当前期刊: Nature Go to current issue    加入关注    本刊介绍/投稿指南
样式:        排序: IF: - GO 导出 标记为已读
  •   A Conserved Mechanism for Regulating Replisome Disassembly in Eukaryotes
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-26
    Michael Jenkyn-Bedford, Morgan L. Jones, Yasemin Baris, Karim P. M. Labib, Giuseppe Cannone, Joseph T. P. Yeeles, Tom D. Deegan

    Replisome disassembly is the final step of eukaryotic DNA replication, and is triggered by ubiquitylation of the CMG (Cdc45-MCM-GINS) replicative helicase1–3. Despite being driven by evolutionarily diverse E3 ubiquitin ligases in different eukaryotes (SCFDia2 in budding yeast1, CUL2LRR1 in metazoa4–7), replisome disassembly is governed by a common regulatory principle, whereby CMG ubiquitylation is

  •   Cryptic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and the first COVID-19 wave
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-25
    Jessica T. Davis, Matteo Chinazzi, Nicola Perra, Kunpeng Mu, Ana Pastore y Piontti, Marco Ajelli, Natalie E. Dean, Corrado Gioannini, Maria Litvinova, Stefano Merler, Luca Rossi, Kaiyuan Sun, Xinyue Xiong, Ira M. Longini, M. Elizabeth Halloran, Cécile Viboud, Alessandro Vespignani

    Considerable uncertainty surrounds the timeline of introductions and onsets of local transmission of SARS-CoV-2 globally1–7. Although a limited number of SARS-CoV-2 introductions were reported in January and February 20208,9, the narrowness of the initial testing criteria, combined with a slow growth in testing capacity and porous travel screening10, left many countries vulnerable to unmitigated, cryptic

  •   Prestin’s conformational cycle underlies outer hair cell electromotility
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-25
    Navid Bavi, Michael David Clark, Gustavo F. Contreras, Rong Shen, Bharat G. Reddy, Wieslawa Milewski, Eduardo Perozo

    The voltage-dependent motor protein Prestin (SLC26A5) is responsible for the electromotive behavior of outer hair cells and underlies the cochlear amplifier1. Knock out or impairment of Prestin causes severe hearing loss2–5. Despite Prestin’s key role in hearing, the mechanism by which mammalian Prestin senses voltage and transduces it into cellular-scale movements (electromotility) is poorly understood

  •   Untimely TGFβ responses in COVID-19 limit antiviral functions of NK cells
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-25
    Mario Witkowski, Caroline Tizian, Marta Ferreira-Gomes, Daniela Niemeyer, Terry C. Jones, Frederik Heinrich, Stefan Frischbutter, Stefan Angermair, Thordis Hohnstein, Irene Mattiola, Philipp Nawrath, Sophie Mc Ewen, Silvia Zocche, Edoardo Viviano, Gitta Anne Heinz, Marcus Maurer, Uwe Kölsch, Robert Lorenz Chua, Tom Aschman, Christian Meisel, Josefine Radke, Birgit Sawitzki, Jobst Roehmel, Kristina

    SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Given its acute and often self-limiting course, components of the innate immune system are likely central in controlling virus replication thereby determining clinical outcome. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes with notable activity against a broad range of viruses, including RNA viruses1,2. NK

  •   Immunogenicity and efficacy of heterologous ChadOx1/BNT162b2 vaccination
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-21
    Bruno Pozzetto, Vincent Legros, Sophia Djebali, Véronique Barateau, Nicolas Guibert, Marine Villard, Loïc Peyrot, Omran Allatif, Jean-Baptiste Fassier, Amélie Massardier-Pilonchéry, Karen Brengel-Pesce, Melyssa Yaugel-Novoa, Solène Denolly, Bertrand Boson, Thomas Bourlet, Antonin Bal, Martine Valette, Thibault Andrieu, Bruno Lina, François-Loïc Cosset, Stéphane Paul, Thierry Defrance, Jacqueline Marvel

    Following severe adverse reactions to the AstraZeneca ChAdOx1-S-nCoV-19 vaccine1,2, European health authorities have recommended that patients under the age of 55 who received one dose of ChAdOx1-S-nCoV-19 vaccine receive a second dose of Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccine as a booster. However, the effectiveness and the immunogenicity of this vaccination regimen have not been formally tested. Here, we show that

  •   Evidence for unconventional superconductivity in twisted bilayer graphene
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-20
    Myungchul Oh, Kevin P. Nuckolls, Dillon Wong, Ryan L. Lee, Xiaomeng Liu, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Ali Yazdani

    The emergence of superconductivity and correlated insulators in magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene (MATBG) has raised the intriguing possibility that its pairing mechanism is distinct from that of conventional superconductors1–4, as described by the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory. However, recent studies have shown that superconductivity persists even when Coulomb interactions are partially

  •   Evidence for European presence in the Americas in ad 1021
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-20
    Margot Kuitems, Birgitta L. Wallace, Charles Lindsay, Andrea Scifo, Petra Doeve, Kevin Jenkins, Susanne Lindauer, Pınar Erdil, Paul M. Ledger, Véronique Forbes, Caroline Vermeeren, Ronny Friedrich, Michael W. Dee

    Transatlantic exploration took place centuries before the crossing of Columbus. Physical evidence for early European presence in the Americas can be found in Newfoundland, Canada1,2. However, it has thus far not been possible to determine when this activity took place3,4,5. Here we provide evidence that the Vikings were present in Newfoundland in ad 1021. We overcome the imprecision of previous age

  •   Dexterous magnetic manipulation of conductive non-magnetic objects
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-20
    Lan N. Pham, Griffin F. Tabor, Ashkan Pourkand, Jacob L. B. Aman, Tucker Hermans, Jake J. Abbott

    Dexterous magnetic manipulation of ferromagnetic objects is well established, with three to six degrees of freedom possible depending on object geometry1. There are objects for which non-contact dexterous manipulation is desirable that do not contain an appreciable amount of ferromagnetic material but do contain electrically conductive material. Time-varying magnetic fields generate eddy currents in

  •   Ethics of DNA research on human remains: five globally applicable guidelines
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-20
    Songül Alpaslan-Roodenberg, David Anthony, Hiba Babiker, Eszter Bánffy, Thomas Booth, Patricia Capone, Arati Deshpande-Mukherjee, Stefanie Eisenmann, Lars Fehren-Schmitz, Michael Frachetti, Ricardo Fujita, Catherine J. Frieman, Qiaomei Fu, Victoria Gibbon, Wolfgang Haak, Mateja Hajdinjak, Kerstin P. Hofmann, Brian Holguin, Takeshi Inomata, Hideaki Kanzawa-Kiriyama, William Keegan, Janet Kelso, Johannes

    We are a group of archaeologists, anthropologists, curators and geneticists representing diverse global communities and 31 countries. All of us met in a virtual workshop dedicated to ethics in ancient DNA research held in November 2020. There was widespread agreement that globally applicable ethical guidelines are needed, but that recent recommendations grounded in discussion about research on human

  •   Copper-coordinated cellulose ion conductors for solid-state batteries
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-20
    Chunpeng Yang, Qisheng Wu, Weiqi Xie, Xin Zhang, Alexandra Brozena, Jin Zheng, Mounesha N. Garaga, Byung Hee Ko, Yimin Mao, Shuaiming He, Yue Gao, Pengbo Wang, Madhusudan Tyagi, Feng Jiao, Robert Briber, Paul Albertus, Chunsheng Wang, Steven Greenbaum, Yan-Yan Hu, Akira Isogai, Martin Winter, Kang Xu, Yue Qi, Liangbing Hu

    Although solid-state lithium (Li)-metal batteries promise both high energy density and safety, existing solid ion conductors fail to satisfy the rigorous requirements of battery operations. Inorganic ion conductors allow fast ion transport, but their rigid and brittle nature prevents good interfacial contact with electrodes. Conversely, polymer ion conductors that are Li-metal-stable usually provide

  •   Linking hippocampal multiplexed tuning, Hebbian plasticity and navigation
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-20
    Jason J. Moore, Jesse D. Cushman, Lavanya Acharya, Briana Popeney, Mayank R. Mehta

    Three major pillars of hippocampal function are spatial navigation1, Hebbian synaptic plasticity2 and spatial selectivity3. The hippocampus is also implicated in episodic memory4, but the precise link between these four functions is missing. Here we report the multiplexed selectivity of dorsal CA1 neurons while rats performed a virtual navigation task using only distal visual cues5, similar to the

  •   Shigella evades pyroptosis by arginine ADP-riboxanation of caspase-11
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-20
    Zilin Li, Wang Liu, Jiaqi Fu, Sen Cheng, Yue Xu, Zhiqiang Wang, Xiaofan Liu, Xuyan Shi, Yaxin Liu, Xiangbing Qi, Xiaoyun Liu, Jingjin Ding, Feng Shao

    Mouse caspase-11 and human caspase-4 and caspase-5 recognize cytosolic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce pyroptosis by cleaving the pore-forming protein GSDMD1,2,3,4,5. This non-canonical inflammasome defends against Gram-negative bacteria6,7. Shigella flexneri, which causes bacillary dysentery, lives freely within the host cytosol where these caspases reside. However, the role of caspase-11-mediated

  •   Direct radiative effects of airborne microplastics
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-20
    Laura E. Revell, Peter Kuma, Eric C. Le Ru, Walter R. C. Somerville, Sally Gaw

    Microplastics are now recognized as widespread contaminants in the atmosphere, where, due to their small size and low density, they can be transported with winds around the Earth1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25. Atmospheric aerosols, such as mineral dust and other types of airborne particulate matter, influence Earth’s climate by absorbing and scattering radiation (direct

  •   Regulation of intestinal immunity and tissue repair by enteric glia
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-20
    Fränze Progatzky, Michael Shapiro, Song Hui Chng, Bethania Garcia-Cassani, Cajsa Helena Classon, Selin Sevgi, Anna Laddach, Ana Carina Bon-Frauches, Reena Lasrado, Maryam Rahim, Eleni-Maria Amaniti, Stefan Boeing, Kathleen Shah, Lewis J. Entwistle, Alejandro Suárez-Bonnet, Mark S. Wilson, Brigitta Stockinger, Vassilis Pachnis

    Tissue maintenance and repair depend on the integrated activity of multiple cell types1. Whereas the contributions of epithelial2,3, immune4,5 and stromal cells6,7 in intestinal tissue integrity are well understood, the role of intrinsic neuroglia networks remains largely unknown. Here we uncover important roles of enteric glial cells (EGCs) in intestinal homeostasis, immunity and tissue repair. We

  •   Low glycaemic diets alter lipid metabolism to influence tumour growth
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-20
    Evan C. Lien, Anna M. Westermark, Yin Zhang, Chen Yuan, Zhaoqi Li, Allison N. Lau, Kiera M. Sapp, Brian M. Wolpin, Matthew G. Vander Heiden

    Dietary interventions can change metabolite levels in the tumour microenvironment, which might then affect cancer cell metabolism to alter tumour growth1,2,3,4,5. Although caloric restriction (CR) and a ketogenic diet (KD) are often thought to limit tumour progression by lowering blood glucose and insulin levels6,7,8, we found that only CR inhibits the growth of select tumour allografts in mice, suggesting

  •   KDM5B promotes immune evasion by recruiting SETDB1 to silence retroelements
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-20
    Shang-Min Zhang, Wesley L. Cai, Xiaoni Liu, Durga Thakral, Jiesi Luo, Lok Hei Chan, Meaghan K. McGeary, Eric Song, Kim R. M. Blenman, Goran Micevic, Shlomit Jessel, Yangyi Zhang, Mingzhu Yin, Carmen J. Booth, Lucia B. Jilaveanu, William Damsky, Mario Sznol, Harriet M. Kluger, Akiko Iwasaki, Marcus W. Bosenberg, Qin Yan

    Tumours use various strategies to evade immune surveillance1,2. Immunotherapies targeting tumour immune evasion such as immune checkpoint blockade have shown considerable efficacy on multiple cancers3,4 but are ineffective for most patients due to primary or acquired resistance5,6,7. Recent studies showed that some epigenetic regulators suppress anti-tumour immunity2,8,9,10,11,12, suggesting that epigenetic

  •   Neural dynamics underlying birdsong practice and performance
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-20
    Jonnathan Singh Alvarado, Jack Goffinet, Valerie Michael, William Liberti, Jordan Hatfield, Timothy Gardner, John Pearson, Richard Mooney

    Musical and athletic skills are learned and maintained through intensive practice to enable precise and reliable performance for an audience. Consequently, understanding such complex behaviours requires insight into how the brain functions during both practice and performance. Male zebra finches learn to produce courtship songs that are more varied when alone and more stereotyped in the presence of

  •   The origins and spread of domestic horses from the Western Eurasian steppes
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-20
    Pablo Librado, Naveed Khan, Antoine Fages, Mariya A. Kusliy, Tomasz Suchan, Laure Tonasso-Calvière, Stéphanie Schiavinato, Duha Alioglu, Aurore Fromentier, Aude Perdereau, Jean-Marc Aury, Charleen Gaunitz, Lorelei Chauvey, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Clio Der Sarkissian, John Southon, Beth Shapiro, Alexey A. Tishkin, Alexey A. Kovalev, Saleh Alquraishi, Ahmed H. Alfarhan, Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid, Timo

    Domestication of horses fundamentally transformed long-range mobility and warfare1. However, modern domesticated breeds do not descend from the earliest domestic horse lineage associated with archaeological evidence of bridling, milking and corralling2,3,4 at Botai, Central Asia around 3500 bc3. Other longstanding candidate regions for horse domestication, such as Iberia5 and Anatolia6, have also recently been

  •   eccDNAs are apoptotic products with high innate immunostimulatory activity
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-20
    Yuangao Wang, Meng Wang, Mohamed Nadhir Djekidel, Huan Chen, Di Liu, Frederick W. Alt, Yi Zhang

    Extrachromosomal circular DNA elements (eccDNAs) have been described in the literature for several decades, and are known for their broad existence across different species1,2. However, their biogenesis and functions are largely unknown. By developing a new circular DNA enrichment method, here we purified and sequenced full-length eccDNAs with Nanopore sequencing. We found that eccDNAs map across the

  •   Hybrid immunity improves B cells and antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variants
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-20
    Emanuele Andreano, Ida Paciello, Giulia Piccini, Noemi Manganaro, Piero Pileri, Inesa Hyseni, Margherita Leonardi, Elisa Pantano, Valentina Abbiento, Linda Benincasa, Ginevra Giglioli, Concetta De Santi, Massimiliano Fabbiani, Ilaria Rancan, Mario Tumbarello, Francesca Montagnani, Claudia Sala, Emanuele Montomoli, Rino Rappuoli

    The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants is jeopardizing the effectiveness of current vaccines and limiting the application of monoclonal antibody-based therapy for COVID-191,2. Here we analysed at single-cell level the memory B cells of five naive and five convalescent people vaccinated with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine to dissect the nature of the B cell and antibody response. Almost six-thousands cells

  •   Non-KREEP origin for Chang’E-5 basalts in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-19
    Heng-Ci Tian, Hao Wang, Yi Chen, Wei Yang, Qin Zhou, Chi Zhang, Hong-Lei Lin, Chao Huang, Shi-Tou Wu, Li-Hui Jia, Lei Xu, Di Zhang, Xiao-Guang Li, Rui Chang, Yue-Heng Yang, Lie-Wen Xie, Dan-Ping Zhang, Guang-Liang Zhang, Sai-Hong Yang, Fu-Yuan Wu

    Mare volcanics on the Moon are the key record of thermo-chemical evolution throughout most of lunar history1–3. Young mare basalts, mainly distributed in a region rich in potassium, rare earth elements, and phosphorus (KREEP) in Oceanus Procellarum called the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT)4, were thought to be formed from KREEP-rich sources at depth5–7. However, this hypothesis has never been tested

  •   A dry lunar mantle reservoir for young mare basalts of Chang’E-5
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-19
    Sen Hu, Huicun He, Jianglong Ji, Yangting Lin, Hejiu Hui, Mahesh Anand, Romain Tartèse, Yihong Yan, Jialong Hao, Ruiying Li, Lixin Gu, Qian Guo, Huaiyu He, Ziyuan Ouyang

    The distribution of water in the Moon’s interior carries implications for the origin of the Moon1, the crystallisation of the lunar magma ocean2, and the duration of lunar volcanism2. The Chang’E-5 (CE5) mission returned the youngest mare basalt samples, dated at 2.0 billion years ago (Ga)3, from the northwestern Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), providing a probe into the spatiotemporal evolution of

  •   Two billion-year-old volcanism on the Moon from Chang’E-5 basalts
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-19
    Qiu-Li Li, Qin Zhou, Yu Liu, Zhiyong Xiao, Yangting Lin, Jin-Hua Li, Hong-Xia Ma, Guo-Qiang Tang, Shun Guo, Xu Tang, Jiang-Yan Yuan, Jiao Li, Fu-Yuan Wu, Ziyuan Ouyang, Chunlai Li, Xian-Hua Li

    The Moon has a magmatic and thermal history distinct from those of the terrestrial planets1. Radioisotope dating of lunar samples suggests that most lunar basaltic magmatism ceased by ca. 2.9–2.8 Ga (billion years ago)2,3, although younger basalts between 3 and 1 Ga have been suggested by crater-counting chronology, which has large uncertainties owing to the lack of returned samples for calibration4

  •   Exome sequencing and analysis of 454,787 UK Biobank participants
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-18
    Joshua D. Backman, Alexander H. Li, Anthony Marcketta, Dylan Sun, Joelle Mbatchou, Michael D. Kessler, Christian Benner, Daren Liu, Adam E. Locke, Suganthi Balasubramanian, Ashish Yadav, Nilanjana Banerjee, Christopher Gillies, Amy Damask, Simon Liu, Xiaodong Bai, Alicia Hawes, Evan Maxwell, Lauren Gurski, Kyoko Watanabe, Jack A. Kosmicki, Veera Rajagopal, Jason Mighty, Marcus Jones, Lyndon Mitnaul

    A major goal in human genetics is to use natural variation to understand the phenotypic consequences of altering each protein-coding gene in the genome. Here we used exome sequencing1 to explore protein altering variants and their consequences in 454,787 UK Biobank study participants2. We identified 12 million coding variants, including ~1 million loss-of-function and ~1.8 million deleterious missense

  •   Genomic reconstruction of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in England
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-14
    Harald S. Vöhringer, Theo Sanderson, Matthew Sinnott, Nicola De Maio, Thuy Nguyen, Richard Goater, Frank Schwach, Ian Harrison, Joel Hellewell, Cristina V. Ariani, Sonia Gonçalves, David K. Jackson, Ian Johnston, Alexander W. Jung, Callum Saint, John Sillitoe, Maria Suciu, Nick Goldman, Jasmina Panovska-Griffiths, Ewan Birney, Erik Volz, Sebastian Funk, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Meera Chand, Inigo Martincorena

    The evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continuously produces new variants, which warrant timely epidemiological characterisation. Here we use the dense genomic surveillance generated by the COVID-19 Genomics UK Consortium to reconstruct the dynamics of 71 different lineages in each of 315 English local authorities between September 2020 and June 2021. This analysis reveals a series of sub-epidemics

  •   Observation of fractional edge excitations in nanographene spin chains
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-13
    Shantanu Mishra, Gonçalo Catarina, Fupeng Wu, Ricardo Ortiz, David Jacob, Kristjan Eimre, Ji Ma, Carlo A. Pignedoli, Xinliang Feng, Pascal Ruffieux, Joaquín Fernández-Rossier, Roman Fasel

    Fractionalization is a phenomenon in which strong interactions in a quantum system drive the emergence of excitations with quantum numbers that are absent in the building blocks. Outstanding examples are excitations with charge e/3 in the fractional quantum Hall effect1,2, solitons in one-dimensional conducting polymers3,4 and Majorana states in topological superconductors5. Fractionalization is also

  •   Convergent somatic mutations in metabolism genes in chronic liver disease
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-13
    Stanley W. K. Ng, Foad J. Rouhani, Simon F. Brunner, Natalia Brzozowska, Sarah J. Aitken, Ming Yang, Federico Abascal, Luiza Moore, Efterpi Nikitopoulou, Lia Chappell, Daniel Leongamornlert, Aleksandra Ivovic, Philip Robinson, Timothy Butler, Mathijs A. Sanders, Nicholas Williams, Tim H. H. Coorens, Jon Teague, Keiran Raine, Adam P. Butler, Yvette Hooks, Beverley Wilson, Natalie Birtchnell, Huw Naylor

    The progression of chronic liver disease to hepatocellular carcinoma is caused by the acquisition of somatic mutations that affect 20–30 cancer genes1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8. Burdens of somatic mutations are higher and clonal expansions larger in chronic liver disease9,10,11,12,13 than in normal liver13,14,15,16, which enables positive selection to shape the genomic landscape9,10,11,12,13. Here we analysed

  •   Oestrogen engages brain MC4R signalling to drive physical activity in female mice
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-13
    William C. Krause, Ruben Rodriguez, Bruno Gegenhuber, Navneet Matharu, Andreas N. Rodriguez, Adriana M. Padilla-Roger, Kenichi Toma, Candice B. Herber, Stephanie M. Correa, Xin Duan, Nadav Ahituv, Jessica Tollkuhn, Holly A. Ingraham

    Oestrogen depletion in rodents and humans leads to inactivity, fat accumulation and diabetes1,2, underscoring the conserved metabolic benefits of oestrogen that inevitably decrease with age. In rodents, the preovulatory surge in 17β-oestradiol (E2) temporarily increases energy expenditure to coordinate increased physical activity with peak sexual receptivity. Here we report that a subset of oestrogen-sensitive

  •   Day–night cloud asymmetry prevents early oceans on Venus but not on Earth
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-13
    Martin Turbet, Emeline Bolmont, Guillaume Chaverot, David Ehrenreich, Jérémy Leconte, Emmanuel Marcq

    Earth has had oceans for nearly four billion years1 and Mars had lakes and rivers 3.5–3.8 billion years ago2. However, it is still unknown whether water has ever condensed on the surface of Venus3,4 because the planet—now completely dry5—has undergone global resurfacing events that obscure most of its history6,7. The conditions required for water to have initially condensed on the surface of Solar

  •   A bimodal burst energy distribution of a repeating fast radio burst source
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-13
    D. Li, P. Wang, W. W. Zhu, B. Zhang, X. X. Zhang, R. Duan, Y. K. Zhang, Y. Feng, N. Y. Tang, S. Chatterjee, J. M. Cordes, M. Cruces, S. Dai, V. Gajjar, G. Hobbs, C. Jin, M. Kramer, D. R. Lorimer, C. C. Miao, C. H. Niu, J. R. Niu, Z. C. Pan, L. Qian, L. Spitler, D. Werthimer, G. Q. Zhang, F. Y. Wang, X. Y. Xie, Y. L. Yue, L. Zhang, Q. J. Zhi, Y. Zhu

    The event rate, energy distribution and time-domain behaviour of repeating fast radio bursts (FRBs) contain essential information regarding their physical nature and central engine, which are as yet unknown1,2. As the first precisely localized source, FRB 121102 (refs. 3,4,5) has been extensively observed and shows non-Poisson clustering of bursts over time and a power-law energy distribution6,7,8

  •   Mutant clones in normal epithelium outcompete and eliminate emerging tumours
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-13
    B. Colom, A. Herms, M. W. J. Hall, S. C. Dentro, C. King, R. K. Sood, M. P. Alcolea, G. Piedrafita, D. Fernandez-Antoran, S. H. Ong, J. C. Fowler, K. T. Mahbubani, K. Saeb-Parsy, M. Gerstung, B. A. Hall, P. H. Jones

    Human epithelial tissues accumulate cancer-driver mutations with age1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9, yet tumour formation remains rare. The positive selection of these mutations suggests that they alter the behaviour and fitness of proliferating cells10,11,12. Thus, normal adult tissues become a patchwork of mutant clones competing for space and survival, with the fittest clones expanding by eliminating their less

  •   An elastic metal–organic crystal with a densely catenated backbone
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-13
    Wenjing Meng, Shun Kondo, Takuji Ito, Kazuki Komatsu, Jenny Pirillo, Yuh Hijikata, Yuichi Ikuhara, Takuzo Aida, Hiroshi Sato

    What particular mechanical properties can be expected for materials composed of interlocked backbones has been a long-standing issue in materials science since the first reports on polycatenane and polyrotaxane in the 1970s1,2,3. Here we report a three-dimensional porous metal–organic crystal, which is exceptional in that its warps and wefts are connected only by catenation. This porous crystal is

  •   Structure of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus with its receptor LDLRAD3
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-13
    Bingting Ma, Cuiqing Huang, Jun Ma, Ye Xiang, Xinzheng Zhang

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an enveloped RNA virus that causes encephalitis and potentially mortality in infected humans and equines1. At present, no vaccines or drugs are available that prevent or cure diseases caused by VEEV. Low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain-containing 3 (LDLRAD3) was recently identified as a receptor for the entry of VEEV into host cells2. Here

  •   An endogenous opioid circuit determines state-dependent reward consumption
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-13
    Daniel C. Castro, Corinna S. Oswell, Eric T. Zhang, Christian E. Pedersen, Sean C. Piantadosi, Mark A. Rossi, Avery C. Hunker, Anthony Guglin, Jose A. Morón, Larry S. Zweifel, Garret D. Stuber, Michael R. Bruchas

    µ-Opioid peptide receptor (MOPR) stimulation alters respiration, analgesia and reward behaviour, and can induce substance abuse and overdose1,2,3. Despite its evident importance, the endogenous mechanisms for MOPR regulation of consummatory behaviour have remained unknown4. Here we report that endogenous MOPR regulation of reward consumption in mice acts through a specific dorsal raphe to nucleus accumbens

  •   A neuroanatomical basis for electroacupuncture to drive the vagal–adrenal axis
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-13
    Shenbin Liu, Zhifu Wang, Yangshuai Su, Lu Qi, Wei Yang, Mingzhou Fu, Xianghong Jing, Yanqing Wang, Qiufu Ma

    Somatosensory autonomic reflexes allow electroacupuncture stimulation (ES) to modulate body physiology at distant sites1,2,3,4,5,6 (for example, suppressing severe systemic inflammation6,7,8,9). Since the 1970s, an emerging organizational rule about these reflexes has been the presence of body-region specificity1,2,3,4,5,6. For example, ES at the hindlimb ST36 acupoint but not the abdominal ST25 acupoint

  •   Leprosy in wild chimpanzees
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-13
    Kimberley J. Hockings, Benjamin Mubemba, Charlotte Avanzi, Kamilla Pleh, Ariane Düx, Elena Bersacola, Joana Bessa, Marina Ramon, Sonja Metzger, Livia V. Patrono, Jenny E. Jaffe, Andrej Benjak, Camille Bonneaud, Philippe Busso, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Moussa Gado, Sebastien Gagneux, Roch C. Johnson, Mamoudou Kodio, Joshua Lynton-Jenkins, Irina Morozova, Kerstin Mätz-Rensing, Aissa Regalla, Abílio R

    Humans are considered as the main host for Mycobacterium leprae1, the aetiological agent of leprosy, but spillover has occurred to other mammals that are now maintenance hosts, such as nine-banded armadillos and red squirrels2,3. Although naturally acquired leprosy has also been described in captive nonhuman primates4,5,6,7, the exact origins of infection remain unclear. Here we describe leprosy-like

  •   A Jovian analogue orbiting a white dwarf star
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-13
    J. W. Blackman, J. P. Beaulieu, D. P. Bennett, C. Danielski, C. Alard, A. A. Cole, A. Vandorou, C. Ranc, S. K. Terry, A. Bhattacharya, I. Bond, E. Bachelet, D. Veras, N. Koshimoto, V. Batista, J. B. Marquette

    Studies1,2 have shown that the remnants of destroyed planets and debris-disk planetesimals can survive the volatile evolution of their host stars into white dwarfs3,4, but few intact planetary bodies around white dwarfs have been detected5,6,7,8. Simulations predict9,10,11 that planets in Jupiter-like orbits around stars of ≲8 M☉ (solar mass) avoid being destroyed by the strong tidal forces of their

  •   Structure of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in complex with the LDLRAD3 receptor
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-13
    Katherine Basore, Hongming Ma, Natasha M. Kafai, Samantha Mackin, Arthur S. Kim, Christopher A. Nelson, Michael S. Diamond, Daved H. Fremont

    LDLRAD3 is a recently defined attachment and entry receptor for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)1, a New World alphavirus that causes severe neurological disease in humans. Here we present near-atomic-resolution cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of VEEV virus-like particles alone and in a complex with the ectodomains of LDLRAD3. Domain 1 of LDLRAD3 is a low-density lipoprotein receptor

  •   Systems-level effects of allosteric perturbations to a model molecular switch
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-13
    Tina Perica, Christopher J. P. Mathy, Jiewei Xu, Gwendolyn Μ. Jang, Yang Zhang, Robyn Kaake, Noah Ollikainen, Hannes Braberg, Danielle L. Swaney, David G. Lambright, Mark J. S. Kelly, Nevan J. Krogan, Tanja Kortemme

    Molecular switch proteins whose cycling between states is controlled by opposing regulators1,2 are central to biological signal transduction. As switch proteins function within highly connected interaction networks3, the fundamental question arises of how functional specificity is achieved when different processes share common regulators. Here we show that functional specificity of the small GTPase

  •   Estimating a social cost of carbon for global energy consumption
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-13
    Ashwin Rode, Tamma Carleton, Michael Delgado, Michael Greenstone, Trevor Houser, Solomon Hsiang, Andrew Hultgren, Amir Jina, Robert E. Kopp, Kelly E. McCusker, Ishan Nath, James Rising, Jiacan Yuan

    Estimates of global economic damage caused by carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions can inform climate policy1,2,3. The social cost of carbon (SCC) quantifies these damages by characterizing how additional CO2 emissions today impact future economic outcomes through altering the climate4,5,6. Previous estimates have suggested that large, warming-driven increases in energy expenditures could dominate the SCC7

  •   Structural basis of cytokine-mediated activation of ALK family receptors
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-13
    Steven De Munck, Mathias Provost, Michiko Kurikawa, Ikuko Omori, Junko Mukohyama, Jan Felix, Yehudi Bloch, Omar Abdel-Wahab, J. Fernando Bazan, Akihide Yoshimi, Savvas N. Savvides

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)1 and the related leukocyte tyrosine kinase (LTK)2 are recently deorphanized receptor tyrosine kinases3. Together with their activating cytokines, ALKAL1 and ALKAL24,5,6 (also called FAM150A and FAM150B or AUGβ and AUGα, respectively), they are involved in neural development7, cancer7,8,9 and autoimmune diseases10. Furthermore, mammalian ALK recently emerged as a key

  •   The cellular environment shapes the nuclear pore complex architecture
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-13
    Anthony P. Schuller, Matthias Wojtynek, David Mankus, Meltem Tatli, Rafael Kronenberg-Tenga, Saroj G. Regmi, Phat V. Dip, Abigail K. R. Lytton-Jean, Edward J. Brignole, Mary Dasso, Karsten Weis, Ohad Medalia, Thomas U. Schwartz

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) create large conduits for cargo transport between the nucleus and cytoplasm across the nuclear envelope (NE)1,2,3. These multi-megadalton structures are composed of about thirty different nucleoporins that are distributed in three main substructures (the inner, cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic rings) around the central transport channel4,5,6. Here we use cryo-electron tomography

  •   Parallelism of intestinal secretory IgA shapes functional microbial fitness
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-13
    Tim Rollenske, Sophie Burkhalter, Lukas Muerner, Stephan von Gunten, Jolanta Lukasiewicz, Hedda Wardemann, Andrew J. Macpherson

    Dimeric IgA secreted across mucous membranes in response to nonpathogenic taxa of the microbiota accounts for most antibody production in mammals. Diverse binding specificities can be detected within the polyclonal mucosal IgA antibody response1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10, but limited monoclonal hybridomas have been studied to relate antigen specificity or polyreactive binding to functional effects on microbial

  •   Neural control of affiliative touch in prosocial interaction
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-13
    Ye Emily Wu, James Dang, Lyle Kingsbury, Mingmin Zhang, Fangmiao Sun, Rongfeng K. Hu, Weizhe Hong

    The ability to help and care for others fosters social cohesiveness and is vital to the physical and emotional well-being of social species, including humans1,2,3. Affiliative social touch, such as allogrooming (grooming behaviour directed towards another individual), is a major type of prosocial behaviour that provides comfort to others1,2,3,4,5,6. Affiliative touch serves to establish and strengthen

  •   Impact of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants on mRNA vaccine-induced immunity
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-11
    Carolina Lucas, Chantal B. F. Vogels, Inci Yildirim, Jessica E. Rothman, Peiwen Lu, Valter Monteiro, Jeff R. Gelhausen, Melissa Campbell, Julio Silva, Alexandra Tabachikova, Mario A. Peña-Hernandez, M. Catherine Muenker, Mallery I. Breban, Joseph R. Fauver, Subhasis Mohanty, Jiefang Huang, Albert C. Shaw, Albert I. Ko, Saad B. Omer, Nathan D. Grubaugh, Akiko Iwasaki

    The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants with mutations in major neutralizing antibody-binding sites can affect humoral immunity induced by infection or vaccination1–6. We analysed the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody and T cell responses in previously infected (recovered) or uninfected (naive) individuals that received mRNA vaccines to SARS-CoV-2. While previously infected individuals sustained

  •   Transposon-associated TnpB is a programmable RNA-guided DNA endonuclease
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-07
    Tautvydas Karvelis, Gytis Druteika, Greta Bigelyte, Karolina Budre, Rimante Zedaveinyte, Arunas Silanskas, Darius Kazlauskas, Česlovas Venclovas, Virginijus Siksnys

    Transposition plays a key role in reshaping genomes of all living organisms1. Insertion sequences (ISs) of IS200/IS605 and IS607 families2 are among the simplest mobile genetic elements and contain only the genes required for their transposition and its regulation. These elements encode tnpA transposase that is essential for mobilization and often carry an accessory tnpB gene which is dispensable for

  •   Anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain antibody evolution after mRNA vaccination
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-07
    Alice Cho, Frauke Muecksch, Dennis Schaefer-Babajew, Zijun Wang, Shlomo Finkin, Christian Gaebler, Victor Ramos, Melissa Cipolla, Pilar Mendoza, Marianna Agudelo, Eva Bednarski, Justin DaSilva, Irina Shimeliovich, Juan Dizon, Mridushi Daga, Katrina Millard, Martina Turroja, Fabian Schmidt, Fengwen Zhang, Tarek Ben Tanfous, Mila Jankovic, Thiago Y. Oliveria, Anna Gazumyan, Marina Caskey, Paul D. Bieniasz

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection produces B cell responses that continue to evolve for at least one year. During that time, memory B cells express increasingly broad and potent antibodies that are resistant to mutations found in variants of concern1. As a result, vaccination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent individuals with currently available

  •   Thalamic circuits for independent control of prefrontal signal and noise
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-06
    Arghya Mukherjee, Norman H. Lam, Ralf D. Wimmer, Michael M. Halassa

    Interactions between the mediodorsal thalamus and prefrontal cortex are critical for cognition. Studies in humans indicate that these interactions may resolve uncertainty in decision making1, but the precise mechanisms are unknown. Here, we identified two distinct mediodorsal projections to prefrontal cortex that play complementary mechanistic roles in decision making under uncertainty. Specifically

  •   Spatiotemporal origin of soil water taken up by vegetation
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-06
    Gonzalo Miguez-Macho, Ying Fan

    Vegetation modulates Earth’s water, energy and carbon cycles. How its functions might change in the future largely depends on how it copes with droughts1,2,3,4. There is evidence that, in places and times of drought, vegetation shifts water uptake to deeper soil5,6,7 and rock8,9 moisture as well as groundwater10,11,12. Here we differentiate and assess plant use of four types of water sources: precipitation

  •   Topological complex-energy braiding of non-Hermitian bands
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-06
    Kai Wang, Avik Dutt, Charles C. Wojcik, Shanhui Fan

    Effects connected with the mathematical theory of knots1 emerge in many areas of science, from physics2,3 to biology4. Recent theoretical work discovered that the braid group characterizes the topology of non-Hermitian periodic systems5, where the complex band energies can braid in momentum space. However, such braids of complex-energy bands have not been realized or controlled experimentally. Here

  •   Morphological diversity of single neurons in molecularly defined cell types
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-06
    Hanchuan Peng, Peng Xie, Lijuan Liu, Xiuli Kuang, Yimin Wang, Lei Qu, Hui Gong, Shengdian Jiang, Anan Li, Zongcai Ruan, Liya Ding, Zizhen Yao, Chao Chen, Mengya Chen, Tanya L. Daigle, Rachel Dalley, Zhangcan Ding, Yanjun Duan, Aaron Feiner, Ping He, Chris Hill, Karla E. Hirokawa, Guodong Hong, Lei Huang, Sara Kebede, Hsien-Chi Kuo, Rachael Larsen, Phil Lesnar, Longfei Li, Qi Li, Xiangning Li, Yaoyao

    Dendritic and axonal morphology reflects the input and output of neurons and is a defining feature of neuronal types1,2, yet our knowledge of its diversity remains limited. Here, to systematically examine complete single-neuron morphologies on a brain-wide scale, we established a pipeline encompassing sparse labelling, whole-brain imaging, reconstruction, registration and analysis. We fully reconstructed

  •   Genetic dissection of the glutamatergic neuron system in cerebral cortex
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-06
    Katherine S. Matho, Dhananjay Huilgol, William Galbavy, Miao He, Gukhan Kim, Xu An, Jiangteng Lu, Priscilla Wu, Daniela J. Di Bella, Ashwin S. Shetty, Ramesh Palaniswamy, Joshua Hatfield, Ricardo Raudales, Arun Narasimhan, Eric Gamache, Jesse M. Levine, Jason Tucciarone, Eric Szelenyi, Julie A. Harris, Partha P. Mitra, Pavel Osten, Paola Arlotta, Z. Josh Huang

    Diverse types of glutamatergic pyramidal neurons mediate the myriad processing streams and output channels of the cerebral cortex1,2, yet all derive from neural progenitors of the embryonic dorsal telencephalon3,4. Here we establish genetic strategies and tools for dissecting and fate-mapping subpopulations of pyramidal neurons on the basis of their developmental and molecular programs. We leverage

  •   Mastering the surface strain of platinum catalysts for efficient electrocatalysis
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-06
    Tianou He, Weicong Wang, Fenglei Shi, Xiaolong Yang, Xiang Li, Jianbo Wu, Yadong Yin, Mingshang Jin

    Platinum (Pt) has found wide use as an electrocatalyst for sustainable energy conversion systems1,2,3. The activity of Pt is controlled by its electronic structure (typically, the d-band centre), which depends sensitively on lattice strain4,5. This dependence can be exploited for catalyst design4,6,7,8, and the use of core–shell structures and elastic substrates has resulted in strain-engineered Pt

  •   Comparative cellular analysis of motor cortex in human, marmoset and mouse
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-06
    Trygve E. Bakken, Nikolas L. Jorstad, Qiwen Hu, Blue B. Lake, Wei Tian, Brian E. Kalmbach, Megan Crow, Rebecca D. Hodge, Fenna M. Krienen, Staci A. Sorensen, Jeroen Eggermont, Zizhen Yao, Brian D. Aevermann, Andrew I. Aldridge, Anna Bartlett, Darren Bertagnolli, Tamara Casper, Rosa G. Castanon, Kirsten Crichton, Tanya L. Daigle, Rachel Dalley, Nick Dee, Nikolai Dembrow, Dinh Diep, Song-Lin Ding, Weixiu

    The primary motor cortex (M1) is essential for voluntary fine-motor control and is functionally conserved across mammals1. Here, using high-throughput transcriptomic and epigenomic profiling of more than 450,000 single nuclei in humans, marmoset monkeys and mice, we demonstrate a broadly conserved cellular makeup of this region, with similarities that mirror evolutionary distance and are consistent

  •   Structure and assembly of the mammalian mitochondrial supercomplex CIII2CIV
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-06
    Irene Vercellino, Leonid A. Sazanov

    The enzymes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain are key players of cell metabolism. Despite being active when isolated, in vivo they associate into supercomplexes1, whose precise role is debated. Supercomplexes CIII2CIV1-2 (refs. 2,3), CICIII2 (ref. 4) and CICIII2CIV (respirasome)5,6,7,8,9,10 exist in mammals, but in contrast to CICIII2 and the respirasome, to date the only known eukaryotic

  •   The mouse cortico–basal ganglia–thalamic network
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-06
    Nicholas N. Foster, Joshua Barry, Laura Korobkova, Luis Garcia, Lei Gao, Marlene Becerra, Yasmine Sherafat, Bo Peng, Xiangning Li, Jun-Hyeok Choi, Lin Gou, Brian Zingg, Sana Azam, Darrick Lo, Neda Khanjani, Bin Zhang, Jim Stanis, Ian Bowman, Kaelan Cotter, Chunru Cao, Seita Yamashita, Amanda Tugangui, Anan Li, Tao Jiang, Xueyan Jia, Zhao Feng, Sarvia Aquino, Hyun-Seung Mun, Muye Zhu, Anthony Santarelli

    The cortico–basal ganglia–thalamo–cortical loop is one of the fundamental network motifs in the brain. Revealing its structural and functional organization is critical to understanding cognition, sensorimotor behaviour, and the natural history of many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Classically, this network is conceptualized to contain three information channels: motor, limbic and associative1

  •   An atlas of cortical arealization identifies dynamic molecular signatures
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-06
    Aparna Bhaduri, Carmen Sandoval-Espinosa, Marcos Otero-Garcia, Irene Oh, Raymund Yin, Ugomma C. Eze, Tomasz J. Nowakowski, Arnold R. Kriegstein

    The human brain is subdivided into distinct anatomical structures, including the neocortex, which in turn encompasses dozens of distinct specialized cortical areas. Early morphogenetic gradients are known to establish early brain regions and cortical areas, but how early patterns result in finer and more discrete spatial differences remains poorly understood1. Here we use single-cell RNA sequencing

  •   A transcriptomic and epigenomic cell atlas of the mouse primary motor cortex
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-06
    Zizhen Yao, Hanqing Liu, Fangming Xie, Stephan Fischer, Ricky S. Adkins, Andrew I. Aldridge, Seth A. Ament, Anna Bartlett, M. Margarita Behrens, Koen Van den Berge, Darren Bertagnolli, Hector Roux de Bézieux, Tommaso Biancalani, A. Sina Booeshaghi, Héctor Corrada Bravo, Tamara Casper, Carlo Colantuoni, Jonathan Crabtree, Heather Creasy, Kirsten Crichton, Megan Crow, Nick Dee, Elizabeth L. Dougherty

    Single-cell transcriptomics can provide quantitative molecular signatures for large, unbiased samples of the diverse cell types in the brain1,2,3. With the proliferation of multi-omics datasets, a major challenge is to validate and integrate results into a biological understanding of cell-type organization. Here we generated transcriptomes and epigenomes from more than 500,000 individual cells in the

  •   Metabolic modulation of tumours with engineered bacteria for immunotherapy
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-06
    Fernando P. Canale, Camilla Basso, Gaia Antonini, Michela Perotti, Ning Li, Anna Sokolovska, Julia Neumann, Michael J. James, Stefania Geiger, Wenjie Jin, Jean-Philippe Theurillat, Kip A. West, Daniel S. Leventhal, Jose M. Lora, Federica Sallusto, Roger Geiger

    The availability of l-arginine in tumours is a key determinant of an efficient anti-tumour T cell response1,2,3,4. Consequently, increases of typically low l-arginine concentrations within the tumour may greatly potentiate the anti-tumour responses of immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-blocking antibodies5. However, currently no means are available to locally increase

  •   Mechanical computing
    Nature (IF 49.962) Pub Date : 2021-10-06
    Hiromi Yasuda, Philip R. Buskohl, Andrew Gillman, Todd D. Murphey, Susan Stepney, Richard A. Vaia, Jordan R. Raney

    Mechanical mechanisms have been used to process information for millennia, with famous examples ranging from the Antikythera mechanism of the Ancient Greeks to the analytical machines of Charles Babbage. More recently, electronic forms of computation and information processing have overtaken these mechanical forms, owing to better potential for miniaturization and integration. However, several unconventional

Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.
Nature Portfolio
scientific reports
organic materials