducing the footprint of nonlinear interactions. Zero-index has only been achieved recently in an integrated platform through

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlInN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-07-18
    Tetsuya Takeuchi,Satoshi Kamiyama,Motoaki Iwaya,Isamu Akasaki

    This paper describes the status and prospects of gallium nitride-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with semiconductor-based distributed Bragg reflectors. These optoelectronic devices, which emit laser light from the violet to green region, are expected to be a superior light source for the next-generation of displays and illumination, such as retinal scanning displays and adaptive

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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