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  • Utilization-prediction-aware virtual machine consolidation approach for energy-efficient cloud data centers
    J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. (IF 1.819) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Sun-Yuan Hsieh; Cheng-Sheng Liu; Rajkumar Buyya; Albert Y. Zomaya

    In the age of the information explosion, the energy demand for cloud data centers has increased markedly; hence, reducing the energy consumption of cloud data centers is essential. Dynamic virtual machine VM consolidation, as one of the effective methods for reducing energy energy consumption is extensively employed in large cloud data centers. It achieves the energy reductions by concentrating the workload of active hosts and switching idle hosts into low-power state; moreover, it improves the resource utilization of cloud data centers. However, the quality of service (QoS) guarantee is fundamental for maintaining dependable services between cloud providers and their customers in the cloud environment. Therefore, reducing the power costs while preserving the QoS guarantee are considered as the two main goals of this study. To efficiently address this problem, the proposed VM consolidation approach considers the current and future utilization of resources through the host overload detection (UP-POD) and host underload detection (UP-PUD). The future utilization of resources is accurately predicted using a Gray-Markov-based model. In the experiment, the proposed approach is applied for real-world workload traces in CloudSim and were compared with the existing benchmark algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed approaches significantly reduce the number of VM migrations and energy consumption while maintaining the QoS guarantee.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Set Membership Filter for Discrete-Time Nonlinear Systems Using State Dependent Coefficient Parameterization
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Diganta Bhattacharjee; Kamesh Subbarao

    In this technical note, a recursive set membership filtering algorithm for discrete-time nonlinear dynamical systems subject to unknown but bounded process and measurement noise is proposed. The nonlinear dynamics is represented in a pseudo-linear form using the state dependent coefficient (SDC) parameterization. Matrix Taylor expansions are utilized to expand the unknown state dependent matrices about the corresponding state estimates. Upper bounds on the remainders in the matrix Taylor expansions are calculated on-line using a non-adaptive random search algorithm at each time step. Utilizing these upper bounds and the ellipsoidal set description of the uncertainties, a two-step filter is derived that utilizes the `correction-prediction' structure of the standard Kalman Filter variants. At each time step, correction and prediction ellipsoids are constructed that contain the true state of the system by solving the corresponding semi-definite programs (SDPs). Sufficient conditions for boundedness of those ellipsoidal sets are derived. Finally, a simulation example is included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • On the Relation of IOS-Gains and Asymptotic Gains For Linear Systems
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Iasson Karafyllis

    This paper presents a fundamental relation between Output Asymptotic Gains (OAG) and Input-to-Output Stability (IOS) gains for linear systems. For any Input-to-State Stable, strictly causal linear system the minimum OAG is equal to the minimum IOS-gain. Moreover, both quantities can be computed by solving a specific optimal control problem and by considering only periodic inputs. The result is valid for wide classes of linear systems (involving delay systems or systems described by PDEs). The characterization of the minimum IOS-gain is important because it allows the non-conservative computation of the IOS-gains, which can be used in a small-gain analysis. The paper also presents a number of cases for finite-dimensional linear systems, where exact computation of the minimum IOS gain can be performed.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • A methodology for designing fixed-time stable systems with a predefined upper-bound in their settling time
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Rodrigo Aldana-López; David Gómez-Gutiérrez; Marco Tulio Angulo; Michael Defoort

    Algorithms having uniform convergence with respect to their initial condition (i.e., with fixed-time stability) are receiving increasing attention for solving control and observer design problems under time constraints. However, we still lack a general methodology to design these algorithms for high-order perturbed systems when we additionally need to impose a user-defined upper-bound on their settling time, especially for systems with perturbations. Here, we fill this gap by introducing a methodology to redesign a class of asymptotically, finite- and fixed-time stable systems into non-autonomous fixed-time stable systems with a user-defined upper-bound on their settling time. Our methodology redesigns a system by adding time-varying gains. However, contrary to existing methods where the time-varying gains tend to infinity as the origin is reached, we provide sufficient conditions to maintain bounded gains. We illustrate our methodology by building fixed-time online differentiators with user-defined upper-bound on their settling time and bounded gains.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Load Shaping Based Privacy Protection in Smart Grids: An Overview
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Cihan Emre Kement

    Fine-grained energy usage data collected by Smart Meters (SM) is one of the key components of the smart grid (SG). While collection of this data enhances efficiency and flexibility of SG, it also poses a serious threat to the privacy of consumers. Through techniques such as nonintrusive appliance load monitoring (NALM), this data can be used to identify the appliances being used, and hence disclose the private life of the consumer. Various methods have been proposed in the literature to preserve the consumer privacy. This paper focuses on load shaping (LS) methods, which alters the consumption data by means of household amenities in order to ensure privacy. An overview of the privacy protection techniques, as well as heuristics of the LS methods, privacy measures, and household amenities used for privacy protection are presented in order to thoroughly analyze the effectiveness and applicability of these methods to smart grid systems. Finally, possible research directions related to privacy protection in smart grids are discussed.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • System-on-Chip Security Assertions
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Yangdi Lyu; Prabhat Mishra

    Assertions are widely used for functional validation as well as coverage analysis for both software and hardware designs. Assertions enable runtime error detection as well as faster localization of errors. While there is a vast literature on both software and hardware assertions for monitoring functional scenarios, there is limited effort in utilizing assertions to monitor System-on-Chip (SoC) security vulnerabilities. In this paper, we identify common SoC security vulnerabilities by analyzing the design. To monitor these vulnerabilities, we define several classes of assertions to enable runtime checking of security vulnerabilities. Our experimental results demonstrate that the security assertions generated by our proposed approach can detect all the inserted vulnerabilities while the functional assertions generated by state-of-the-art assertion generation techniques fail to detect most of them.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Constraint Clustering Based Islanding Scheme For Power Networks
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-19
    Hamzeh Davarikia; Faycal Znidi; Masoud Barati

    Controlled islanding, which splits the whole power system into islands, is an effective strategy against rolling blackout during severe disturbances. Finding the islanding solutions in a real-time manner is complicated because of the combinatorial explosion of the solution space occurs for a large power network. In this work, a computationally efficient controlled islanding algorithm is proposed that uses constrained spectral clustering while addressing the generator coherency problem. The objective function used in this controlled islanding algorithm is the minimal power-flow disruption. The sole constraint applied to this solution is related to generator coherency. An undirected edge-weighted graph is created based on absolute values of apparent power flow and constraints related to transmission line availability and coherent generator groups are included by altering the edge weights of the graph and using a subspace projection. Spectral clustering is then applied to the constrained solution subspace to find the islanding solution. The methodology is tested on an IEEE-39 test system with a fully dynamic model. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of our approach.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Optimization-Based On-Road Path Planning for Articulated Vehicles
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-19
    Rui Oliveira; Oskar Ljungqvist; Pedro F. Lima; Bo Wahlberg

    Maneuvering an articulated vehicle on narrow road stretches is often a challenging task for a human driver. Unless the vehicle is accurately steered, parts of the vehicle's bodies may exceed its assigned drive lane, resulting in an increased risk of collision with surrounding traffic. In this work, an optimization-based path-planning algorithm is proposed targeting on-road driving scenarios for articulated vehicles composed of a tractor and a trailer. To this end, we model the tractor-trailer vehicle in a road-aligned coordinate frame suited for on-road planning. Based on driving heuristics, a set of different optimization objectives is proposed, with the overall goal of designing a path planner that computes paths which minimize the off-track of the vehicle bodies swept area, while remaining on the road and avoiding collision with obstacles. The proposed optimization-based path-planning algorithm, together with the different optimization objectives, is evaluated and analyzed in simulations on a set of complicated and practically relevant on-road planning scenarios using the most challenging tractor-trailer dimensions.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Nonintrusive Uncertainty Quantification of Dynamic Power Systems Subject to Stochastic Excitations
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-19
    Yiwei QiuState Key Laboratory of Control and Simulation of Power Systems and Generation Equipment, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University; Jin LinState Key Laboratory of Control and Simulation of Power Systems and Generation Equipment, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University; Xiaoshuang ChenState Key Laboratory of Control and Simulation of Power Systems and Generation Equipment, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University; Feng LiuState Key Laboratory of Control and Simulation of Power Systems and Generation Equipment, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University; Yonghua SongDepartment of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of MacauState Key Laboratory of Control and Simulation of Power Systems and Generation Equipment, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University

    Continuous-time random disturbances (also called stochastic excitations) due to increasing renewable generation have an increasing impact on power system dynamics; However, except from the Monte Carlo simulation, most existing methods for quantifying this impact are intrusive, meaning they are not based on commercial simulation software and hence are difficult to use for power utility companies. To fill this gap, this paper proposes an efficient and nonintrusive method for quantifying uncertainty in dynamic power systems subject to stochastic excitations. First, the Gaussian or non-Gaussian stochastic excitations are modeled with an It\^{o} process as stochastic differential equations. Then, the It\^{o} process is spectrally represented by independent Gaussian random parameters, which enables the polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) of the system dynamic response to be calculated via an adaptive sparse probabilistic collocation method. Finally, the probability distribution and the high-order moments of the system dynamic response and performance index are accurately and efficiently quantified. The proposed nonintrusive method is based on commercial simulation software such as PSS/E with carefully designed input signals, which ensures ease of use for power utility companies. The proposed method is validated via case studies of IEEE 39-bus and 118-bus test systems.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Peer-to-Peer Trading in Electricity Networks: An Overview
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-19
    Wayes Tushar; Tapan K. Saha; Chau Yuen; David Smith; H. Vincent Poor

    Peer-to-peer trading is a next-generation energy management technique that economically benefits proactive consumers (prosumers) transacting their energy as goods and services. At the same time, peer-to-peer energy trading is also expected to help the grid by reducing peak demand, lowering reserve requirements, and curtailing network loss. However, large-scale deployment of peer-to-peer trading in electricity networks poses a number of challenges in modeling transactions in both the virtual and physical layers of the network. As such, this article provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art in research on peer-to-peer energy trading techniques. By doing so, we provide an overview of the key features of peer-to-peer trading and its benefits of relevance to the grid and prosumers. Then, we systematically classify the existing research in terms of the challenges that the studies address in the virtual and the physical layers. We then further identify and discuss those technical approaches that have been extensively used to address the challenges in peer-to-peer transactions. Finally, the paper is concluded with potential future research directions.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Strategy-Proof Spectrum Allocation among Multiple Operators for Demand Varying Wireless Networks
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Indu Yadav; Ankur A. Kulkarni; Abhay Karandikar

    To address the exponentially increasing data rate demands of end users, necessitates efficient spectrum allocation among co-existing operators in licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands to cater to the temporal and spatial variations of traffic in the wireless network. In this paper, we address the spectrum allocation problem among non-cooperative operators via auctions. The classical Vickrey-Clarke-Groves (VCG) approach provides the framework for a strategy-proof and social welfare maximizing auction at high computational complexity, which makes it infeasible for practical implementation. We propose sealed bid auction mechanisms for spectrum allocation which are computationally tractable and hence applicable for allocating spectrum by performing auctions in short durations as per the dynamic load variations of the network. We establish that the proposed algorithm is strategy-proof for uniform demand. Furthermore, for non-uniform demand we propose an algorithm that satisfies weak strategy-proofness. We also consider non-linear increase in the marginal valuations with demand. Simulation results are presented to exhibit the performance comparison of the proposed algorithms with VCG and other existing mechanisms.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Distributed State Estimation over Time-Varying Graphs: Exploiting the Age-of-Information
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Aritra Mitra; John A. Richards; Saurabh Bagchi; Shreyas Sundaram

    We study the problem of designing a distributed observer for an LTI system over a time-varying communication graph. The limited existing work on this topic imposes various restrictions either on the observation model or on the sequence of communication graphs. In contrast, we propose a single-time-scale distributed observer that works under mild assumptions. Specifically, our communication model only requires strong-connectivity to be preserved over non-overlapping, contiguous intervals that are even allowed to grow unbounded over time. We show that under suitable conditions that bound the growth of such intervals, joint observability is sufficient to track the state of any discrete-time LTI system exponentially fast, at any desired rate. In fact, we also establish finite-time convergence based on our approach. Finally, we develop a variant of our algorithm that is provably robust to worst-case adversarial attacks, provided the sequence of graphs is sufficiently connected over time. The key to our approach is the notion of a "freshness-index" that keeps track of the age-of-information being diffused across the network. Such indices enable nodes to reject stale estimates of the state, and, in turn, contribute to stability of the error dynamics.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • On the Impacts of Redundancy, Diversity, and Trust in Resilient Distributed State Estimation
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Aritra Mitra; Faiq Ghawash; Shreyas Sundaram; Waseem Abbas

    We address the problem of distributed state estimation of a linear dynamical process in an attack-prone environment. Recent attempts to solve this problem impose stringent redundancy requirements on the measurement and communication resources of the network. In this paper, we take a step towards alleviating such strict requirements by exploring two complementary directions: (i) making a small subset of the nodes immune to attacks, or "trusted", and (ii) incorporating diversity into the network. We define graph-theoretic constructs that formally capture the notions of redundancy, diversity, and trust. Based on these constructs, we develop a resilient estimation algorithm and demonstrate that even relatively sparse networks that either exhibit node-diversity, or contain a small subset of trusted nodes, can be just as resilient to adversarial attacks as more dense networks. Finally, given a finite budget for network design, we focus on characterizing the complexity of (i) selecting a set of trusted nodes, and (ii) allocating diversity, so as to achieve a desired level of robustness. We establish that, unfortunately, each of these problems is NP-complete.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Extent-Compatible Control Barrier Functions
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Mohit Srinivasan; Matthew Abate; Gustav Nilsson; Samuel Coogan

    Safety requirements in dynamical systems are commonly enforced with set invariance constraints over a safe region of the state space. Control barrier functions, which are Lyapunov-like functions for guaranteeing set invariance, are an effective tool to enforce such constraints and guarantee safety when the system is represented as a point in the state space. In this paper, we introduce extent-compatible control barrier functions as a tool to enforce safety for the system including its volume (extent) in the physical world. In order to implement the extent-compatible control barrier functions framework, a sum-of-squares based optimization program is proposed. Since sum-of-squares programs can be computationally prohibitive, we additionally introduce a sampling based method in order to retain the computational advantage of a traditional barrier function based quadratic program controller. We prove that the proposed sampling based controller retains the guarantee for safety. Simulation and robotic implementation results are also provided.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Counter-example Guided Learning of Bounds on Environment Behavior
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Yuxiao Chen; Sumanth Dathathri; Tung Phan-Minh; Richard M. Murray

    There is a growing interest in building autonomous systems that interact with complex environments. The difficulty associated with obtaining an accurate model for such environments poses a challenge to the task of assessing and guaranteeing the system's performance. We present a data-driven solution that allows for a system to be evaluated for specification conformance without an accurate model of the environment. Our approach involves learning a conservative reactive bound of the environment's behavior using data and specification of the system's desired behavior. First, the approach begins by learning a conservative reactive bound on the environment's actions that captures its possible behaviors with high probability. This bound is then used to assist verification, and if the verification fails under this bound, the algorithm returns counter-examples to show how failure occurs and then uses these to refine the bound. We demonstrate the applicability of the approach through two case-studies: i) verifying controllers for a toy multi-robot system, and ii) verifying an instance of human-robot interaction during a lane-change maneuver given real-world human driving data.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Smart Parking System Based on Bluetooth Low Energy Beacons with Particle Filtering
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Andrew Mackey; Petros Spachos; Konstantinos N. Plataniotis

    Urban centers and dense populations are expanding, hence, there is a growing demand for novel applications to aid in planning and optimization. In this work, a smart parking system that operates both indoor and outdoor is introduced. The system is based on Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacons and uses particle filtering to improve its accuracy. Through simple BLE connectivity with smartphones, an intuitive parking system is designed and deployed. The proposed system pairs each spot with a unique BLE beacon, providing users with guidance to free parking spaces and a secure and automated payment scheme based on real-time usage of the parking space. Three sets of experiments were conducted to examine different aspects of the system. A particle filter is implemented in order to increase the system performance and improve the credence of the results. Through extensive experimentation in both indoor and outdoor parking spaces, the system was able to correctly predict which spot the user has parked in, as well as estimate the distance of the user from the beacon.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Lyceum: An efficient and scalable ecosystem for robot learning
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Colin Summers; Kendall Lowrey; Aravind Rajeswaran; Siddhartha Srinivasa; Emanuel Todorov

    We introduce Lyceum, a high-performance computational ecosystem for robot learning. Lyceum is built on top of the Julia programming language and the MuJoCo physics simulator, combining the ease-of-use of a high-level programming language with the performance of native C. In addition, Lyceum has a straightforward API to support parallel computation across multiple cores and machines. Overall, depending on the complexity of the environment, Lyceum is 5-30x faster compared to other popular abstractions like OpenAI's Gym and DeepMind's dm-control. This substantially reduces training time for various reinforcement learning algorithms; and is also fast enough to support real-time model predictive control through MuJoCo. The code, tutorials, and demonstration videos can be found at: www.lyceum.ml.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • $\text{H}_{\infty}$ Tracking Control via Variable Gain Gradient Descent-Based Integral Reinforcement Learning for Unknown Continuous Time Nonlinear System
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Amardeep Mishra; Satadal Ghosh

    Optimal tracking of continuous time nonlinear systems has been extensively studied in literature. However, in several applications, absence of knowledge about system dynamics poses a severe challenge to solving the optimal tracking problem. This has found growing attention among researchers recently, and integral reinforcement learning (IRL)-based method augmented with actor neural network (NN) have been deployed to this end. However, very few studies have been directed to model-free $H_{\infty}$ optimal tracking control that helps in attenuating the effect of disturbances on the system performance without any prior knowledge about system dynamics. To this end a recursive least square-based parameter update was recently proposed. However, gradient descent-based parameter update scheme is more sensitive to real-time variation in plant dynamics. And experience replay (ER) technique has been shown to improve the convergence of NN weights by utilizing past observations iteratively. Motivated by these, this paper presents a novel parameter update law based on variable gain gradient descent and experience replay technique for tuning the weights of critic, actor and disturbance NNs.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Simultaneous input and state set-valued \mathcal{H}_{\infty}-observers for linear parameter-varying systems
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Mohammad Khajenejad; Sze Zheng Yong

    A fixed-order set-valued observer is presented for linear parameter-varying systems with bounded-norm noise and under completely unknown attack signals, which simultaneously finds bounded sets of states and unknown inputs that include the true state and inputs. The proposed observer can be designed using semidefinite programming with LMI constraints and is optimal in the minimum \mathcal{H}_{\infty}-norm sense. We show that the strong detectability of each constituent linear time-invariant system is a necessary condition for the existence of such an observer, as well as the boundedness of set-valued estimates. Furthermore, sufficient conditions are provided for the upper bounds of the estimation errors to converge to steady state values and finally, the results of such a set-valued observer are exhibited through an illustrative example.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Simultaneous Mode, Input and State Set-Valued Observers with Applications to Resilient Estimation Against Sparse Attacks
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Mohammad Khajenejad; Sze Zheng Yong

    A simultaneous mode, input and state set-valued observer is proposed for hidden mode switched linear systems with bounded-norm noise and unknown input signals. The observer consists of two constituents: (i) a bank of mode-matched observers and (ii) a mode estimator. Each mode-matched observer recursively outputs the mode-matched sets of compatible states and unknown inputs, while the mode estimator eliminates incompatible modes, using a residual-based criterion. Then, the estimated sets of states and unknown inputs are the union of the mode-matched estimates over all compatible modes. Moreover, sufficient conditions to guarantee the elimination of all false modes are provided and the effectiveness of our approach is exhibited using an illustrative example.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Bayesian Optimization for Policy Search in High-Dimensional Systems via Automatic Domain Selection
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Lukas P. Fröhlich; Edgar D. Klenske; Christian G. Daniel; Melanie N. Zeilinger

    Bayesian Optimization (BO) is an effective method for optimizing expensive-to-evaluate black-box functions with a wide range of applications for example in robotics, system design and parameter optimization. However, scaling BO to problems with large input dimensions (>10) remains an open challenge. In this paper, we propose to leverage results from optimal control to scale BO to higher dimensional control tasks and to reduce the need for manually selecting the optimization domain. The contributions of this paper are twofold: 1) We show how we can make use of a learned dynamics model in combination with a model-based controller to simplify the BO problem by focusing onto the most relevant regions of the optimization domain. 2) Based on (1) we present a method to find an embedding in parameter space that reduces the effective dimensionality of the optimization problem. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, we present an experimental evaluation on real hardware, as well as simulated tasks including a 48-dimensional policy for a quadcopter.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Grocery Store Flexibility Management Using Model Predictive Control With Neural Networks
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Roope Sarala; Jussi Kiljander

    As more and more energy is produced from renewable energy sources (RES), the challenge for balancing production and consumption is being shifted to consumers instead of the power grid. This requires new and intelligent ways of flexibility management at individual building and district levels. To this end, this paper presents a model based optimal control (MPC) algorithm embedded with deep neural network for day-ahead consumption and production forecasting. The algorithm is used to optimize a medium-sized grocery store energy consumption located in Finland. System was tested in a simulation tool utilising real-life power measurements from the grocery store. We report a $8.4\%$ reduction in daily peak loads with flexibility provided by a $20$ kWh battery. On the other hand, a significant benefit was not seen in trying to optimize with respect to the energy spot price. We conclude that our approach is able to significantly reduce peak loads in a grocery store without additional operational costs.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • On the Stability of the Endemic Equilibrium of A Discrete-Time Networked Epidemic Model
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Fangzhou Liu; Shaoxuan Cui; Xianwei Li; Martin Buss

    Networked epidemic models have been widely adopted to describe propagation phenomena. The endemic equilibrium of these models is of great significance in the field of viral marketing, innovation dissemination, and information diffusion. However, its stability conditions have not been fully explored. In this paper we study the stability of the endemic equilibrium of a networked Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) epidemic model with heterogeneous transition rates in a discrete-time manner. We show that the endemic equilibrium, if it exists, is asymptotically stable for any nontrivial initial condition. Under mild assumptions on initial conditions, we further prove that during the spreading process there exists no overshoot with respect to the endemic equilibrium. Finally, we conduct numerical experiments on real-world networks to demonstrate our results.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Adaptive Optimal Control of Linear Periodic Systems: An Off-Policy Value Iteration Approach
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2019-01-24
    Bo Pang; Zhong-Ping Jiang

    This paper studies the infinite-horizon adaptive optimal control of continuous-time linear periodic (CTLP) systems. A novel value iteration (VI) based off-policy ADP algorithm is proposed for a general class of CTLP systems, so that approximate optimal solutions can be obtained directly from the collected data, without the exact knowledge of system dynamics. Under mild conditions, the proofs on uniform convergence of the proposed algorithm to the optimal solutions are given for both the model-based and model-free cases. The VI-based ADP algorithm is able to find suboptimal controllers without assuming the knowledge of an initial stabilizing controller. Application to the optimal control of a triple inverted pendulum subjected to a periodically varying load demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Modeling, Identification and Control of Model Jet Engines for Jet Powered Robotics
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2019-09-29
    Giuseppe L'Erario; Luca Fiorio; Gabriele Nava; Fabio Bergonti; Hosameldin Awadalla Omer Mohamed; Silvio Traversaro; Daniele Pucci

    The paper contributes towards the modeling, identification, and control of model jet engines. We propose a nonlinear, second order model in order to capture the model jet engines governing dynamics. The model structure is identified by applying sparse identification of nonlinear dynamics, and then the parameters of the model are found via gray-box identification procedures. Once the model has been identified, we approached the control of the model jet engine by designing two control laws. The first one is based on the classical Feedback Linearization technique while the second one on the Sliding Mode control. The overall methodology has been verified by modeling, identifying and controlling two model jet engines, i.e. P100-RX and P220-RXi developed by JetCat, which provide a maximum thrust of 100 N and 220 N, respectively.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Sparse tree search optimality guarantees in POMDPs with continuous observation spaces
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Michael H. Lim; Claire J. Tomlin; Zachary N. Sunberg

    Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) with continuous state and observation spaces have powerful flexibility for representing real-world decision and control problems but are notoriously difficult to solve. Recent online sampling-based algorithms that use observation likelihood weighting have shown unprecedented effectiveness in domains with continuous observation spaces. However there has been no formal theoretical justification for this technique. This work offers such a justification, proving that a simplified algorithm, partially observable weighted sparse sampling (POWSS), will estimate Q-values accurately with high probability and can be made to perform arbitrarily near the optimal solution by increasing computational power.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Projective view at Optimization Problem for Multiband Filter
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Andrei Bogatyrev

    The best uniform rational approximation of the \emph{sign} function on two intervals separated by zero was explicitly solved by E.I. Zolotar\"ev in 1877. This optimization problem is the initial step in the staircase of the so called approximation problems for multiband filters which are of great importance for electrical engineering. We show that known in the literature optimality criterion for this problem may be contradictory since it does not take into account the projective invariance of the problem. We propose a new consistently projective formulation of this problem and give a constructive optimality criterion for it.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • ESO architectures in the trajectory tracking ADR controller for a mechanical system: a comparison
    arXiv.cs.SY Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Krzysztof Łakomy; Radosław Patelski; Dariusz Pazderski

    Proper operation of the Active Disturbance Rejection (ADR) controller requires a precise determination of the so-called total disturbance affecting the considered dynamical system, usually estimated by the Extended State Observer (ESO). The observation quality of total disturbance has a significant impact on the control error values, making room for a potential improvement of control system performance using different structures of ESO. In this article, we provide a quantitative comparison between the Luenberger and Astolfi/Marconi (AM) observers designed for three different extended state representations and utilized in the trajectory tracking ADR controller designed for a mechanical system. Included results were obtained in the simple simulation case, followed by the experimental validation on the main axis of a telescope mount.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Inference for Network Structure and Dynamics from Time Series Data via Graph Neural Network
    arXiv.cs.SI Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Mengyuan Chen; Jiang Zhang; Zhang Zhang; Lun Du; Qiao Hu; Shuo Wang; Jiaqi Zhu

    Network structures in various backgrounds play important roles in social, technological, and biological systems. However, the observable network structures in real cases are often incomplete or unavailable due to measurement errors or private protection issues. Therefore, inferring the complete network structure is useful for understanding complex systems. The existing studies have not fully solved the problem of inferring network structure with partial or no information about connections or nodes. In this paper, we tackle the problem by utilizing time series data generated by network dynamics. We regard the network inference problem based on dynamical time series data as a problem of minimizing errors for predicting future states and proposed a novel data-driven deep learning model called Gumbel Graph Network (GGN) to solve the two kinds of network inference problems: Network Reconstruction and Network Completion. For the network reconstruction problem, the GGN framework includes two modules: the dynamics learner and the network generator. For the network completion problem, GGN adds a new module called the States Learner to infer missing parts of the network. We carried out experiments on discrete and continuous time series data. The experiments show that our method can reconstruct up to 100% network structure on the network reconstruction task. While the model can also infer the unknown parts of the structure with up to 90% accuracy when some nodes are missing. And the accuracy decays with the increase of the fractions of missing nodes. Our framework may have wide application areas where the network structure is hard to obtained and the time series data is rich.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • A New Model to Analyze Power and Communication System Intra-and-Inter Dependencies
    arXiv.cs.SI Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Sohini Roy; Harish Chandrasekaran; Anamitra Pal; Arunabha Sen

    The reliable and resilient operation of the smart grid necessitates a clear understanding of the intra-and-inter dependencies of its power and communication systems. This understanding can only be achieved by accurately depicting the interactions between the different components of these two systems. This paper presents a model, called modified implicative interdependency model (MIIM), for capturing these interactions. Data obtained from a power utility in the U.S. Southwest is used to ensure the validity of the model. The performance of the model for a specific power system application namely, state estimation, is demonstrated using the IEEE 118-bus system. The results indicate that the proposed model is more accurate than its predecessor, the implicative interdependency model (IIM) [1], in predicting the system state in case of failures in the power and/or communication systems.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • RCELF: A Residual-based Approach for InfluenceMaximization Problem
    arXiv.cs.SI Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Xinxun Zeng; Shiqi Zhang; Bo Tang

    Influence Maximization Problem (IMP) is selecting a seed set of nodes in the social network to spread the influence as widely as possible. It has many applications in multiple domains, e.g., viral marketing is frequently used for new products or activities advertisements. While it is a classic and well-studied problem in computer science, unfortunately, all those proposed techniques are compromising among time efficiency, memory consumption, and result quality. In this paper, we conduct comprehensive experimental studies on the state-of-the-art IMP approximate approaches to reveal the underlying trade-off strategies. Interestingly, we find that even the state-of-the-art approaches are impractical when the propagation probability of the network have been taken into consideration. With the findings of existing approaches, we propose a novel residual-based approach (i.e., RCELF) for IMP, which i) overcomes the deficiencies of existing approximate approaches, and ii) provides theoretical guaranteed results with high efficiency in both time- and space- perspectives. We demonstrate the superiority of our proposal by extensive experimental evaluation on real datasets.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Graph Ordering: Towards the Optimal by Learning
    arXiv.cs.SI Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Kangfei Zhao; Yu Rong; Jeffrey Xu Yu; Junzhou Huang; Hao Zhang

    Graph representation learning has achieved a remarkable success in many graph-based applications, such as node classification, link prediction, and community detection. These models are usually designed to preserve the vertex information at different granularity and reduce the problems in discrete space to some machine learning tasks in continuous space. However, regardless of the fruitful progress, for some kind of graph applications, such as graph compression and edge partition, it is very hard to reduce them to some graph representation learning tasks. Moreover, these problems are closely related to reformulating a global layout for a specific graph, which is an important NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem: graph ordering. In this paper, we propose to attack the graph ordering problem behind such applications by a novel learning approach. Distinguished from greedy algorithms based on predefined heuristics, we propose a neural network model: Deep Order Network (DON) to capture the hidden locality structure from partial vertex order sets. Supervised by sampled partial order, DON has the ability to infer unseen combinations. Furthermore, to alleviate the combinatorial explosion in the training space of DON and make the efficient partial vertex order sampling , we employ a reinforcement learning model: the Policy Network, to adjust the partial order sampling probabilities during the training phase of DON automatically. To this end, the Policy Network can improve the training efficiency and guide DON to evolve towards a more effective model automatically. Comprehensive experiments on both synthetic and real data validate that DON-RL outperforms the current state-of-the-art heuristic algorithm consistently. Two case studies on graph compression and edge partitioning demonstrate the potential power of DON-RL in real applications.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Deep Collaborative Embedding for information cascade prediction
    arXiv.cs.SI Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Yuhui Zhao; Ning Yang; Tao Lin; Philip S. Yu

    Recently, information cascade prediction has attracted increasing interest from researchers, but it is far from being well solved partly due to the three defects of the existing works. First, the existing works often assume an underlying information diffusion model, which is impractical in real world due to the complexity of information diffusion. Second, the existing works often ignore the prediction of the infection order, which also plays an important role in social network analysis. At last, the existing works often depend on the requirement of underlying diffusion networks which are likely unobservable in practice. In this paper, we aim at the prediction of both node infection and infection order without requirement of the knowledge about the underlying diffusion mechanism and the diffusion network, where the challenges are two-fold. The first is what cascading characteristics of nodes should be captured and how to capture them, and the second is that how to model the non-linear features of nodes in information cascades. To address these challenges, we propose a novel model called Deep Collaborative Embedding (DCE) for information cascade prediction, which can capture not only the node structural property but also two kinds of node cascading characteristics. We propose an auto-encoder based collaborative embedding framework to learn the node embeddings with cascade collaboration and node collaboration, in which way the non-linearity of information cascades can be effectively captured. The results of extensive experiments conducted on real-world datasets verify the effectiveness of our approach.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • A Comparative Study of Social Network Classifiers for Predicting Churn in the Telecommunication Industry
    arXiv.cs.SI Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Maria Óskarsdóttir; Cristián Bravo; Wouter Verbeke; Carlos Sarraute; Bart Baesens; Jan Vanthienen

    Relational learning in networked data has been shown to be effective in a number of studies. Relational learners, composed of relational classifiers and collective inference methods, enable the inference of nodes in a network given the existence and strength of links to other nodes. These methods have been adapted to predict customer churn in telecommunication companies showing that incorporating them may give more accurate predictions. In this research, the performance of a variety of relational learners is compared by applying them to a number of CDR datasets originating from the telecommunication industry, with the goal to rank them as a whole and investigate the effects of relational classifiers and collective inference methods separately. Our results show that collective inference methods do not improve the performance of relational classifiers and the best performing relational classifier is the network-only link-based classifier, which builds a logistic model using link-based measures for the nodes in the network.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Social Network Analytics for Churn Prediction in Telco: Model Building, Evaluation and Network Architecture
    arXiv.cs.SI Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    María Óskarsdóttir; Cristián Bravo; Wouter Verbeke; Carlos Sarraute; Bart Baesens; Jan Vanthienen

    Social network analytics methods are being used in the telecommunication industry to predict customer churn with great success. In particular it has been shown that relational learners adapted to this specific problem enhance the performance of predictive models. In the current study we benchmark different strategies for constructing a relational learner by applying them to a total of eight distinct call-detail record datasets, originating from telecommunication organizations across the world. We statistically evaluate the effect of relational classifiers and collective inference methods on the predictive power of relational learners, as well as the performance of models where relational learners are combined with traditional methods of predicting customer churn in the telecommunication industry. Finally we investigate the effect of network construction on model performance; our findings imply that the definition of edges and weights in the network does have an impact on the results of the predictive models. As a result of the study, the best configuration is a non-relational learner enriched with network variables, without collective inference, using binary weights and undirected networks. In addition, we provide guidelines on how to apply social networks analytics for churn prediction in the telecommunication industry in an optimal way, ranging from network architecture to model building and evaluation.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • True Nonlinear Dynamics from Incomplete Networks
    arXiv.cs.SI Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Chunheng Jiang; Jianxi Gao; Malik Magdon-Ismail

    We study nonlinear dynamics on complex networks. Each vertex $i$ has a state $x_i$ which evolves according to a networked dynamics to a steady-state $x_i^*$. We develop fundamental tools to learn the true steady-state of a small part of the network, without knowing the full network. A naive approach and the current state-of-the-art is to follow the dynamics of the observed partial network to local equilibrium. This dramatically fails to extract the true steady state. We use a mean-field approach to map the dynamics of the unseen part of the network to a single node, which allows us to recover accurate estimates of steady-state on as few as 5 observed vertices in domains ranging from ecology to social networks to gene regulation. Incomplete networks are the norm in practice, and we offer new ways to think about nonlinear dynamics when only sparse information is available.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • The Power of Pivoting for Exact Clique Counting
    arXiv.cs.SI Pub Date : 2020-01-19
    Shweta Jain; C. Seshadhri

    Clique counting is a fundamental task in network analysis, and even the simplest setting of $3$-cliques (triangles) has been the center of much recent research. Getting the count of $k$-cliques for larger $k$ is algorithmically challenging, due to the exponential blowup in the search space of large cliques. But a number of recent applications (especially for community detection or clustering) use larger clique counts. Moreover, one often desires \textit{local} counts, the number of $k$-cliques per vertex/edge. Our main result is Pivoter, an algorithm that exactly counts the number of $k$-cliques, \textit{for all values of $k$}. It is surprisingly effective in practice, and is able to get clique counts of graphs that were beyond the reach of previous work. For example, Pivoter gets all clique counts in a social network with a 100M edges within two hours on a commodity machine. Previous parallel algorithms do not terminate in days. Pivoter can also feasibly get local per-vertex and per-edge $k$-clique counts (for all $k$) for many public data sets with tens of millions of edges. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first algorithm that achieves such results. The main insight is the construction of a Succinct Clique Tree (SCT) that stores a compressed unique representation of all cliques in an input graph. It is built using a technique called \textit{pivoting}, a classic approach by Bron-Kerbosch to reduce the recursion tree of backtracking algorithms for maximal cliques. Remarkably, the SCT can be built without actually enumerating all cliques, and provides a succinct data structure from which exact clique statistics ($k$-clique counts, local counts) can be read off efficiently.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • A multimodal deep learning approach for named entity recognition from social media
    arXiv.cs.SI Pub Date : 2020-01-19
    Meysam Asgari-Chenaghlu; M. Reza Feizi-Derakhshi; Leili Farzinvash; Cina Motamed

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) from social media posts is a challenging task. User generated content which forms the nature of social media, is noisy and contains grammatical and linguistic errors. This noisy content makes it much harder for tasks such as named entity recognition. However some applications like automatic journalism or information retrieval from social media, require more information about entities mentioned in groups of social media posts. Conventional methods applied to structured and well typed documents provide acceptable results while compared to new user generated media, these methods are not satisfactory. One valuable piece of information about an entity is the related image to the text. Combining this multimodal data reduces ambiguity and provides wider information about the entities mentioned. In order to address this issue, we propose a novel deep learning approach utilizing multimodal deep learning. Our solution is able to provide more accurate results on named entity recognition task. Experimental results, namely the precision, recall and F1 score metrics show the superiority of our work compared to other state-of-the-art NER solutions.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Modeling Economic Networks with Firm-to-Firm Wire Transfers
    arXiv.cs.SI Pub Date : 2020-01-19
    Thiago C. Silva; Diego R. Amancio; Benjamin M. Tabak

    We study a novel economic network comprised of wire transfers (electronic payment transactions) among the universe of firms in Brazil (6.2 million firms). We construct a directed and weighted network in which vertices represent cities and edges connote pairwise economic dependence between cities. Each city (vertex) represents the collection of all firms within that city. Edge weights are modeled by the total amount of wire transfers that arise due to business transactions between firms localized at different cities. The rationale is that the more they transact with each other, the more dependent they become in the economic sense. We find a high degree of economic integration among cities in the trade network, which is consistent with the high degree of specialization found across Brazilian cities. We are able to identify which cities have a dominant role in the entire supply chain process using centrality network measures. We find that the trade network has a disassortative mixing pattern, which is consistent with the power-law shape of the firm size distribution in Brazil. After the Brazilian recession in 2014, we find that the disassortativity becomes even stronger as a result of the death of many small firms and the consequent concentration of economic flows on large firms. Our results suggest that recessions have a large impact on the trade network with meaningful and heterogeneous economic consequences across municipalities.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • 75,000,000,000 Streaming Inserts/Second Using Hierarchical Hypersparse GraphBLAS Matrices
    arXiv.cs.SI Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Jeremy Kepner; Tim Davis; Chansup Byun; William Arcand; David Bestor; William Bergeron; Vijay Gadepally; Matthew Hubbell; Michael Houle; Michael Jones; Anna Klein; Peter Michaleas; Lauren Milechin; Julie Mullen; Andrew Prout; Antonio Rosa; Siddharth Samsi; Charles Yee; Albert Reuther

    The SuiteSparse GraphBLAS C-library implements high performance hypersparse matrices with bindings to a variety of languages (Python, Julia, and Matlab/Octave). GraphBLAS provides a lightweight in-memory database implementation of hypersparse matrices that are ideal for analyzing many types of network data, while providing rigorous mathematical guarantees, such as linearity. Streaming updates of hypersparse matrices put enormous pressure on the memory hierarchy. This work benchmarks an implementation of hierarchical hypersparse matrices that reduces memory pressure and dramatically increases the update rate into a hypersparse matrices. The parameters of hierarchical hypersparse matrices rely on controlling the number of entries in each level in the hierarchy before an update is cascaded. The parameters are easily tunable to achieve optimal performance for a variety of applications. Hierarchical hypersparse matrices achieve over 1,000,000 updates per second in a single instance. Scaling to 31,000 instances of hierarchical hypersparse matrices arrays on 1,100 server nodes on the MIT SuperCloud achieved a sustained update rate of 75,000,000,000 updates per second. This capability allows the MIT SuperCloud to analyze extremely large streaming network data sets.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Sparse Nonnegative Matrix Factorization for Multiple Local Community Detection
    arXiv.cs.SI Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Dany Kamuhanda; Meng Wang; Kun He

    Local community detection consists of finding a group of nodes closely related to the seeds, a small set of nodes of interest. Such group of nodes are densely connected or have a high probability of being connected internally than their connections to other clusters in the network. Existing local community detection methods focus on finding either one local community that all seeds are most likely to be in or finding a single community for each of the seeds. However, a seed member may belong to multiple local overlapping communities. In this work, we present a novel method of detecting multiple local communities to which a single seed member belongs. The proposed method consists of three key steps: (1) local sampling with Personalized PageRank (PPR); (2) using the sparseness generated by a sparse nonnegative matrix factorization (SNMF) to estimate the number of communities in the sampled subgraph; (3) using SNMF soft community membership vectors to assign nodes to communities. The proposed method shows favorable accuracy performance when compared to state-of-the-art community detection methods by experiments using a combination of artificial and real-world networks.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Sampling Graphlets of Multi-layer Networks: A Restricted Random Walk Approach
    arXiv.cs.SI Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Simiao Jiao; Zihui Xue; Xiaowei Chen; Yuedong Xu

    Graphlets are induced subgraph patterns that are crucial to the understanding of the structure and function of a large network. A lot of efforts have been devoted to calculating graphlet statistics where random walk based approaches are commonly used to access restricted graphs through the available application programming interfaces (APIs). However, most of them merely consider individual networks while overlooking the strong coupling between different networks. In this paper, we estimate the graphlet concentration in multi-layer networks with real-world applications. An inter-layer edge connects two nodes in different layers if they belong to the same person. The access to a multi-layer network is restrictive in the sense that the upper layer allows random walk sampling, whereas the nodes of lower layers can be accessed only though the inter-layer edges and only support random node or edge sampling. To cope with this new challenge, we define a suit of two-layer graphlets and propose a novel random walk sampling algorithm to estimate the proportion of all the 3-node graphlets. An analytical bound on the sampling steps is proved to guarantee the convergence of our unbiased estimator. We further generalize our algorithm to explore the tradeoff between the estimated accuracies of different graphlets when the sample size is split on different layers. Experimental evaluation on real-world and synthetic multi-layer networks demonstrate the accuracy and high efficiency of our unbiased estimators.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Random-walk Based Generative Model for Classifying Document Networks
    arXiv.cs.SI Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Takafumi J. Suzuki

    Document networks are found in various collections of real-world data, such as citation networks, hyperlinked web pages, and online social networks. A large number of generative models have been proposed because they offer intuitive and useful pictures for analyzing document networks. Prominent examples are relational topic models, where documents are linked according to their topic similarities. However, existing generative models do not make full use of network structures because they are largely dependent on topic modeling of documents. In particular, centrality of graph nodes is missing in generative processes of previous models. In this paper, we propose a novel generative model for document networks by introducing random walkers on networks to integrate the node centrality into link generation processes. The developed method is evaluated in semi-supervised classification tasks with real-world citation networks. We show that the proposed model outperforms existing probabilistic approaches especially in detecting communities in connected networks.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Fast Sequence-Based Embedding with Diffusion Graphs
    arXiv.cs.SI Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Benedek Rozemberczki; Rik Sarkar

    A graph embedding is a representation of graph vertices in a low-dimensional space, which approximately preserves properties such as distances between nodes. Vertex sequence-based embedding procedures use features extracted from linear sequences of nodes to create embeddings using a neural network. In this paper, we propose diffusion graphs as a method to rapidly generate vertex sequences for network embedding. Its computational efficiency is superior to previous methods due to simpler sequence generation, and it produces more accurate results. In experiments, we found that the performance relative to other methods improves with increasing edge density in the graph. In a community detection task, clustering nodes in the embedding space produces better results compared to other sequence-based embedding methods.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Raiders of the Lost Kek: 3.5 Years of Augmented 4chan Posts from the Politically Incorrect Board
    arXiv.cs.SI Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Antonis Papasavva; Savvas Zannettou; Emiliano De Cristofaro; Gianluca Stringhini; Jeremy Blackburn

    This paper presents a dataset with over 3.3M threads and 134.5M posts from the Politically Incorrect board (/pol/) of the imageboard forum 4chan, posted over a period of almost 3.5 years (June 2016-November 2019). To the best of our knowledge, this represents the largest publicly available 4chan dataset, providing the community with an archive of posts that have been permanently deleted from 4chan and are otherwise inaccessible. We augment the data with a few set of additional labels, including toxicity scores and the named entities mentioned in each post. We also present a statistical analysis of the dataset, providing an overview of what researchers interested in using it can expect, as well as a simple content analysis, shedding light on the most prominent discussion topics, the most popular entities mentioned, and the level of toxicity in each post. Overall, we are confident that our work will further motivate and assist researchers in studying and understanding 4chan as well as its role on the greater Web. For instance, we hope this dataset may be used for cross-platform studies of social media, as well as being useful for other types of research like natural language processing. Finally, our dataset can assist qualitative work focusing on in-depth case studies of specific narratives, events, or social theories.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Learning from Neighbors about a Changing State
    arXiv.cs.SI Pub Date : 2018-01-06
    Krishna Dasaratha; Benjamin Golub; Nir Hak

    Agents learn about a changing state using private signals and past actions of neighbors in a network. We characterize equilibrium learning and social influence in this setting. We then examine when agents can aggregate information well, responding quickly to recent changes. A key sufficient condition for good aggregation is that each individual's neighbors have sufficiently different types of private information. In contrast, when signals are homogeneous, aggregation is suboptimal on any network. We also examine behavioral versions of the model, and show that achieving good aggregation requires a sophisticated understanding of correlations in neighbors' actions. The model provides a Bayesian foundation for a tractable learning dynamic in networks, closely related to the DeGroot model, and offers new tools for counterfactual and welfare analyses.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • When facts fail: Bias, polarisation and truth in social networks
    arXiv.cs.SI Pub Date : 2018-08-26
    Orowa Sikder; Robert E. Smith; Pierpaolo Vivo; Giacomo Livan

    Online social networks provide users with unprecedented opportunities to engage with diverse opinions. At the same time, they enable confirmation bias on large scales by empowering individuals to self-select narratives they want to be exposed to. A precise understanding of such tradeoffs is still largely missing. We introduce a social learning model where most participants in a network update their beliefs unbiasedly based on new information, while a minority of participants reject information that is incongruent with their preexisting beliefs. This simple mechanism generates permanent opinion polarization and cascade dynamics, and accounts for the aforementioned tradeoff between confirmation bias and social connectivity through analytic results. We investigate the model's predictions empirically using US county-level data on the impact of Internet access on the formation of beliefs about global warming. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our model, highlighting the downsides of debunking and suggesting alternative strategies to contrast misinformation.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Detecting coalitions by optimally partitioning signed networks of political collaboration
    arXiv.cs.SI Pub Date : 2019-06-04
    Samin Aref; Zachary Neal

    We propose new mathematical programming models for optimal partitioning of a signed graph into cohesive groups. To demonstrate the approach's utility, we apply it to identify coalitions in US Congress since 1979 and examine the impact of polarized coalitions on the effectiveness of passing bills. Our models produce a globally optimal solution to the NP-hard problem of minimizing the total number of intra-group negative and inter-group positive edges. We tackle the intensive computations of dense signed networks by providing upper and lower bounds, then solving an optimization model which closes the gap between the two bounds and returns the optimal partitioning of vertices. Our substantive findings suggest that the dominance of an ideologically homogeneous coalition (i.e. partisan polarization) can be a protective factor that enhances legislative effectiveness.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • SMP Challenge: An Overview of Social Media Prediction Challenge 2019
    arXiv.cs.SI Pub Date : 2019-10-04
    Bo Wu; Wen-Huang Cheng; Peiye Liu; Bei Liu; Zhaoyang Zeng; Jiebo Luo

    "SMP Challenge" aims to discover novel prediction tasks for numerous data on social multimedia and seek excellent research teams. Making predictions via social multimedia data (e.g. photos, videos or news) is not only helps us to make better strategic decisions for the future, but also explores advanced predictive learning and analytic methods on various problems and scenarios, such as multimedia recommendation, advertising system, fashion analysis etc. In the SMP Challenge at ACM Multimedia 2019, we introduce a novel prediction task Temporal Popularity Prediction, which focuses on predicting future interaction or attractiveness (in terms of clicks, views or likes etc.) of new online posts in social media feeds before uploading. We also collected and released a large-scale SMPD benchmark with over 480K posts from 69K users. In this paper, we define the challenge problem, give an overview of the dataset, present statistics of rich information for data and annotation and design the accuracy and correlation evaluation metrics for temporal popularity prediction to the challenge.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Weak Supervision for Fake News Detection via Reinforcement Learning
    arXiv.cs.SI Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Yaqing Wang; Weifeng Yang; Fenglong Ma; Jin Xu; Bin Zhong; Qiang Deng; Jing Gao

    Today social media has become the primary source for news. Via social media platforms, fake news travel at unprecedented speeds, reach global audiences and put users and communities at great risk. Therefore, it is extremely important to detect fake news as early as possible. Recently, deep learning based approaches have shown improved performance in fake news detection. However, the training of such models requires a large amount of labeled data, but manual annotation is time-consuming and expensive. Moreover, due to the dynamic nature of news, annotated samples may become outdated quickly and cannot represent the news articles on newly emerged events. Therefore, how to obtain fresh and high-quality labeled samples is the major challenge in employing deep learning models for fake news detection. In order to tackle this challenge, we propose a reinforced weakly-supervised fake news detection framework, i.e., WeFEND, which can leverage users' reports as weak supervision to enlarge the amount of training data for fake news detection. The proposed framework consists of three main components: the annotator, the reinforced selector and the fake news detector. The annotator can automatically assign weak labels for unlabeled news based on users' reports. The reinforced selector using reinforcement learning techniques chooses high-quality samples from the weakly labeled data and filters out those low-quality ones that may degrade the detector's prediction performance. The fake news detector aims to identify fake news based on the news content. We tested the proposed framework on a large collection of news articles published via WeChat official accounts and associated user reports. Extensive experiments on this dataset show that the proposed WeFEND model achieves the best performance compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Dynamic Weighted Fairness with Minimal Disruptions
    arXiv.cs.PF Pub Date : 2020-01-19
    Sungjin Im; Benjamin Moseley; Kamesh Munagala; Kirk Pruhs

    In this paper, we consider the following dynamic fair allocation problem: Given a sequence of job arrivals and departures, the goal is to maintain an approximately fair allocation of the resource against a target fair allocation policy, while minimizing the total number of disruptions, which is the number of times the allocation of any job is changed. We consider a rich class of fair allocation policies that significantly generalize those considered in previous work. We first consider the models where jobs only arrive, or jobs only depart. We present tight upper and lower bounds for the number of disruptions required to maintain a constant approximate fair allocation every time step. In particular, for the canonical case where jobs have weights and the resource allocation is proportional to the job's weight, we show that maintaining a constant approximate fair allocation requires $\Theta(\log^* n)$ disruptions per job, almost matching the bounds in prior work for the unit weight case. For the more general setting where the allocation policy only decreases the allocation to a job when new jobs arrive, we show that maintaining a constant approximate fair allocation requires $\Theta(\log n)$ disruptions per job. We then consider the model where jobs can both arrive and depart. We first show strong lower bounds on the number of disruptions required to maintain constant approximate fairness for arbitrary instances. In contrast we then show that there there is an algorithm that can maintain constant approximate fairness with $O(1)$ expected disruptions per job if the weights of the jobs are independent of the jobs arrival and departure order. We finally show how our results can be extended to the setting with multiple resources.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • 75,000,000,000 Streaming Inserts/Second Using Hierarchical Hypersparse GraphBLAS Matrices
    arXiv.cs.PF Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Jeremy Kepner; Tim Davis; Chansup Byun; William Arcand; David Bestor; William Bergeron; Vijay Gadepally; Matthew Hubbell; Michael Houle; Michael Jones; Anna Klein; Peter Michaleas; Lauren Milechin; Julie Mullen; Andrew Prout; Antonio Rosa; Siddharth Samsi; Charles Yee; Albert Reuther

    The SuiteSparse GraphBLAS C-library implements high performance hypersparse matrices with bindings to a variety of languages (Python, Julia, and Matlab/Octave). GraphBLAS provides a lightweight in-memory database implementation of hypersparse matrices that are ideal for analyzing many types of network data, while providing rigorous mathematical guarantees, such as linearity. Streaming updates of hypersparse matrices put enormous pressure on the memory hierarchy. This work benchmarks an implementation of hierarchical hypersparse matrices that reduces memory pressure and dramatically increases the update rate into a hypersparse matrices. The parameters of hierarchical hypersparse matrices rely on controlling the number of entries in each level in the hierarchy before an update is cascaded. The parameters are easily tunable to achieve optimal performance for a variety of applications. Hierarchical hypersparse matrices achieve over 1,000,000 updates per second in a single instance. Scaling to 31,000 instances of hierarchical hypersparse matrices arrays on 1,100 server nodes on the MIT SuperCloud achieved a sustained update rate of 75,000,000,000 updates per second. This capability allows the MIT SuperCloud to analyze extremely large streaming network data sets.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • A Simple Model for Portable and Fast Prediction of Execution Time and Power Consumption of GPU Kernels
    arXiv.cs.PF Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Lorenz Braun; Sotirios Nikas; Chen Song; Vincent Heuveline; Holger Fröning

    Characterizing compute kernel execution behavior on GPUs for efficient task scheduling is a non trivial task. We address this with a simple model enabling portable and fast predictions among different GPUs using only hardware-independent features extracted. This model is built based on random forests using 189 individual compute kernels from benchmarks such as Parboil, Rodinia, Polybench-GPU and SHOC. Evaluation of the model performance using cross-validation yields a median Mean Average Percentage Error (MAPE) of [13.45%, 44.56%] and [1.81%, 2.91%], for time respectively power prediction on five different GPUs, while latency for a single prediction varies between 0.1 and 0.2 seconds.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Beyond Safety Drivers: Staffing a Teleoperations System for Autonomous Vehicles
    arXiv.cs.PF Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    Andrew Daw; Robert C. Hampshire; Jamol Pender

    Driverless vehicles promise a host of societal benefits including dramatically improved safety, increased accessibility, greater productivity, and higher quality of life. As this new technology approaches widespread deployment, both industry and government are making provisions for teleoperations systems, in which remote human agents provide assistance to driverless vehicles. This assistance can involve real-time remote operation and even ahead-of-time input via human-in-the-loop artificial intelligence systems. In this paper, we address the problem of staffing such a remote support center. Our analysis focuses on the tradeoffs between the total number of remote agents, the reliability of the remote support system, and the resulting safety of the driverless vehicles. By establishing a novel connection between queues with large batch arrivals and storage processes, we determine the probability of the system exceeding its service capacity. This connection drives our staffing methodology. We also develop a numerical method to compute the exact staffing level needed to achieve various performance measures. This moment generating function based technique may be of independent interest, and our overall staffing analysis may be of use in other applications that combine human expertise and automated systems.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Communication-Efficient Jaccard Similarity for High-Performance Distributed Genome Comparisons
    arXiv.cs.PF Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Maciej Besta; Raghavendra Kanakagiri; Harun Mustafa; Mikhail Karasikov; Gunnar Rätsch; Torsten Hoefler; Edgar Solomonik

    The Jaccard similarity index is an important measure of the overlap of two sets, widely used in machine learning, computational genomics, information retrieval, and many other areas. We design and implement SimilarityAtScale, the first communication-efficient distributed algorithm for computing the Jaccard similarity among pairs of large datasets. Our algorithm provides an efficient encoding of this problem into a multiplication of sparse matrices. Both the encoding and sparse matrix product are performed in a way that minimizes data movement in terms of communication and synchronization costs. We apply our algorithm to obtain similarity among all pairs of a set of large samples of genomes. This task is a key part of modern metagenomics analysis and an evergrowing need due to the increasing availability of high-throughput DNA sequencing data. The resulting scheme is the first to enable accurate Jaccard distance derivations for massive datasets, using largescale distributed-memory systems. We package our routines in a tool, called GenomeAtScale, that combines the proposed algorithm with tools for processing input sequences. Our evaluation on real data illustrates that one can use GenomeAtScale to effectively employ tens of thousands of processors to reach new frontiers in large-scale genomic and metagenomic analysis. While GenomeAtScale can be used to foster DNA research, the more general underlying SimilarityAtScale algorithm may be used for high-performance distributed similarity computations in other data analytics application domains.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • BIRL: Benchmark on Image Registration methods with Landmark validation
    arXiv.cs.PF Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Jiri Borovec

    This report presents a generic image registration benchmark with automatic evaluation using landmark annotations. The key features of the BIRL framework are: easily extendable, performance evaluation, parallel experimentation, simple visualisations, experiment's time-out limit, resuming unfinished experiments. From the research practice, we identified and focused on these two main use-cases: (a) comparison of user's (newly developed) method with some State-of-the-Art (SOTA) methods on a common dataset and (b) experimenting SOTA methods on user's custom dataset (which should contain landmark annotation). Moreover, we present an integration of several standard image registration methods aiming at biomedical imaging into the BIRL framework. This report also contains experimental results of these SOTA methods on the CIMA dataset, which is a dataset of Whole Slice Imaging (WSI) from histology/pathology containing several multi-stain tissue samples from three tissue kinds. Source and results: https://borda.github.io/BIRL

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • A New Model to Analyze Power and Communication System Intra-and-Inter Dependencies
    arXiv.cs.NI Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Sohini Roy; Harish Chandrasekaran; Anamitra Pal; Arunabha Sen

    The reliable and resilient operation of the smart grid necessitates a clear understanding of the intra-and-inter dependencies of its power and communication systems. This understanding can only be achieved by accurately depicting the interactions between the different components of these two systems. This paper presents a model, called modified implicative interdependency model (MIIM), for capturing these interactions. Data obtained from a power utility in the U.S. Southwest is used to ensure the validity of the model. The performance of the model for a specific power system application namely, state estimation, is demonstrated using the IEEE 118-bus system. The results indicate that the proposed model is more accurate than its predecessor, the implicative interdependency model (IIM) [1], in predicting the system state in case of failures in the power and/or communication systems.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Modeling of Deep Neural Network (DNN) Placement and Inference in Edge Computing
    arXiv.cs.NI Pub Date : 2020-01-19
    Mounir Bensalem; Jasenka Dizdarević; Admela Jukan

    With the edge computing becoming an increasingly adopted concept in system architectures, it is expected its utilization will be additionally heightened when combined with deep learning (DL) techniques. The idea behind integrating demanding processing algorithms in Internet of Things (IoT) and edge devices, such as Deep Neural Network (DNN), has in large measure benefited from the development of edge computing hardware, as well as from adapting the algorithms for use in resource constrained IoT devices. Surprisingly, there are no models yet to optimally place and use machine learning in edge computing. In this paper, we propose the first model of optimal placement of Deep Neural Network (DNN) Placement and Inference in edge computing. We present a mathematical formulation to the DNN Model Variant Selection and Placement (MVSP) problem considering the inference latency of different model-variants, communication latency between nodes, and utilization cost of edge computing nodes. We evaluate our model numerically, and show that for low load increasing model co-location decreases the average latency by 33% of millisecond-scale per request, and for high load, by 21%.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • On the Necessity and Design of Coordination Mechanism for Cognitive Autonomous Networks
    arXiv.cs.NI Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Anubhab Banerjee; Stephen S. Mwanje; Georg Carle

    Cognitive Autonomous Networks (CAN) are promoted to advance Self Organizing Network (SON), replacing rule-based SON Functions (SFs) with Cognitive Functions (CFs), which learn optimal behavior by interacting with the network. As in SON, CFs do encounter conflicts due to overlap in parameters or objectives. However, owing to the non-deterministic behavior of CFs, these conflicts cannot be resolved using rulebased methods and new solutions are required. This paper investigates the CF deployments with and without a coordination mechanism, and proves both heuristically and mathematically that a coordination mechanism is required. Using a two-CF Multi-Agent-System model with the possible types of conflicts, we show that the challenge is a typical bargaining problem, for which the optimal response is the Nash bargaining Solution (NBS). We use NBS to propose a coordination mechanism design that is capable of resolving the conflicts and show via simulations how implementation of the proposed solution is feasible in real life scenario.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Hide Me: Enabling Location Privacy in Heterogeneous Vehicular Networks
    arXiv.cs.NI Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Tobias Meuser; Oluwasegun Taiwo Ojo; Daniel Bischoff; Antonio Fernández Anta; Ioannis Stavrakakis; Ralf Steinmetz

    To support location-based services, vehicles must share their location with a server to receive relevant data, compromising their (location) privacy. To alleviate this privacy compromise, the vehicle's location can be obfuscated by adding artificial noise. Under limited available bandwidth, and since the area including the vehicle's location increases with the noise, the server will provide fewer data relevant to the vehicle's true location, reducing the effectiveness of a location-based service. To alleviate this problem, we propose that data relevant to a vehicle is also provided through direct, ad hoc communication by neighboring vehicles. Through such Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) cooperation, the impact of location obfuscation is mitigated. Since vehicles subscribe to data of (location-dependent) impact values, neighboring vehicles will subscribe to largely overlapping sets of data, reducing the benefit of V2V cooperation. To increase such benefit, we develop and study a non-cooperative game determining the data that a vehicle should subscribe to, aiming at maximizing its utilization while considering the participating (neighboring) vehicles. Our analysis and results show that the proposed V2V cooperation and derived strategy lead to significant performance increase compared to non-cooperative approaches and largely alleviates the impact of privacy on location-based services.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
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