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  •   Mapping the brain’s gene-regulatory maze
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-24
    Gaia Novarino, Christoph Bock

    Genetic research has contributed greatly to the molecular diagnostics of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the precise molecular causes underlying these disorders have often remained elusive, even in cases with clearly genetic causes. One of the reasons is the difficulty of linking genetic variants to genes and biological processes. On pages 862, 868, and 869 of this

  •   Cross-ancestry atlas of gene, isoform, and splicing regulation in the developing human brain
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-24
    Cindy Wen, Michael Margolis, Rujia Dai, Pan Zhang, Pawel F. Przytycki, Daniel D. Vo, Arjun Bhattacharya, Nana Matoba, Miao Tang, Chuan Jiao, Minsoo Kim, Ellen Tsai, Celine Hoh, Nil Aygün, Rebecca L. Walker, Christos Chatzinakos, Declan Clarke, Henry Pratt, PsychENCODE Consortium†, Mette A. Peters, Mark Gerstein, Nikolaos P. Daskalakis, Zhiping Weng, Andrew E. Jaffe, Joel E. Kleinman, Thomas M. Hyde

    Neuropsychiatric genome-wide association studies (GWASs), including those for autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia, show strong enrichment for regulatory elements in the developing brain. However, prioritizing risk genes and mechanisms is challenging without a unified regulatory atlas. Across 672 diverse developing human brains, we identified 15,752 genes harboring gene, isoform, and/or splicing

  •   Medical forecasting
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-23
    Eric J. Topol

    “AI-Powered Forecasting” was recently on the cover of Science , highlighting a new deep learning model for much faster and more accurate weather forecasting. Known as GraphCast, it outperformed the gold-standard system and had an accuracy of 99.7% for tropospheric predictions, the most important forecasting region that is closest to Earth’s surface. Better warnings for extreme weather events such as

  •   Reversible male contraception by targeted inhibition of serine/threonine kinase 33
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-23
    Angela F. Ku, Kiran L. Sharma, Hai Minh Ta, Courtney M. Sutton, Kurt M. Bohren, Yong Wang, Srinivas Chamakuri, Ruihong Chen, John M. Hakenjos, Ravikumar Jimmidi, Katarzyna Kent, Feng Li, Jian-Yuan Li, Lang Ma, Chandrashekhar Madasu, Murugesan Palaniappan, Stephen S. Palmer, Xuan Qin, Matthew B. Robers, Banumathi Sankaran, Zhi Tan, Yasmin M. Vasquez, Jian Wang, Jennifer Wilkinson, Zhifeng Yu, Qiuji

    Men or mice with homozygous serine/threonine kinase 33 ( STK33 ) mutations are sterile owing to defective sperm morphology and motility. To chemically evaluate STK33 for male contraception with STK33-specific inhibitors, we screened our multibillion-compound collection of DNA-encoded chemical libraries, uncovered potent STK33-specific inhibitors, determined the STK33 kinase domain structure bound with

  •   Rice’s trajectory from wild to domesticated in East Asia
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-23
    Jianping Zhang, Leping Jiang, Lupeng Yu, Xiujia Huan, Liping Zhou, Changsheng Wang, Jianhui Jin, Xinxin Zuo, Naiqin Wu, Zhijun Zhao, Hanlong Sun, Zhaoyuan Yu, Guoping Zhang, Jiangping Zhu, Zhenlei Wu, Yajie Dong, Baoshuo Fan, Caiming Shen, Houyuan Lu

    Rice ( Oryza sativa ) serves as a staple food for more than one-third of the global population. However, its journey from a wild gathered food to domestication remains enigmatic, sparking ongoing debates in the biological and anthropological fields. Here, we present evidence of rice phytoliths sampled from two archaeological sites in China, Shangshan and Hehuashan, near the lower reaches of the Yangtze

  •   Developmental isoform diversity in the human neocortex informs neuropsychiatric risk mechanisms
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-23
    Ashok Patowary, Pan Zhang, Connor Jops, Celine K. Vuong, Xinzhou Ge, Kangcheng Hou, Minsoo Kim, Naihua Gong, Michael Margolis, Daniel Vo, Xusheng Wang, Chunyu Liu, Bogdan Pasaniuc, Jingyi Jessica Li, Michael J. Gandal, Luis de la Torre-Ubieta

    RNA splicing is highly prevalent in the brain and has strong links to neuropsychiatric disorders; yet, the role of cell type–specific splicing and transcript-isoform diversity during human brain development has not been systematically investigated. In this work, we leveraged single-molecule long-read sequencing to deeply profile the full-length transcriptome of the germinal zone and cortical plate

  •   Unrecoverable lattice rotation governs structural degradation of single-crystalline cathodes
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-23
    Weiyuan Huang, Tongchao Liu, Lei Yu, Jing Wang, Tao Zhou, Junxiang Liu, Tianyi Li, Rachid Amine, Xianghui Xiao, Mingyuan Ge, Lu Ma, Steven N. Ehrlich, Martin V. Holt, Jianguo Wen, Khalil Amine

    Transitioning from polycrystalline to single-crystalline nickel-rich cathodes has garnered considerable attention in both academia and industry, driven by advantages of high tap density and enhanced mechanical properties. However, cathodes with high nickel content (>70%) suffer from substantial capacity degradation, which poses a challenge to their commercial viability. Leveraging multiscale spatial

  •   Impact of early visual experience on later usage of color cues
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-23
    Marin Vogelsang, Lukas Vogelsang, Priti Gupta, Tapan K. Gandhi, Pragya Shah, Piyush Swami, Sharon Gilad-Gutnick, Shlomit Ben-Ami, Sidney Diamond, Suma Ganesh, Pawan Sinha

    Human visual recognition is remarkably robust to chromatic changes. In this work, we provide a potential account of the roots of this resilience based on observations with 10 congenitally blind children who gained sight late in life. Several months or years following their sight-restoring surgeries, the removal of color cues markedly reduced their recognition performance, whereas age-matched normally

  •   Pursuing a smoke-free generation
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-23
    Lawrence O. Gostin

    The United Kingdom may soon become a world leader in forging a smoke-free generation. Last month, the country passed a bill that bans the sale of cigarettes to anyone born in 2009 or later. The prime minister claims the policy will “phase out smoking in young people almost completely as early as 2040.” A final vote by Parliament is expected next month. Tobacco claims 8 million lives every year, and

  •   Chiral-structured heterointerfaces enable durable perovskite solar cells
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-23
    Tianwei Duan, Shuai You, Min Chen, Wenjian Yu, Yanyan Li, Peijun Guo, Joseph J. Berry, Joseph M. Luther, Kai Zhu, Yuanyuan Zhou

    Mechanical failure and chemical degradation of device heterointerfaces can strongly influence the long-term stability of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) under thermal cycling and damp heat conditions. We report chirality-mediated interfaces based on R -/ S -methylbenzyl-ammonium between the perovskite absorber and electron-transport layer to create an elastic yet strong heterointerface with increased

  •   Synthesis and characterization of low-dimensional N-heterocyclic carbene lattices
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-23
    Boyu Qie, Ziyi Wang, Jingwei Jiang, Zisheng Zhang, Peter H. Jacobse, Jiaming Lu, Xinheng Li, Fujia Liu, Anastassia N. Alexandrova, Steven G. Louie, Michael F. Crommie, Felix R. Fischer

    The covalent interaction of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) with transition metal atoms gives rise to distinctive frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs). These emergent electronic states have spurred the widespread adoption of NHC ligands in chemical catalysis and functional materials. Although formation of carbene-metal complexes in self-assembled monolayers on surfaces has been explored, design and electronic

  •   Crows “count” the number of self-generated vocalizations
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-23
    Diana A. Liao, Katharina F. Brecht, Lena Veit, Andreas Nieder

    Producing a specific number of vocalizations with purpose requires a sophisticated combination of numerical abilities and vocal control. Whether this capacity exists in animals other than humans is yet unknown. We show that crows can flexibly produce variable numbers of one to four vocalizations in response to arbitrary cues associated with numerical values. The acoustic features of the first vocalization

  •   Genetic regulation of cell type–specific chromatin accessibility shapes brain disease etiology
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-23
    Biao Zeng, Jaroslav Bendl, Chengyu Deng, Donghoon Lee, Ruth Misir, Sarah M. Reach, Steven P. Kleopoulos, Pavan Auluck, Stefano Marenco, David A. Lewis, Vahram Haroutunian, Nadav Ahituv, John F. Fullard, Gabriel E. Hoffman, Panos Roussos

    Nucleotide variants in cell type–specific gene regulatory elements in the human brain are risk factors for human disease. We measured chromatin accessibility in 1932 aliquots of sorted neurons and non-neurons from 616 human postmortem brains and identified 34,539 open chromatin regions with chromatin accessibility quantitative trait loci (caQTLs). Only 10.4% of caQTLs are shared between neurons and

  •   Molecular cascades and cell type–specific signatures in ASD revealed by single-cell genomics
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-23
    Brie Wamsley, Lucy Bicks, Yuyan Cheng, Riki Kawaguchi, Diana Quintero, Michael Margolis, Jennifer Grundman, Jianyin Liu, Shaohua Xiao, Natalie Hawken, Samantha Mazariegos, Daniel H. Geschwind

    Genomic profiling in postmortem brain from autistic individuals has consistently revealed convergent molecular changes. What drives these changes and how they relate to genetic susceptibility in this complex condition are not well understood. We performed deep single-nucleus RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq) to examine cell composition and transcriptomics, identifying dysregulation of cell type–specific gene

  •   Demixing is a default process for biological condensates formed via phase separation
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-23
    Shihan Zhu, Zeyu Shen, Xiandeng Wu, Wenyan Han, Bowen Jia, Wei Lu, Mingjie Zhang

    Excitatory and inhibitory synapses do not overlap even when formed on one submicron-sized dendritic protrusion. How excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic cytomatrices or densities (e/iPSDs) are segregated is not understood. Broadly, why membraneless organelles are naturally segregated in cellular subcompartments is unclear. Using biochemical reconstitutions in vitro and in cells, we demonstrate that

  •   Engineering colloidal crystals molecule by molecule
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-17
    Zhe Li, Chengde Mao

    Engineering crystalline materials by molecular design (1–4) has led to numerous technological and scientific advancements in medicine, catalysis, optics, and electronics. Colloidal crystals (5) are often considered to be the structural analogs of molecular crystals, wherein microscopic particles rather than molecules are arranged into highly ordered architectures. Despite substantial progress, engineering

  •   mRNA-LNP HIV-1 trimer boosters elicit precursors to broad neutralizing antibodies
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-16
    Zhenfei Xie, Ying-Cing Lin, Jon M. Steichen, Gabriel Ozorowski, Sven Kratochvil, Rashmi Ray, Jonathan L. Torres, Alessia Liguori, Oleksandr Kalyuzhniy, Xuesong Wang, John E. Warner, Stephanie R. Weldon, Gordon A. Dale, Kathrin H. Kirsch, Usha Nair, Sabyasachi Baboo, Erik Georgeson, Yumiko Adachi, Michael Kubitz, Abigail M. Jackson, Sara T. Richey, Reid M. Volk, Jeong Hyun Lee, Jolene K. Diedrich, Thavaleak

    Germline-targeting (GT) HIV vaccine strategies are predicated on deriving broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) through multiple boost immunogens. However, as the recruitment of memory B cells (MBCs) to germinal centers (GCs) is inefficient and may be derailed by serum antibody–induced epitope masking, driving further B cell receptor (BCR) modification in GC-experienced B cells after boosting poses

  •   An AAV capsid reprogrammed to bind human transferrin receptor mediates brain-wide gene delivery
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-16
    Qin Huang, Ken Y. Chan, Jason Wu, Nuria R. Botticello-Romero, Qingxia Zheng, Shan Lou, Casey Keyes, Alexander Svanbergsson, Jencilin Johnston, Allan Mills, Chin-Yen Lin, Pamela P. Brauer, Gabrielle Clouse, Simon Pacouret, John W. Harvey, Thomas Beddow, Jenna K. Hurley, Isabelle G. Tobey, Megan Powell, Albert T. Chen, Andrew J. Barry, Fatma-Elzahraa Eid, Yujia A. Chan, Benjamin E. Deverman

    Developing vehicles that efficiently deliver genes throughout the human central nervous system (CNS) will broaden the range of treatable genetic diseases. We engineered an adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid, BI-hTFR1, that binds human transferrin receptor (TfR1), a protein expressed on the blood-brain barrier (BBB). BI-hTFR1 was actively transported across human brain endothelial cells and, relative

  •   Diamond-lattice photonic crystals assembled from DNA origami
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-16
    Gregor Posnjak, Xin Yin, Paul Butler, Oliver Bienek, Mihir Dass, Seungwoo Lee, Ian D. Sharp, Tim Liedl

    Colloidal self-assembly allows rational design of structures on the micrometer and submicrometer scale. One architecture that can generate complete three-dimensional photonic bandgaps is the diamond cubic lattice, which has remained difficult to realize at length scales comparable with the wavelength of visible or ultraviolet light. In this work, we demonstrate three-dimensional photonic crystals self-assembled

  •   Metabolic loads and the costs of metazoan reproduction
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-16
    Samuel C. Ginther, Hayley Cameron, Craig R. White, Dustin J. Marshall

    Reproduction includes two energy investments—the energy in the offspring and the energy expended to make them. The former is well understood, whereas the latter is unquantified but often assumed to be small. Without understanding both investments, the true energy costs of reproduction are unknown. We present a framework for estimating the total energy costs of reproduction by combining data on the

  •   AlphaFold2 structures guide prospective ligand discovery
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-16
    Jiankun Lyu, Nicholas Kapolka, Ryan Gumpper, Assaf Alon, Liang Wang, Manish K. Jain, Ximena Barros-Álvarez, Kensuke Sakamoto, Yoojoong Kim, Jeffrey DiBerto, Kuglae Kim, Isabella S. Glenn, Tia A. Tummino, Sijie Huang, John J. Irwin, Olga O. Tarkhanova, Yurii Moroz, Georgios Skiniotis, Andrew C. Kruse, Brian K. Shoichet, Bryan L. Roth

    AlphaFold2 (AF2) models have had wide impact, but they have had mixed success in retrospective ligand recognition. We prospectively docked large libraries against unrefined AF2 models of the σ2 and 5-HT2A receptors, testing hundreds of new molecules and comparing results to docking against the experimental structures. Hit rates were high and similar for the experimental and the AF2 structures, as were

  •   Global band convergence design for high-performance thermoelectric power generation in Zintls
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-16
    Xin Shi, Shaowei Song, Guanhui Gao, Zhifeng Ren

    Electronic band convergence can have a beneficial impact on thermoelectric performance, but finding the right band-converged compositions is still time-consuming. We propose a method for designing a series of compositions with simultaneous band convergence in the high-entropy Yb x Ca 1− x Mg y Zn 2− y Sb 2 material by zeroing the weighted sum of crystal-field splitting energies of the parent compounds

  •   Tool use increases mechanical foraging success and tooth health in southern sea otters ( Enhydra lutris nereis )
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-16
    Chris J. Law, M. Tim Tinker, Jessica A. Fujii, Teri Nicholson, Michelle Staedler, Joseph A. Tomoleoni, Colleen Young, Rita S. Mehta

    Although tool use may enhance resource utilization, its fitness benefits are difficult to measure. By examining longitudinal data from 196 radio-tagged southern sea otters ( Enhydra lutris nereis ), we found that tool-using individuals, particularly females, gained access to larger and/or harder-shelled prey. These mechanical advantages translated to reduced tooth damage during food processing. We

  •   Delocalized, asynchronous, closed-loop discovery of organic laser emitters
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-16
    Felix Strieth-Kalthoff, Han Hao, Vandana Rathore, Joshua Derasp, Théophile Gaudin, Nicholas H. Angello, Martin Seifrid, Ekaterina Trushina, Mason Guy, Junliang Liu, Xun Tang, Masashi Mamada, Wesley Wang, Tuul Tsagaantsooj, Cyrille Lavigne, Robert Pollice, Tony C. Wu, Kazuhiro Hotta, Leticia Bodo, Shangyu Li, Mohammad Haddadnia, Agnieszka Wołos, Rafał Roszak, Cher Tian Ser, Carlota Bozal-Ginesta, Riley

    Contemporary materials discovery requires intricate sequences of synthesis, formulation, and characterization that often span multiple locations with specialized expertise or instrumentation. To accelerate these workflows, we present a cloud-based strategy that enabled delocalized and asynchronous design-make-test-analyze cycles. We showcased this approach through the exploration of molecular gain

  •   DNA damage induces p53-independent apoptosis through ribosome stalling
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-16
    Nicolaas J. Boon, Rafaela A. Oliveira, Pierré-René Körner, Adva Kochavi, Sander Mertens, Yuval Malka, Rhianne Voogd, Suzanne E. M. van der Horst, Maarten A. Huismans, Lidwien P. Smabers, Jonne M. Draper, Lodewyk F. A. Wessels, Peter Haahr, Jeanine M. L. Roodhart, Ton N. M. Schumacher, Hugo J. Snippert, Reuven Agami, Thijn R. Brummelkamp

    In response to excessive DNA damage, human cells can activate p53 to induce apoptosis. Cells lacking p53 can still undergo apoptosis upon DNA damage, yet the responsible pathways are unknown. We observed that p53-independent apoptosis in response to DNA damage coincided with translation inhibition, which was characterized by ribosome stalling on rare leucine-encoding UUA codons and globally curtailed

  •   Inverse design of a pyrochlore lattice of DNA origami through model-driven experiments
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-16
    Hao Liu, Michael Matthies, John Russo, Lorenzo Rovigatti, Raghu Pradeep Narayanan, Thong Diep, Daniel McKeen, Oleg Gang, Nicholas Stephanopoulos, Francesco Sciortino, Hao Yan, Flavio Romano, Petr Šulc

    Sophisticated statistical mechanics approaches and human intuition have demonstrated the possibility of self-assembling complex lattices or finite-size constructs. However, attempts so far have mostly only been successful in silico and often fail in experiment because of unpredicted traps associated with kinetic slowing down (gelation, glass transition) and competing ordered structures. Theoretical

  •   Enantioselective remote methylene C−H (hetero)arylation of cycloalkane carboxylic acids
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-16
    Tao Zhang, Zi-Yu Zhang, Guowei Kang, Tao Sheng, Jie-Lun Yan, Yuan-Bin Yang, Yuxin Ouyang, Jin-Quan Yu

    Stereoselective construction of γ- and δ-stereocenters in carbonyl compounds is a pivotal objective in asymmetric synthesis. Here, we report chiral bifunctional oxazoline-pyridone ligands that enable enantioselective palladium-catalyzed remote γ-C−H (hetero)arylations of free cycloalkane carboxylic acids, which are essential carbocyclic building blocks in organic synthesis. The reaction establishes

  •   How power shapes behavior: Evidence from physicians
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-16
    Stephen D. Schwab, Manasvini Singh

    Power—the asymmetric control of valued resources—affects most human interactions. Although power is challenging to study with real-world data, a distinctive dataset allowed us to do so within the critical context of doctor-patient relationships. Using 1.5 million quasi-random assignments in US military emergency departments, we examined how power differentials between doctor and patient (measured by

  •   Remote proton elimination: C–H activation enabled by distal acidification
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-16
    Phillip S. Grant, Miloš Vavrík, Vincent Porte, Ricardo Meyrelles, Nuno Maulide

    Generally, the acidity of carbon-hydrogen bonds is most sensitive to functionality just one or two bonds away. Here, we present an approach to the formation of carbon-carbon σ bonds by remote proton elimination, a distinct mode of carbon-hydrogen activation enabled by distal acidification through five carbon-carbon bonds. Application of remote proton elimination to cyclodecyl cations unveiled an appealing

  •   Vaccine priming of rare HIV broadly neutralizing antibody precursors in nonhuman primates
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-16
    Jon M. Steichen, Ivy Phung, Eugenia Salcedo, Gabriel Ozorowski, Jordan R. Willis, Sabyasachi Baboo, Alessia Liguori, Christopher A. Cottrell, Jonathan L. Torres, Patrick J. Madden, Krystal M. Ma, Henry J. Sutton, Jeong Hyun Lee, Oleksandr Kalyuzhniy, Joel D. Allen, Oscar L. Rodriguez, Yumiko Adachi, Tina-Marie Mullen, Erik Georgeson, Michael Kubitz, Alison Burns, Shawn Barman, Rohini Mopuri, Amanda

    Germline-targeting immunogens hold promise for initiating the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) to HIV and other pathogens. However, antibody-antigen recognition is typically dominated by heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 (HCDR3) interactions, and vaccine priming of HCDR3-dominant bnAbs by germline-targeting immunogens has not been demonstrated in humans or outbred

  •   Quantum interference in atom-exchange reactions
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-16
    Yi-Xiang Liu, Lingbang Zhu, Jeshurun Luke, J. J. Arfor Houwman, Mark C. Babin, Ming-Guang Hu, Kang-Kuen Ni

    Chemical reactions, where bonds break and form, are highly dynamic quantum processes. A fundamental question is whether coherence can be preserved in chemical reactions and then harnessed to generate entangled products. Here we investigated this question by studying the 2KRb → K 2 + Rb 2 reaction at 500 nK, focusing on the nuclear spin degrees of freedom. We prepared the initial nuclear spins in KRb

  •   Energy transition needs new materials
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-16
    Chad A. Mirkin, Edward H. Sargent, Daniel P. Schrag

    The decreasing cost of electricity worldwide from wind and solar energy, as well as that of end-use technologies such as electric vehicles, reflect substantial progress made toward replacing fossil fuels with alternative energy sources. But a full transition to clean energy can only be realized if numerous challenges are overcome. Many problems can be addressed through the discovery of new materials

  •   Tackling debt, biodiversity loss, and climate change
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-10
    Elizabeth C. Losos, Alexander Pfaff, Stuart L. Pimm

    At the United Nations climate conference in late 2023, multilateral development banks and environmental institutions committed to raising the number, size, types, and effectiveness of funding mechanisms that support developing countries to address the interconnected crises of debt, climate, and biodiversity. A “Task Force on Sustainability-Linked Sovereign Financing for Nature and Climate” will convene

  •   Indian Ocean temperature anomalies predict long-term global dengue trends
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-09
    Yuyang Chen, Yiting Xu, Lin Wang, Yilin Liang, Naizhe Li, José Lourenço, Yun Yang, Qiushi Lin, Ligui Wang, He Zhao, Bernard Cazelles, Hongbin Song, Ziyan Liu, Zengmiao Wang, Oliver J. Brady, Simon Cauchemez, Huaiyu Tian

    Despite identifying El Niño events as a factor in dengue dynamics, predicting the oscillation of global dengue epidemics remains challenging. Here, we investigate climate indicators and worldwide dengue incidence from 1990 to 2019 using climate-driven mechanistic models. We identify a distinct indicator, the Indian Ocean basin-wide (IOBW) index, as representing the regional average of sea surface temperature

  •   A petavoxel fragment of human cerebral cortex reconstructed at nanoscale resolution
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-09
    Alexander Shapson-Coe, Michał Januszewski, Daniel R. Berger, Art Pope, Yuelong Wu, Tim Blakely, Richard L. Schalek, Peter H. Li, Shuohong Wang, Jeremy Maitin-Shepard, Neha Karlupia, Sven Dorkenwald, Evelina Sjostedt, Laramie Leavitt, Dongil Lee, Jakob Troidl, Forrest Collman, Luke Bailey, Angerica Fitzmaurice, Rohin Kar, Benjamin Field, Hank Wu, Julian Wagner-Carena, David Aley, Joanna Lau, Zudi Lin

    To fully understand how the human brain works, knowledge of its structure at high resolution is needed. Presented here is a computationally intensive reconstruction of the ultrastructure of a cubic millimeter of human temporal cortex that was surgically removed to gain access to an underlying epileptic focus. It contains about 57,000 cells, about 230 millimeters of blood vessels, and about 150 million

  •   Spike timing–based coding in neuromimetic tactile system enables dynamic object classification
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-09
    Libo Chen, Sanja Karilanova, Soumi Chaki, Chenyu Wen, Lisha Wang, Bengt Winblad, Shi-Li Zhang, Ayça Özçelikkale, Zhi-Bin Zhang

    Rapid processing of tactile information is essential to human haptic exploration and dexterous object manipulation. Conventional electronic skins generate frames of tactile signals upon interaction with objects. Unfortunately, they are generally ill-suited for efficient coding of temporal information and rapid feature extraction. In this work, we report a neuromorphic tactile system that uses spike

  •   Catalog of topological phonon materials
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-09
    Yuanfeng Xu, M. G. Vergniory, Da-Shuai Ma, Juan L. Mañes, Zhi-Da Song, B. Andrei Bernevig, Nicolas Regnault, Luis Elcoro

    Phonons play a crucial role in many properties of solid-state systems, and it is expected that topological phonons may lead to rich and unconventional physics. On the basis of the existing phonon materials databases, we have compiled a catalog of topological phonon bands for more than 10,000 three-dimensional crystalline materials. Using topological quantum chemistry, we calculated the band representations

  •   The odd-number cyclo[13]carbon and its dimer, cyclo[26]carbon
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-09
    Florian Albrecht, Igor Rončević, Yueze Gao, Fabian Paschke, Alberto Baiardi, Ivano Tavernelli, Shantanu Mishra, Harry L. Anderson, Leo Gross

    Molecular rings of N carbon atoms (cyclo[ N ]carbons, or C N ) are excellent benchmarking systems for testing quantum chemical theoretical methods and valuable precursors to other carbon-rich materials. Odd- N cyclocarbons, which have been elusive to date, are predicted to be even less stable than even- N cyclocarbons. We report the on-surface synthesis of cyclo[13]carbon, C 13 , by manipulation of

  •   Atomically dispersed hexavalent iridium oxide from MnO 2 reduction for oxygen evolution catalysis
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-09
    Ailong Li, Shuang Kong, Kiyohiro Adachi, Hideshi Ooka, Kazuna Fushimi, Qike Jiang, Hironori Ofuchi, Satoru Hamamoto, Masaki Oura, Kotaro Higashi, Takuma Kaneko, Tomoya Uruga, Naomi Kawamura, Daisuke Hashizume, Ryuhei Nakamura

    Hexavalent iridium (Ir VI ) oxide is predicted to be more active and stable than any other iridium oxide for the oxygen evolution reaction in acid; however, its experimental realization remains challenging. In this work, we report the synthesis, characterization, and application of atomically dispersed Ir VI oxide (Ir VI - ado ) for proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis. The Ir VI - ado

  •   Scalable decarboxylative trifluoromethylation by ion-shielding heterogeneous photoelectrocatalysis
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-09
    Yixin Chen, Yuchen He, Yong Gao, Jiakun Xue, Wei Qu, Jun Xuan, Yiming Mo

    Electrochemistry offers a sustainable synthesis route to value-added fine chemicals but is often constrained by competing electron transfer between the electrode and redox-sensitive functionalities distinct from the target site. Here, we describe an ion-shielding heterogeneous photoelectrocatalysis strategy to impose mass-transfer limitations that invert the thermodynamically determined order of electron

  •   Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging at 0.05 Tesla
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-09
    Yujiao Zhao, Ye Ding, Vick Lau, Christopher Man, Shi Su, Linfang Xiao, Alex T. L. Leong, Ed X. Wu

    Despite a half-century of advancements, global magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accessibility remains limited and uneven, hindering its full potential in health care. Initially, MRI development focused on low fields around 0.05 Tesla, but progress halted after the introduction of the 1.5 Tesla whole-body superconducting scanner in 1983. Using a permanent 0.05 Tesla magnet and deep learning for electromagnetic

  •   Coexistence of superconductivity with partially filled stripes in the Hubbard model
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-09
    Hao Xu, Chia-Min Chung, Mingpu Qin, Ulrich Schollwöck, Steven R. White, Shiwei Zhang

    The Hubbard model is an iconic model in quantum many-body physics and has been intensely studied, especially since the discovery of high-temperature cuprate superconductors. Combining the complementary capabilities of two computational methods, we found superconductivity in both the electron- and hole-doped regimes of the two-dimensional Hubbard model with next-nearest-neighbor hopping. In the electron-doped

  •   A nasal chemosensation–dependent critical window for somatosensory development
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-09
    Linbi Cai, Ali Özgür Argunşah, Angeliki Damilou, Theofanis Karayannis

    Nasal chemosensation is considered the evolutionarily oldest mammalian sense and, together with somatosensation, is crucial for neonatal well-being before auditory and visual pathways start engaging the brain. Using anatomical and functional approaches in mice, we reveal that odor-driven activity propagates to a large part of the cortex during the first postnatal week and enhances whisker-evoked activation

  •   Future malaria environmental suitability in Africa is sensitive to hydrology
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-09
    Mark W. Smith, Thomas Willis, Elizabeth Mroz, William H. M. James, Megan J. Klaar, Simon N. Gosling, Christopher J. Thomas

    Changes in climate shift the geographic locations that are suitable for malaria transmission because of the thermal constraints on vector Anopheles mosquitos and Plasmodium spp. malaria parasites and the lack of availability of surface water for vector breeding. Previous Africa-wide assessments have tended to solely represent surface water using precipitation, ignoring many important hydrological processes

  •   A diminished North Atlantic nutrient stream during Younger Dryas climate reversal
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-09
    Jean Lynch-Stieglitz, Tyler D. Vollmer, Shannon G. Valley, Eric Blackmon, Sifan Gu, Thomas M. Marchitto

    The high rate of biological productivity in the North Atlantic is stimulated by the advective supply of nutrients into the region via the Gulf Stream (nutrient stream). It has been proposed that the projected future decline in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) will cause a reduction in nutrient supply and resulting productivity. In this work, we examine how the nutrient stream

  •   Large quantum anomalous Hall effect in spin-orbit proximitized rhombohedral graphene
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-09
    Tonghang Han, Zhengguang Lu, Yuxuan Yao, Jixiang Yang, Junseok Seo, Chiho Yoon, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Liang Fu, Fan Zhang, Long Ju

    The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) is a robust topological phenomenon that features quantized Hall resistance at zero magnetic field. We report the QAHE in a rhombohedral pentalayer graphene-monolayer tungsten disulfide (WS 2 ) heterostructure. Distinct from other experimentally confirmed QAHE systems, this system has neither magnetic element nor moiré superlattice effect. The QAH states emerge

  •   Mr. Thorp goes to Washington
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-09
    H. Holden Thorp

    On 2 April, I received an email that changed the course of the next 2 weeks. The Select Subcommittee on the Coronavirus Pandemic, chaired by United States Congressman Brad Wenstrup, invited me to testify along with my counterparts at Nature and The Lancet . The purpose of the public hearing (Academic Malpractice: Examining the Relationship Between Scientific Journals, the Government, and Peer Review)

  •   Evolvability predicts macroevolution under fluctuating selection
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-09
    Agnes Holstad, Kjetil L. Voje, Øystein H. Opedal, Geir H. Bolstad, Salomé Bourg, Thomas F. Hansen, Christophe Pélabon

    Heritable variation is a prerequisite for evolutionary change, but the relevance of genetic constraints on macroevolutionary timescales is debated. By using two datasets on fossil and contemporary taxa, we show that evolutionary divergence among populations, and to a lesser extent among species, increases with microevolutionary evolvability. We evaluate and reject several hypotheses to explain this

  •   Momentum-exchange interactions in a Bragg atom interferometer suppress Doppler dephasing
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-03
    Chengyi Luo, Haoqing Zhang, Vanessa P. W. Koh, John D. Wilson, Anjun Chu, Murray J. Holland, Ana Maria Rey, James K. Thompson

    Large ensembles of laser-cooled atoms interacting through infinite-range photon-mediated interactions are powerful platforms for quantum simulation and sensing. Here we realize momentum-exchange interactions in which pairs of atoms exchange their momentum states by collective emission and absorption of photons from a common cavity mode, a process equivalent to a spin-exchange or XX collective Heisenberg

  •   Realization of fractional quantum Hall state with interacting photons
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-03
    Can Wang, Feng-Ming Liu, Ming-Cheng Chen, He Chen, Xian-He Zhao, Chong Ying, Zhong-Xia Shang, Jian-Wen Wang, Yong-Heng Huo, Cheng-Zhi Peng, Xiaobo Zhu, Chao-Yang Lu, Jian-Wei Pan

    Fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states are known for their robust topological order and possess properties that are appealing for applications in fault-tolerant quantum computing. An engineered quantum platform would provide opportunities to operate FQH states without an external magnetic field and enhance local and coherent manipulation of these exotic states. We demonstrate a lattice version of photon

  •   Risk of meningomyelocele mediated by the common 22q11.2 deletion
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-03
    Keng Ioi Vong, Sangmoon Lee, Kit Sing Au, T. Blaine Crowley, Valeria Capra, Jeremiah Martino, Meade Haller, Camila Araújo, Hélio R. Machado, Renee George, Bryn Gerding, Kiely N. James, Valentina Stanley, Nan Jiang, Kameron Alu, Naomi Meave, Anna S. Nidhiry, Fiza Jiwani, Isaac Tang, Ashna Nisal, Ishani Jhamb, Arzoo Patel, Aakash Patel, Jennifer McEvoy-Venneri, Chelsea Barrows, Celina Shen, Yoo-Jin Ha

    Meningomyelocele is one of the most severe forms of neural tube defects (NTDs) and the most frequent structural birth defect of the central nervous system. We assembled the Spina Bifida Sequencing Consortium to identify causes. Exome and genome sequencing of 715 parent-offspring trios identified six patients with chromosomal 22q11.2 deletions, suggesting a 23-fold increased risk compared with the general

  •   Brain-muscle communication prevents muscle aging by maintaining daily physiology
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-03
    Arun Kumar, Mireia Vaca-Dempere, Thomas Mortimer, Oleg Deryagin, Jacob G. Smith, Paul Petrus, Kevin B. Koronowski, Carolina M. Greco, Jessica Segalés, Eva Andrés, Vera Lukesova, Valentina M. Zinna, Patrick-Simon Welz, Antonio L. Serrano, Eusebio Perdiguero, Paolo Sassone-Corsi, Salvador Aznar Benitah, Pura Muñoz-Cánoves

    A molecular clock network is crucial for daily physiology and maintaining organismal health. We examined the interactions and importance of intratissue clock networks in muscle tissue maintenance. In arrhythmic mice showing premature aging, we created a basic clock module involving a central and a peripheral (muscle) clock. Reconstituting the brain-muscle clock network is sufficient to preserve fundamental

  •   Induction of social contagion for diverse outcomes in structured experiments in isolated villages
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-03
    Edoardo M. Airoldi, Nicholas A. Christakis

    Certain people occupy topological positions within social networks that enhance their effectiveness at inducing spillovers. We mapped face-to-face networks among 24,702 people in 176 isolated villages in Honduras and randomly assigned villages to targeting methods, varying the fraction of households receiving a 22-month health education package and the method by which households were chosen (randomly

  •   Conductive hydrogels put electrons in charge
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-03
    Dace Gao, Simone Fabiano

    Recent advances in wearable and implantable biomedical devices have inspired the pursuit of seamless human-machine integration through bioelectronic interfaces (1). Such biocompatible interfaces would allow the recording and processing of signals, such as brain and heart activities, in real time. Although modern electronics rely on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor architectures to construct

  •   A reverse brake for the cell cycle
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-03
    Bart Westendorp

    Cancer cells often have abnormal DNA content owing to disruption of the pathways that control the cell cycle. Cells commit to the cell cycle in response to small peptide signals called mitogens, which ensure entry into S phase, when DNA is replicated. Once S phase is initiated, the cell cycle is normally self-sustaining and irreversible. However, under certain circumstances, two consecutive rounds

  •   B cell trajectories influence cancer outcomes
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-03
    Julie Tellier, Stephen L. Nutt

    B cells are key players in adaptive immunity. In a typical response, B cells specific for an antigen become activated and proliferate in a transient structure called a germinal center (GC), where their B cell receptor (BCR) undergoes rounds of mutation, and clones with BCRs that bind antigen more robustly are selected. Selected GC B cells then become either memory cells, poised to respond to future

  •   Zombie malaria parasites
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-03
    Jane M. Carlton, Aubrey J. Cunnington

    Considered one of the “big three” global infectious diseases—together with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis—malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax continues to substantially affect the poorest communities of sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia (1). Development of resistance to almost all antimalarial drugs by the parasite, resistance of the Anopheles mosquito (which transmits the parasite)

  •   N-type semiconducting hydrogel
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-02
    Peiyun Li, Wenxi Sun, Jiulong Li, Ju-Peng Chen, Xinyue Wang, Zi Mei, Guanyu Jin, Yuqiu Lei, Ruiyun Xin, Mo Yang, Jingcao Xu, Xiran Pan, Cheng Song, Xin-Yu Deng, Xun Lei, Kai Liu, Xiu Wang, Yuting Zheng, Jia Zhu, Shixian Lv, Zhi Zhang, Xiaochuan Dai, Ting Lei

    Hydrogels are an attractive category of biointerfacing materials with adjustable mechanical properties, diverse biochemical functions, and good ionic conductivity. Despite these advantages, their application in electronics has been restricted because of their lack of semiconducting properties, and they have traditionally only served as insulators or conductors. We developed single- and multiple-network

  •   Locally narrow droplet size distributions are ubiquitous in stratocumulus clouds
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-02
    Nithin Allwayin, Michael L. Larsen, Susanne Glienke, Raymond A. Shaw

    Marine stratocumulus clouds are the “global reflectors,” sharply contrasting with the underlying dark ocean surface and exerting a net cooling on Earth’s climate. The magnitude of this cooling remains uncertain in part owing to the averaged representation of microphysical processes, such as the droplet-to-drizzle transition in global climate models (GCMs). Current GCMs parameterize cloud droplet size

  •   Cachd1 interacts with Wnt receptors and regulates neuronal asymmetry in the zebrafish brain
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-05-02
    Gareth T. Powell, Ana Faro, Yuguang Zhao, Heather Stickney, Laura Novellasdemunt, Pedro Henriques, Gaia Gestri, Esther Redhouse White, Jingshan Ren, Weixian Lu, Rodrigo M. Young, Thomas A. Hawkins, Florencia Cavodeassi, Quenten Schwarz, Elena Dreosti, David W. Raible, Vivian S. W. Li, Gavin J. Wright, E. Yvonne Jones, Stephen W. Wilson

    Neurons on the left and right sides of the nervous system often show asymmetric properties, but how such differences arise is poorly understood. Genetic screening in zebrafish revealed that loss of function of the transmembrane protein Cachd1 resulted in right-sided habenula neurons adopting left-sided identity. Cachd1 is expressed in neuronal progenitors, functions downstream of asymmetric environmental

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