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  • New states of matter with fine-tuned interactions: quantum droplets and dipolar supersolids
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Fabian Böttcher, Jan-Niklas Schmidt, Jens Hertkorn, Kevin S H Ng, Sean D Graham, Mingyang Guo, Tim Langen and Tilman Pfau

    Quantum fluctuations can stabilize Bose–Einstein condensates (BEC) against the mean-field collapse. Stabilization of the condensate has been observed in quantum degenerate Bose–Bose mixtures and dipolar BECs. The fine-tuning of the interatomic interactions can lead to the emergence of two new states of matter: liquid-like self-bound quantum droplets and supersolid crystals formed from these droplets

  • Two-photon interference: the Hong–Ou–Mandel effect
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Frédéric Bouchard, Alicia Sit, Yingwen Zhang, Robert Fickler, Filippo M Miatto, Yuan Yao, Fabio Sciarrino and Ebrahim Karimi

    Nearly 30 years ago, two-photon interference was observed, marking the beginning of a new quantum era. Indeed, two-photon interference has no classical analogue, giving it a distinct advantage for a range of applications. The peculiarities of quantum physics may now be used to our advantage to outperform classical computations, securely communicate information, simulate highly complex physical systems

  • Artificial intelligence for photonics and photonic materials
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Davide Piccinotti, Kevin F MacDonald, Simon A Gregory, Ian Youngs and Nikolay I Zheludev

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is the most important new methodology in scientific research since the adoption of quantum mechanics and it is providing exciting results in numerous fields of science and technology. In this review we summarize research and discuss future opportunities for AI in the domains of photonics, nanophotonics, plasmonics and photonic materials discovery, including metamaterials

  • Planar nonlinear metasurface optics and their applications
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-12-08
    Tianye Huang, Xiang Zhao, Shuwen Zeng, Aurelian Crunteanu, Perry Ping Shum and Nanfang Yu

    Metasurfaces are artificial two-dimensional (2D) planar surfaces that consist of subwavelength ‘meta-atoms’ (i.e. metallic or dielectric nanostructures). They are known for their capability to achieve better and more efficient light control in comparison to their traditional optical counterparts. Abrupt and sharp changes in the electromagnetic properties can be induced by the metasurfaces rather than

  • Interfacial viscoelasticity and jamming of colloidal particles at fluid–fluid interfaces: a review
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Xiaoliang Ji, Xiaolu Wang, Yongjian Zhang and Duyang Zang

    Colloidal particles can be adsorbed at fluid–fluid interfaces, a phenomenon frequently observed in particle-stabilized foams, Pickering emulsions, and bijels. Particles adsorbed at interfaces exhibit unique physical and chemical behaviors, which affect the mechanical properties of the interface. Therefore, interfacial colloidal particles are of interest in terms of both fundamental and applied research

  • New Opportunities at the Next-Generation Neutrino Experiments (Part 1: BSM Neutrino Physics and Dark Matter.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-11-21
    Yanou Cui,Jaehoon Yu,Albert de Roeck,Alex Sousa,Andre de Gouvea,Peter Denton,Pedro A N Machado

    The combination of the high intensity proton beam facilities and massive detectors for precision measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters including the charge-parity violating (CPV) phase will open the door to help make beyond the standard model (BSM) physics reachable even in low energy regimes in the accelerator-based experiments. Large-mass detectors with highly precise tracking and energy

  • A review of shaped colloidal particles in fluids: anisotropy and chirality
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-10-31
    Thomas A Witten and Haim Diamant

    This review treats asymmetric colloidal particles moving through their host fluid under the action of some form of propulsion. The propulsion can come from an external body force or from external shear flow. It may also come from externally-induced stresses at the surface, arising from imposed chemical, thermal or electrical gradients. The resulting motion arises jointly from the driven particle and

  • Punching holes in light: recent progress in single-shot coded-aperture optical imaging
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Jinyang Liang

    Single-shot coded-aperture optical imaging physically captures a code-aperture-modulated optical signal in one exposure and then recovers the scene via computational image reconstruction. Recent years have witnessed dazzling advances in various modalities in this hybrid imaging scheme in concomitant technical improvement and widespread applications in physical, chemical and biological sciences. This

  • Recent advances in real-time spectrum measurement of soliton dynamics by dispersive Fourier transformation
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Yunzheng Wang, Cong Wang, Feng Zhang, Jia Guo, Chunyang Ma, Weichun Huang, Yufeng Song, Yanqi Ge, Jie Liu and Han Zhang

    Mode-locking lasers have not only produced huge economic benefits in industrial fields and scientific research, but also provided an excellent platform to study diverse soliton phenomena. However, the real-time characterization of the ultrafast soliton dynamics remains challenging for traditional electronic instruments due to their relatively low response bandwidth and slow scan rate. Consequently

  • A linear viscoelasticity for decadal to centennial time scale mantle deformation.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    E R Ivins,L Caron,S Adhikari,E Larour,M Scheinert

    The extended Burgers material (EBM) model provides a linear viscoelastic theory for interpreting a variety of rock deformation phenomena in geophysics, playing an increasingly important role in parameterizing laboratory data, providing seismic wave velocity and attenuation interpretations, and in analyses of solid planetary tidal dispersion and quality factor Q . At the heart of the EBM approach is

  • Review: knots and other new topological effects in liquid crystals and colloids.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Ivan I Smalyukh

    Humankind has been obsessed with knots in religion, culture and daily life for millennia, while physicists like Gauss, Kelvin and Maxwell already involved them in models centuries ago. Nowadays, colloidal particles can be fabricated to have shapes of knots and links with arbitrary complexity. In liquid crystals, closed loops of singular vortex lines can be knotted by using colloidal particles and laser

  • Producing highly complicated materials. Nature does it better.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Luca Bindi,Massimo Nespolo,Sergey V Krivovichev,Gervais Chapuis,Cristian Biagioni

    Through the years, mineralogical studies have produced a tremendous amount of data on the atomic arrangement and mineral properties. Quite often, structural analysis has led to elucidate the role played by minor components, giving interesting insights into the physico-chemical conditions of mineral crystallization and allowing the description of unpredictable structures that represented a body of knowledge

  • Dripping, jetting and tip streaming.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    J M Montanero,A M Gañán-Calvo

    Dripping, jetting and tip streaming have been studied up to a certain point separately by both fluid mechanics and microfluidics communities, the former focusing on fundamental aspects while the latter on applications. Here, we intend to review this field from a global perspective by considering and linking the two sides of the problem. First, we present the theoretical model used to study interfacial

  • High-resolution and large field-of-view Fourier ptychographic microscopy and its applications in biomedicine.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    An Pan,Chao Zuo,Baoli Yao

    Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) is a promising and fast-growing computational imaging technique with high resolution, wide field-of-view (FOV) and quantitative phase recovery, which effectively tackles the problems of phase loss, aberration-introduced artifacts, narrow depth-of-field and the trade-off between resolution and FOV in conventional microscopy simultaneously. In this review, we provide

  • Review of proton and nuclear shape fluctuations at high energy.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Heikki Mäntysaari

    Determining the inner structure of protons and nuclei in terms of their fundamental constituents has been one of the main tasks of high energy nuclear and particle physics experiments. This quest started as a mapping of the (average) parton densities as a function of longitudinal momentum fraction and resolution scale. Recently, the field has progressed to more differential imaging, where one important

  • On the applicability of quantum-optical concepts in strong-coupling nanophotonics.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    Christos Tserkezis,Antonio I Fernández-Domínguez,P A D Gonçalves,Francesco Todisco,Joel D Cox,Kurt Busch,Nicolas Stenger,Sergey I Bozhevolnyi,N Asger Mortensen,Christian Wolff

    Rooted in quantum optics and benefiting from its well-established foundations, strong coupling in nanophotonics has experienced increasing popularity in recent years. With nanophotonics being an experiment-driven field, the absence of appropriate theoretical methods to describe ground-breaking advances has often emerged as an important issue. To address this problem, the temptation to directly transfer

  • Layered perovskite materials: key solutions for highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Chintam Hanmandlu,Anupriya Singh,Karunakara Moorthy Boopathi,Chao-Sung Lai,Chih-Wei Chu

    Metal halide perovskites having three-dimensional crystal structures are being applied successfully in various optoelectronic applications. To address their most challenging issues—instability and toxicity—without losing efficiency, lower-dimensional perovskites appear to be promising alternatives. Recently, two-dimensional (2D) perovskite solar cells have been developed exhibiting excellent photostability

  • Efficient charge generation at low energy losses in organic solar cells: a key issues review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-07-15
    Ye Xu,Huifeng Yao,Lijiao Ma,Jingwen Wang,Jianhui Hou

    Light absorption generates strongly bound excitons in organic solar cells (OSCs). To obtain efficient charge generation, a large driving force is required, which causes a large energy loss ( E loss ) and severely hinders the improvement in the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of OSCs. Recently, the development of non-fullerene OSCs has seen great success, and the resulting OSCs can yield highly

  • Memory technology-a primer for material scientists.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-07-15
    T Schenk,M Pešić,S Slesazeck,U Schroeder,T Mikolajick

    From our own experience, we know that there is a gap to bridge between the scientists focused on basic material research and their counterparts in a close-to-application community focused on identifying and solving final technological and engineering challenges. In this review, we try to provide an easy-to-grasp introduction to the field of memory technology for materials scientists. An understanding

  • Effective field theories of post-Newtonian gravity: a comprehensive review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    Michèle Levi

    This review article presents the progress made over the last decade, since the introduction of effective field theories (EFTs) into post-Newtonian (PN) gravity. These have been put forward in the context of gravitational waves (GWs) from the compact binary inspiral. The mature development of this interdisciplinary field has resulted in significant advances of wide interest to physics at several levels

  • Advances in local area optical data communication systems.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    D G Cunningham,I H White

    This paper reviews optical fibre technology for local area optical communications systems. Technologies used in local systems include single and multimode fibre, single and multimode lasers, optical modulators, photodetectors, wavelength division multiplexing, multilevel modulation formats, electronic packet switching, electronic equalization and error correction. These methods have enabled the local

  • The emergence of picokelvin physics.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Xuzong Chen,Bo Fan

    The frontier of low-temperature physics has advanced to the mid-picokelvin (pK) regime but progress has come to a halt because of the problem of gravity. Ultracold atoms must be confined in some type of potential energy well: if the depth of the well is less than the energy an atom gains by falling through it, the atom escapes. This article reviews ultracold atom research, emphasizing the advances

  • Binding and electronic level alignment of π-conjugated systems on metals.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Antoni Franco-Cañellas,Steffen Duhm,Alexander Gerlach,Frank Schreiber

    We review the binding and energy level alignment of π-conjugated systems on metals, a field which during the last two decades has seen tremendous progress both in terms of experimental characterization as well as in the depth of theoretical understanding. Precise measurements of vertical adsorption distances and the electronic structure together with ab initio calculations have shown that most of the

  • Entanglement: quantum or classical?
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
    Dilip Paneru,Eliahu Cohen,Robert Fickler,Robert W Boyd,Ebrahim Karimi

    From its seemingly non-intuitive and puzzling nature, most evident in numerous EPR-like gedanken experiments to its almost ubiquitous presence in quantum technologies, entanglement is at the heart of modern quantum physics. First introduced by Erwin Schrödinger nearly a century ago, entanglement has remained one of the most fascinating ideas that came out of quantum mechanics. Here, we attempt to explain

  • Heterodyne terahertz detection through electronic and optoelectronic mixers.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-05-20
    Yen-Ju Lin,Mona Jarrahi

    The high sensitivity detection of terahertz radiation is crucial for many chemical sensing, biomedical imaging, security screening, nondestructive quality control, high-data-rate communication, atmospheric, and astrophysics sensing applications. Among various terahertz detection techniques, heterodyne detection is of great interest for applications that require high spectral resolution. Heterodyne

  • A review on role of tetra-rings in graphene systems and their possible applications.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Arka Bandyopadhyay,Debnarayan Jana

    Inspired by the success of graphene, various two-dimensional (2D) non-hexagonal graphene allotropes having sp2-bonded tetragonal rings in free-standing (hypothetical) form and on different substrates have been proposed recently. These systems have also been fabricated after modifying the topology of graphene by chemical processes. In this review, we would like to indicate the role of tetra-rings and

  • Perspectives of quantum annealing: methods and implementations.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Philipp Hauke,Helmut G Katzgraber,Wolfgang Lechner,Hidetoshi Nishimori,William D Oliver

    Quantum annealing is a computing paradigm that has the ambitious goal of efficiently solving large-scale combinatorial optimization problems of practical importance. However, many challenges have yet to be overcome before this goal can be reached. This perspectives article first gives a brief introduction to the concept of quantum annealing, and then highlights new pathways that may clear the way towards

  • Recent advances in infrared imagers: toward thermodynamic and quantum limits of photon sensitivity.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-03-17
    Simone Bianconi,Hooman Mohseni

    Infrared detection and imaging are key enabling technologies for a vast number of applications, ranging from communication, to medicine and astronomy, and have recently attracted interest for their potential application in optical interconnects and quantum computing. Nonetheless, infrared detection still constitutes the performance bottleneck for several of these applications, due to a number of unsolved

  • Biologically inspired artificial eyes and photonics.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Jae-Jun Kim,Hewei Liu,Alireza Ousati Ashtiani,Hongrui Jiang

    Natural visual systems have inspired scientists and engineers to mimic their intriguing features for the development of advanced photonic devices that can provide better solutions than conventional ones. Among various kinds of natural eyes, researchers have had intensive interest in mammal eyes and compound eyes due to their advantages in optical properties such as focal length tunability, high-resolution

  • Direct real photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-03-17
    Gabor David

    Direct real photons are arguably the most versatile tools to study relativistic heavy ion collisions. They are produced, by various mechanisms, during the entire space-time history of the strongly interacting system. Also, being colorless, most the time they escape without further interaction, \ie they are penetrating probes. This makes them rich in information, but hard to decypher and interpret.

  • Single-photon emitters in hexagonal boron nitride: a review of progress
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-03-17
    A Sajid, Michael J Ford and Jeffrey R Reimers

    This report summarizes progress made in understanding properties such as zero-phonon-line energies, emission and absorption polarizations, electron–phonon couplings, strain tuning and hyperfine coupling of single photon emitters in hexagonal boron nitride. The primary aims of this research are to discover the chemical nature of the emitting centres and to facilitate deployment in device applications

  • Simultaneous optical trapping and imaging in the axial plane: a review of current progress.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-02-25
    Yansheng Liang,Shaohui Yan,Zhaojun Wang,Runze Li,Yanan Cai,Minru He,Baoli Yao,Ming Lei

    Optical trapping has become a powerful tool in numerous fields such as biology, physics, chemistry, etc. In conventional optical trapping systems, trapping and imaging share the same objective lens, confining the region of observation to the focal plane. For the capture of optical trapping processes occurring in other planes, especially the axial plane (the one containing the z-axis), many methods

  • Will a physicist prove the Riemann hypothesis?
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Marek Wolf

    In the first part we present the number theoretical properties of the Riemann zeta function and formulate the Riemann hypothesis. In the second part we review some physical problems related to this hypothesis: the Polya-Hilbert conjecture, the links with random matrix theory, relation with the Lee-Yang theorem on the zeros of the partition function and phase transitions, random walks, billiards etc

  • First-principles calculations of charge carrier mobility and conductivity in bulk semiconductors and two-dimensional materials.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    Samuel Poncé,Wenbin Li,Sven Reichardt,Feliciano Giustino

    One of the fundamental properties of semiconductors is their ability to support highly tunable electric currents in the presence of electric fields or carrier concentration gradients. These properties are described by transport coefficients such as electron and hole mobilities. Over the last decades, our understanding of carrier mobilities has largely been shaped by experimental investigations and

  • It is all about phases: ultrafast holographic photoelectron imaging
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-28
    C Figueira de Morisson Faria and A S Maxwell

    Photoelectron holography constitutes a powerful tool for the ultrafast imaging of matter, as it combines high electron currents with subfemtosecond resolution, and gives information about transition amplitudes and phase shifts. Similarly to light holography, it uses the phase difference between the probe and the reference waves associated with qualitatively different ionization events for the reconstruction

  • Review on novel methods for lattice gauge theories.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Mari Carmen Bañuls,Krzysztof Cichy

    Formulating gauge theories on a lattice offers a genuinely non-perturbative way of studying quantum field theories, and has led to impressive achievements. In particular, it significantly deepened our understanding of quantum chromodynamics. Yet, some very relevant problems remain inherently challenging, such as real time evolution, or the presence of a chemical potential, cases in which Monte Carlo

  • Optomechanics with levitated particles.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    James Millen,Tania S Monteiro,Robert Pettit,A Nick Vamivakas

    Optomechanics is concerned with the use of light to control mechanical objects. As a field, it has been hugely successful in the production of precise and novel sensors, the development of low-dissipation nanomechanical devices, and the manipulation of quantum signals. Micro- and nano-particles levitated in optical fields act as nanoscale oscillators, making them excellent low-dissipation optomechanical

  • Hard x-ray spectroscopy and dynamics of isolated atoms and molecules: a review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    M N Piancastelli,T Marchenko,R Guillemin,L Journel,O Travnikova,I Ismail,M Simon

    We present here a review of the most significant recent achievements in the field of HAXPES (hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) on isolated atoms and molecules, and related spectroscopies. The possibility of conducting hard x-ray photoexcitation and photoionization experiments under state-of-the art conditions in terms of photon and electron kinetic energy resolution has become available only in

  • Holographic systems far from equilibrium: a review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Hong Liu,Julian Sonner

    In this paper we give an overview of some recent progress in using holography to study various far-from-equilibrium condensed matter systems. Non-equilibrium problems are notoriously difficult to deal with, not to mention at strong coupling and when including quantum effects. Remarkably, using holographic duality one can describe and follow the real-time evolution of far-from-equilibrium systems, including

  • New materials physics.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-10-25
    Paul C Canfield

    This review presents a survey of, and guide to, new materials physics (NMP) research. It begins with an overview of the goals of NMP and then presents important ideas and techniques for the design and growth of new materials. An emphasis is placed on the use of compositional phase diagrams to inform and motivate solution growth of single crystals. The second half of this review focuses on the vital

  • Quantum imaging and information.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Omar S Magaña-Loaiza,Robert W Boyd

    The maturity of fields such as optical physics and quantum optics has brought with it a new era where the photon represents a promising information resource. In the past few years, scientists and engineers have exploited multiple degrees of freedom of the photon to perform information processing for a wide variety of applications. Of particular importance, the transverse spatial degree of freedom has

  • Multifractal analysis of financial markets: a review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-09-10
    Zhi-Qiang Jiang,Wen-Jie Xie,Wei-Xing Zhou,Didier Sornette

    Multifractality is ubiquitously observed in complex natural and socioeconomic systems. Multifractal analysis provides powerful tools to understand the complex nonlinear nature of time series in diverse fields. Inspired by its striking analogy with hydrodynamic turbulence, from which the idea of multifractality originated, multifractal analysis of financial markets has bloomed, forming one of the main

  • Fluorite-structure antiferroelectrics.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-10-01
    Min Hyuk Park,Cheol Seong Hwang

    Ferroelectricity in fluorite-structure oxides like hafnia and zirconia have attracted increasing interest since 2011. Two spontaneous polarizations of the fluorite-structure ferroelectrics are considered highly promising for nonvolatile memory applications, with their superior scalability and Si compatibility compared to the conventional perovskite-structure ferroelectrics. Besides, antiferroelectricity

  • Strong gravitational lensing of explosive transients.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Masamune Oguri

    Recent rapid progress in time domain surveys makes it possible to detect various types of explosive transients in the Universe in large numbers, some of which will be gravitationally lensed into multiple images. Although a large number of strongly lensed distant galaxies and quasars have already been discovered, strong lensing of explosive transients opens up new applications, including improved measurements

  • Real-time studies of ferroelectric domain switching: a review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-06-11
    Linze Li,Lin Xie,Xiaoqing Pan

    Ferroelectric materials have been utilized in a broad range of electronic, optical, and electromechanical applications and hold the promise for the design of future high-density nonvolatile memories and multifunctional nano-devices. The applications of ferroelectric materials stem from the ability to switch polarized domains by applying an electric field, and therefore a fundamental understanding of

  • It is all about phases: ultrafast holographic photoelectron imaging.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    C Figueira de Morisson Faria,A S Maxwell

    Photoelectron holography constitutes a powerful tool for the ultrafast imaging of matter, as it combines high electron currents with subfemtosecond resolution, and gives information about transition amplitudes and phase shifts. Similarly to light holography, it uses the phase difference between the probe and the reference waves associated with qualitatively different ionization events for the reconstruction

  • Quantum correlations in separable multi-mode states and in classically entangled light.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-03-05
    N Korolkova,G Leuchs

    In this review we discuss intriguing properties of apparently classical optical fields, that go beyond purely classical context and allow us to speak about quantum characteristics of such fields and about their applications in quantum technologies. We briefly define the genuinely quantum concepts of entanglement and steering. We then move to the boarder line between classical and quantum world introducing

  • A review of selected topics in interferometric optical metrology.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-02-23
    Peter J de Groot

    This review gathers together 15 special topics in modern interferometric metrology representing a sampling of historical, current and future developments. The selected topics cover a wide range of applications, including distance and displacement measurement, the testing of optical components, interference microscopy for surface structure analysis, form and dimensional measurements of industrial parts

  • Pairing in excited nuclei: a review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-02-09
    N Quang Hung,N Dinh Dang,L G Moretto

    The present review summarizes the recent studies on the thermodynamic properties of pairing in many-body systems including superconductors, metallic nanosized clusters and/or grains, solid-state materials, focusing on the excited nuclei, that is nuclei at finite temperature and/or angular momentum formed via heavy-ion fusion, [Formula: see text]-induced fusion reactions, or inelastic scattering of

  • The sea of quarks and antiquarks in the nucleon.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-02-09
    D F Geesaman,P E Reimer

    The quark and gluon structure of the proton has been under intense experimental and theoretical investigation for five decades. Even for the distributions of the well-studied valence quarks, challenges such as the value of the down quark to up quark ratio at high fractional momenta remain. Much of the sea of quark-antiquark pairs emerges from the splitting of gluons and is well described by perturbative

  • Physics of active emulsions.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-02-08
    Christoph A Weber,David Zwicker,Frank Jülicher,Chiu Fan Lee

    Phase separating systems that are maintained away from thermodynamic equilibrium via molecular processes represent a class of active systems, which we call active emulsions. These systems are driven by external energy input, for example provided by an external fuel reservoir. The external energy input gives rise to novel phenomena that are not present in passive systems. For instance, concentration

  • A review of non-fullerene polymer solar cells: from device physics to morphology control.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-02-08
    Robert S Gurney,David G Lidzey,Tao Wang

    The rise in power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices over the last few years has been driven by the emergence of new organic semiconductors and the growing understanding of morphological control at both the molecular and aggregation scales. Non-fullerene OPVs adopting p-type conjugated polymers as the donor and n-type small molecules as the acceptor have exhibited steady progress

  • A review of modeling interacting transient phenomena with non-equilibrium Green functions.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-01-15
    Mark R Hirsbrunner,Timothy M Philip,Bora Basa,Youngseok Kim,Moon Jip Park,Matthew J Gilbert

    As experimental probes have matured to observe ultrafast transient and high frequency responses of materials and devices, so to have the theoretical methods to numerically and analytically simulate time- and frequency-resolved transport. In this review article, we discuss recent progress in the development of the time-dependent and frequency-dependent non-equilibrium Green function (NEGF) technique

  • Active control of plasmonic colors: emerging display technologies.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2019-01-15
    Kunli Xiong,Daniel Tordera,Magnus P Jonsson,Andreas B Dahlin

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of plasmonic nanostructures for color generation, a technology that dates back to ancient times. Plasmonic structural colors have several attractive features but once the structures are prepared the colors are normally fixed. Lately, several concepts have emerged for actively tuning the colors, which opens up for many new potential applications

  • Attosecond single-cycle undulator light: a review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-12-21
    Alan Mak,Georgii Shamuilov,Peter Salén,David Dunning,János Hebling,Yuichiro Kida,Ryota Kinjo,Brian W J McNeil,Takashi Tanaka,Neil Thompson,Zoltán Tibai,György Tóth,Vitaliy Goryashko

    Research at modern light sources continues to improve our knowledge of the natural world, from the subtle workings of life to matter under extreme conditions. Free-electron lasers, for instance, have enabled the characterization of biomolecular structures with sub-ångström spatial resolution, and paved the way to controlling the molecular functions. On the other hand, attosecond temporal resolution

  • Physics with reactor neutrinos.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-12-14
    Xin Qian,Jen-Chieh Peng

    Neutrinos produced by nuclear reactors have played a major role in advancing our knowledge of the properties of neutrinos. The first direct detection of the neutrino, confirming its existence, was performed using reactor neutrinos. More recent experiments utilizing reactor neutrinos have also found clear evidence for neutrino oscillation, providing unique input for the determination of neutrino mass

  • The electron-ion collider: assessing the energy dependence of key measurements.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-12-14
    E C Aschenauer,S Fazio,J H Lee,H Mäntysaari,B S Page,B Schenke,T Ullrich,R Venugopalan,P Zurita

    We provide an assessment of the energy dependence of key measurements within the scope of the machine parameters for a US based electron-ion collider (EIC) outlined in the EIC White Paper. We first examine the importance of the physics underlying these measurements in the context of the outstanding questions in nuclear science. We then demonstrate, through detailed simulations of the measurements,

  • Progress in Cr- and Mn-based superconductors: a key issues review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-12-14
    R Y Chen,N L Wang

    The presence of magnetic ions was first believed to be detrimental to superconductivity. However, unconventional superconductivity has been widely induced by doping or applying external pressure in magnetic systems such as heavy fermion, cuprate and iron-based superconductors in which magnetic fluctuations are suggested to serve as the pairing glue for Cooper pairs. The discovery of superconductivity

  • Ultrafast measurements of the dynamics of single nanostructures: a review.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-11-30
    Gary Beane,Tuphan Devkota,Brendan S Brown,Gregory V Hartland

    The ability to study single particles has revolutionized nanoscience. The advantage of single particle spectroscopy measurements compared to conventional ensemble studies is that they remove averaging effects from the different sizes and shapes that are present in the samples. In time-resolved experiments this is important for unraveling homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening effects in lifetime

  • Stochastic gravitational wave backgrounds.
    Rep. Prog. Phys. (IF 17.032) Pub Date : 2018-11-22
    Nelson Christensen

    A stochastic background of gravitational waves could be created by the superposition of a large number of independent sources. The physical processes occurring at the earliest moments of the universe certainly created a stochastic background that exists, at some level, today. This is analogous to the cosmic microwave background, which is an electromagnetic record of the early universe. The recent observations

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