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  •   Extremely large telescopes at risk
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-23
    Michael S. Turner

    Images of the cosmos from the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope have awed the public and astronomers alike. Until the Hubble, breakthroughs in astronomy came from big telescopes on mountain-top observatories—discoveries that include the expansion of the Universe and planets orbiting other stars. A new generation of extremely large ground-based telescopes is under development

  •   Backpropagation-free training of deep physical neural networks
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-23
    Ali Momeni, Babak Rahmani, Matthieu Malléjac, Philipp del Hougne, Romain Fleury

    Recent successes in deep learning for vision and natural language processing are attributed to larger models but come with energy consumption and scalability issues. Current training of digital deep learning models primarily relies on backpropagation that is unsuitable for physical implementation. Here, we proposed a simple deep neural network architecture augmented by a physical local learning (PhyLL)

  •   African energy transitions should be driven from the ground up
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-23
    Rose M. Mutiso

    At the UN climate summit (COP28) kicking off in Dubai next week, we can expect the nations of the world to issue a flurry of energy- and climate-related announcements, pledges, and plans. Like their global peers, African governments will be using COP28 to demonstrate their climate ambition, building on commitments they made at the inaugural African Climate Summit held three months prior in Nairobi

  •   Palladium catalysis enables cross-coupling–like S N 2-glycosylation of phenols
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-23
    Li-Fan Deng, Yingwei Wang, Shiyang Xu, Ao Shen, Hangping Zhu, Siyu Zhang, Xia Zhang, Dawen Niu

    Despite their importance in life and material sciences, the efficient construction of stereo-defined glycosides remains a challenge. Studies of carbohydrate functions would be advanced if glycosylation methods were as reliable and modular as palladium (Pd)-catalyzed cross-coupling. However, Pd-catalysis excels in forming sp 2 -hybridized carbon centers whereas glycosylation mostly builds sp 3 -hybridized

  •   Screening strategy for developing thermoelectric interface materials
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-23
    Liangjun Xie, Li Yin, Yuan Yu, Guyang Peng, Shaowei Song, Pingjun Ying, Songting Cai, Yuxin Sun, Wenjing Shi, Hao Wu, Nuo Qu, Fengkai Guo, Wei Cai, Haijun Wu, Qian Zhang, Kornelius Nielsch, Zhifeng Ren, Zihang Liu, Jiehe Sui

    Thermoelectric interface materials (TEiMs) are essential to the development of thermoelectric generators. Common TEiMs use pure metals or binary alloys but have performance stability issues. Conventional selection of TEiMs generally relies on trial-and-error experimentation. We developed a TEiM screening strategy that is based on phase diagram predictions by density functional theory calculations.

  •   Morphogens enable interacting supracellular phases that generate organ architecture
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-23
    Sichen Yang, Karl H. Palmquist, Levy Nathan, Charlotte R. Pfeifer, Paula J. Schultheiss, Anurag Sharma, Lance C. Kam, Pearson W. Miller, Amy E. Shyer, Alan R. Rodrigues

    During vertebrate organogenesis, increases in morphological complexity are tightly coupled to morphogen expression. In this work, we studied how morphogens influence self-organizing processes at the collective or “supra”-cellular scale in avian skin. We made physical measurements across length scales, which revealed morphogen-enabled material property differences that were amplified at supracellular

  •   Air channels create a directional light signal to regulate hypocotyl phototropism
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-23
    Ganesh M. Nawkar, Martina Legris, Anupama Goyal, Emanuel Schmid-Siegert, Jérémy Fleury, Antonio Mucciolo, Damien De Bellis, Martine Trevisan, Andreas Schueler, Christian Fankhauser

    In plants, light direction is perceived by the phototropin photoreceptors, which trigger directional growth responses known as phototropism. The formation of a phototropin activation gradient across a photosensitive organ initiates this response. However, the optical tissue properties that functionally contribute to phototropism remain unclear. In this work, we show that intercellular air channels

  •   A rugged yet easily navigable fitness landscape
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-23
    Andrei Papkou, Lucia Garcia-Pastor, José Antonio Escudero, Andreas Wagner

    Fitness landscape theory predicts that rugged landscapes with multiple peaks impair Darwinian evolution, but experimental evidence is limited. In this study, we used genome editing to map the fitness of >260,000 genotypes of the key metabolic enzyme dihydrofolate reductase in the presence of the antibiotic trimethoprim, which targets this enzyme. The resulting landscape is highly rugged and harbors

  •   Pregnancy-responsive pools of adult neural stem cells for transient neurogenesis in mothers
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-23
    Zayna Chaker, Corina Segalada, Jonas A. Kretz, Ilhan E. Acar, Ana C. Delgado, Valerie Crotet, Andreas E. Moor, Fiona Doetsch

    Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) contribute to lifelong brain plasticity. In the adult mouse ventricular-subventricular zone, NSCs are heterogeneous and, depending on their location in the niche, give rise to different subtypes of olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons. Here, we show that multiple regionally distinct NSCs, including domains that are usually quiescent, are recruited on different gestation days

  •   Sedimentary parameters control the sulfur isotope composition of marine pyrite
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-23
    I. Halevy, D. A. Fike, V. Pasquier, R. N. Bryant, C. B. Wenk, A. V. Turchyn, D. T. Johnston, G. E. Claypool

    Reconstructions of coupled carbon, oxygen, and sulfur cycles rely heavily on sedimentary pyrite sulfur isotope compositions (δ 34 S pyr ). With a model of sediment diagenesis, paired with global datasets of sedimentary parameters, we show that the wide range of δ 34 S pyr (~100 per mil) in modern marine sediments arises from geographic patterns in the relative rates of diffusion, burial, and microbial

  •   Rhodium catalyzed tunable amide homologation through a hook-and-slide strategy
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-23
    Rui Zhang, Tingting Yu, Guangbin Dong

    Preparation of diverse homologs from lead compounds has been a common and important practice in medicinal chemistry. However, homologation of carboxylic acid derivatives, particularly amides, remains challenging. Here we report a hook-and-slide strategy for homologation of tertiary amides with tunable lengths of the inserted carbon chain. Alkylation at the α-position of the amide (hook) is followed

  •   Dissolution enables dolomite crystal growth near ambient conditions
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-23
    Joonsoo Kim, Yuki Kimura, Brian Puchala, Tomoya Yamazaki, Udo Becker, Wenhao Sun

    Crystals grow in supersaturated solutions. A mysterious counterexample is dolomite CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 , a geologically abundant sedimentary mineral that does not readily grow at ambient conditions, not even under highly supersaturated solutions. Using atomistic simulations, we show that dolomite initially precipitates a cation-disordered surface, where high surface strains inhibit further crystal growth

  •   Deconvolving microbial and environmental controls on marine sedimentary pyrite sulfur isotope ratios
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-23
    R. N. Bryant, J. L. Houghton, C. Jones, V. Pasquier, I. Halevy, D. A. Fike

    Reconstructions of past environmental conditions and biological activity are often based on bulk stable isotope proxies, which are inherently open to multiple interpretations. This is particularly true of the sulfur isotopic composition of sedimentary pyrite (δ 34 S pyr ), which is used to reconstruct ocean-atmosphere oxidation state and track the evolution of several microbial metabolic pathways.

  •   From nature to industry: Harnessing enzymes for biocatalysis
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-23
    R. Buller, S. Lutz, R. J. Kazlauskas, R. Snajdrova, J. C. Moore, U. T. Bornscheuer

    Biocatalysis harnesses enzymes to make valuable products. This green technology is used in countless applications from bench scale to industrial production and allows practitioners to access complex organic molecules, often with fewer synthetic steps and reduced waste. The last decade has seen an explosion in the development of experimental and computational tools to tailor enzymatic properties, equipping

  •   Uncovering the functional diversity of rare CRISPR-Cas systems with deep terascale clustering
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-23
    Han Altae-Tran, Soumya Kannan, Anthony J. Suberski, Kepler S. Mears, F. Esra Demircioglu, Lukas Moeller, Selin Kocalar, Rachel Oshiro, Kira S. Makarova, Rhiannon K. Macrae, Eugene V. Koonin, Feng Zhang

    Microbial systems underpin many biotechnologies, including CRISPR, but the exponential growth of sequence databases makes it difficult to find previously unidentified systems. In this work, we develop the fast locality-sensitive hashing–based clustering (FLSHclust) algorithm, which performs deep clustering on massive datasets in linearithmic time. We incorporated FLSHclust into a CRISPR discovery pipeline

  •   Mortality risk from United States coal electricity generation
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-23
    Lucas Henneman, Christine Choirat, Irene Dedoussi, Francesca Dominici, Jessica Roberts, Corwin Zigler

    Policy-makers seeking to limit the impact of coal electricity-generating units (EGUs, also known as power plants) on air quality and climate justify regulations by quantifying the health burden attributable to exposure from these sources. We defined “coal PM 2.5 ” as fine particulate matter associated with coal EGU sulfur dioxide emissions and estimated annual exposure to coal PM 2.5 from 480 EGUs

  •   Shot noise in a strange metal
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-23
    Liyang Chen, Dale T. Lowder, Emine Bakali, Aaron Maxwell Andrews, Werner Schrenk, Monika Waas, Robert Svagera, Gaku Eguchi, Lukas Prochaska, Yiming Wang, Chandan Setty, Shouvik Sur, Qimiao Si, Silke Paschen, Douglas Natelson

    Strange-metal behavior has been observed in materials ranging from high-temperature superconductors to heavy fermion metals. In conventional metals, current is carried by quasiparticles; although it has been suggested that quasiparticles are absent in strange metals, direct experimental evidence is lacking. We measured shot noise to probe the granularity of the current-carrying excitations in nanowires

  •   Homogenized NiO x nanoparticles for improved hole transport in inverted perovskite solar cells
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-23
    Shiqi Yu, Zhuang Xiong, Haitao Zhou, Qian Zhang, Zhenhan Wang, Fei Ma, Zihan Qu, Yang Zhao, Xinbo Chu, Xingwang Zhang, Jingbi You

    The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of inverted perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is still lagging behind that of conventions PSCs in part because of inefficient carrier transport and poor morphology of hole transport layers (HTLs). We optimized self-assembly of [4-(3,6-dimethyl-9H-carbazol-9-yl)butyl]phosphonic acid (Me-4PACz) onto nickel oxide (NiO x ) nanoparticles as an HTL through treatment with

  •   An all-metal fullerene: [K@Au 12 Sb 20 ] 5−
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-16
    Yu-He Xu, Wen-Juan Tian, Alvaro Muñoz-Castro, Gernot Frenking, Zhong-Ming Sun

    The C 60 fullerene molecule has attracted tremendous interest for its distinctive nearly spherical structure. By contrast, all-metal counterparts have been elusive: Fullerene-like clusters composed of noncarbon elements typically suffer from instability, resulting in more compact geometries that require multiple embedded atoms or external ligands for stabilization. In this work, we present the synthesis

  •   Science, justice, and evidence
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-16
    Jennifer Mnookin

    Courts in the United States have increasingly relied on scientific evidence and expert testimony to help resolve questions of fact. On 1 December 2023, amendments to Federal Rule of Evidence 702 will take effect, further clarifying the court’s responsibilities as a gatekeeper for expert evidence. This update comes just a few months after the 30-year anniversary of the Supreme Court’s landmark decision

  •   Emergent symmetry in a low-dimensional superconductor on the edge of Mottness
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-16
    P. Chudzinski, M. Berben, Xiaofeng Xu, N. Wakeham, B. Bernáth, C. Duffy, R. D. H. Hinlopen, Yu-Te Hsu, S. Wiedmann, P. Tinnemans, Rongying Jin, M. Greenblatt, N. E. Hussey

    Upon cooling, condensed-matter systems typically transition into states of lower symmetry. The converse—i.e., the emergence of higher symmetry at lower temperatures—is extremely rare. In this work, we show how an unusually isotropic magnetoresistance in the highly anisotropic, one-dimensional conductor Li 0.9 Mo 6 O 17 and its temperature dependence can be interpreted as a renormalization group (RG)

  •   A tool kit of highly selective and sensitive genetically encoded neuropeptide sensors
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-16
    Huan Wang, Tongrui Qian, Yulin Zhao, Yizhou Zhuo, Chunling Wu, Takuya Osakada, Peng Chen, Zijun Chen, Huixia Ren, Yuqi Yan, Lan Geng, Shengwei Fu, Long Mei, Guochuan Li, Ling Wu, Yiwen Jiang, Weiran Qian, Li Zhang, Wanling Peng, Min Xu, Ji Hu, Man Jiang, Liangyi Chen, Chao Tang, Yingjie Zhu, Dayu Lin, Jiang-Ning Zhou, Yulong Li

    Neuropeptides are key signaling molecules in the endocrine and nervous systems that regulate many critical physiological processes. Understanding the functions of neuropeptides in vivo requires the ability to monitor their dynamics with high specificity, sensitivity, and spatiotemporal resolution. However, this has been hindered by the lack of direct, sensitive, and noninvasive tools. We developed

  •   Particle-phase accretion forms dimer esters in pinene secondary organic aerosol
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-16
    Christopher M. Kenseth, Nicholas J. Hafeman, Samir P. Rezgui, Jing Chen, Yuanlong Huang, Nathan F. Dalleska, Henrik G. Kjaergaard, Brian M. Stoltz, John H. Seinfeld, Paul O. Wennberg

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is ubiquitous in the atmosphere and plays a pivotal role in climate, air quality, and health. The production of low-volatility dimeric compounds through accretion reactions is a key aspect of SOA formation. However, despite extensive study, the structures and thus the formation mechanisms of dimers in SOA remain largely uncharacterized. In this work, we elucidate the

  •   Curbing global solid waste emissions toward net-zero warming futures
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-16
    Zheng Xuan Hoy, Kok Sin Woon, Wen Cheong Chin, Yee Van Fan, Seung Jick Yoo

    No global analysis has considered the warming that could be averted through improved solid waste management and how much that could contribute to meeting the Paris Agreement’s 1.5° and 2°C pathway goals or the terms of the Global Methane Pledge. With our estimated global solid waste generation of 2.56 to 3.33 billion tonnes by 2050, implementing abrupt technical and behavioral changes could result

  •   Cooperation across social borders in bonobos
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-16
    Liran Samuni, Martin Surbeck

    Cooperation beyond familial and group boundaries is core to the functioning of human societies, yet its evolution remains unclear. To address this, we examined grooming, coalition, and food-sharing patterns in bonobos ( Pan paniscus ), one of our closest living relatives whose rare out-group tolerance facilitates interaction opportunities between groups. We show that, as in humans, positive assortment

  •   Bimolecularly passivated interface enables efficient and stable inverted perovskite solar cells
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-16
    Cheng Liu, Yi Yang, Hao Chen, Jian Xu, Ao Liu, Abdulaziz S. R. Bati, Huihui Zhu, Luke Grater, Shreyash Sudhakar Hadke, Chuying Huang, Vinod K. Sangwan, Tong Cai, Donghoon Shin, Lin X. Chen, Mark C. Hersam, Chad A. Mirkin, Bin Chen, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis, Edward H. Sargent

    Compared with the n-i-p structure, inverted (p-i-n) perovskite solar cells (PSCs) promise increased operating stability, but these photovoltaic cells often exhibit lower power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) because of nonradiative recombination losses, particularly at the perovskite/C 60 interface. We passivated surface defects and enabled reflection of minority carriers from the interface into the

  •   Nickel-catalyzed ester carbonylation promoted by imidazole-derived carbenes and salts
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-16
    Changho Yoo, Shrabanti Bhattacharya, Xin Yi See, Drew W. Cunningham, Sebastian Acosta-Calle, Steven T. Perri, Nathan M. West, Dawn C. Mason, Chris D. Meade, Christopher W. Osborne, Phillip W. Turner, Randall W. Kilgore, Jeff King, Jeffrey H. Cowden, Javier M. Grajeda, Alexander J. M. Miller

    Millions of tons of acetyl derivatives such as acetic acid and acetic anhydride are produced each year. These building blocks of chemical industry are elaborated into esters, amides, and eventually polymer materials, pharmaceuticals, and other consumer products. Most acetyls are produced industrially using homogeneous precious metal catalysts, principally rhodium and iridium complexes. We report here

  •   Brain games?
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-16
    Charles Piller

    Whistleblowers and former lab members suggest a star neuroscientist routinely manipulated data, compromising a planned NIH stroke trial and key Alzheimer’s research

  •   Design principles of 3D epigenetic memory systems
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-16
    Jeremy A. Owen, Dino Osmanović, Leonid Mirny

    Cells remember their identities, in part, by using epigenetic marks—chemical modifications placed along the genome. How can mark patterns remain stable over cell generations despite their constant erosion by replication and other processes? We developed a theoretical model that reveals that three-dimensional (3D) genome organization can stabilize epigenetic memory as long as (i) there is a large density

  •   High cooling performance in a double-loop electrocaloric heat pump
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-16
    Junning Li, Alvar Torelló, Veronika Kovacova, Uros Prah, Ashwath Aravindhan, Torsten Granzow, Tomoyasu Usui, Sakyo Hirose, Emmanuel Defay

    Cooling through solid-state electrocaloric materials is an attractive replacement for vapor compression. Despite recent efforts, devices that are potentially commercially competitive have not been developed. We present an electrocaloric cooler with a maximum temperature span of 20.9 kelvin and a maximum cooling power of 4.2 watts under the moderate applied electric field of 10 volts per micrometer

  •   Mechanism of target site selection by type V-K CRISPR-associated transposases
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-16
    Jerrin Thomas George, Christopher Acree, Jung-Un Park, Muwen Kong, Tanner Wiegand, Yanis Luca Pignot, Elizabeth H. Kellogg, Eric C. Greene, Samuel H. Sternberg

    CRISPR-associated transposases (CASTs) repurpose nuclease-deficient CRISPR effectors to catalyze RNA-guided transposition of large genetic payloads. Type V-K CASTs offer potential technology advantages but lack accuracy, and the molecular basis for this drawback has remained elusive. Here, we reveal that type V-K CASTs maintain an RNA-independent, “untargeted” transposition pathway alongside RNA-dependent

  •   Time-resolved live-cell spectroscopy reveals EphA2 multimeric assembly
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-16
    Xiaojun Shi, Ryan Lingerak, Cameron J. Herting, Yifan Ge, Soyeon Kim, Paul Toth, Wei Wang, Benjamin P. Brown, Jens Meiler, Khalid Sossey-Alaoui, Matthias Buck, Juha Himanen, Dolores Hambardzumyan, Dimitar B. Nikolov, Adam W. Smith, Bingcheng Wang

    Ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that initiates both ligand-dependent tumor suppressive and ligand-independent oncogenic signaling. We used time-resolved, live-cell fluorescence spectroscopy to show that the ligand-free EphA2 assembles into multimers driven by two types of intermolecular interactions in the ectodomain. The first type entails extended symmetric interactions

  •   Surface climate signals transmitted rapidly to deep North Atlantic throughout last millennium
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-16
    Wanyi Lu, Delia W. Oppo, Geoffrey Gebbie, David J. R. Thornalley

    Instrumental observations of subsurface ocean warming imply that ocean heat uptake has slowed 20th-century surface warming. We present high-resolution records from subpolar North Atlantic sediments that are consistent with instrumental observations of surface and deep warming/freshening and in addition reconstruct the surface-deep relation of the last 1200 years. Sites from ~1300 meters and deeper

  •   A strong quick-release biointerface in mussels mediated by serotonergic cilia-based adhesion
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-16
    Jenaes Sivasundarampillai, Lucia Youssef, Tobias Priemel, Sydney Mikulin, E. Deniz Eren, Paul Zaslansky, Franziska Jehle, Matthew J. Harrington

    The mussel byssus stem provides a strong and compact mechanically mismatched biointerface between living tissue and a nonliving biopolymer. Yet, in a poorly understood process, mussels can simply jettison their entire byssus, rebuilding a new one in just hours. We characterized the structure and composition of the byssus biointerface using histology, confocal Raman mapping, phase contrast–enhanced

  •   Humans are biocultural, science should be too
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-16
    Agustín Fuentes

    COVID-19 is restructuring societies. Loneliness is a global health threat. Large language models are outputting biased health care information, and human–artificial intelligence (AI) interfaces are reshaping how we live. For most humans, technology, biology, and society are hopelessly entangled. Are the sciences prepared to tackle the contemporary human experience?

  •   Learning skillful medium-range global weather forecasting
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-14
    Remi Lam, Alvaro Sanchez-Gonzalez, Matthew Willson, Peter Wirnsberger, Meire Fortunato, Ferran Alet, Suman Ravuri, Timo Ewalds, Zach Eaton-Rosen, Weihua Hu, Alexander Merose, Stephan Hoyer, George Holland, Oriol Vinyals, Jacklynn Stott, Alexander Pritzel, Shakir Mohamed, Peter Battaglia

    Global medium-range weather forecasting is critical to decision-making across many social and economic domains. Traditional numerical weather prediction uses increased compute resources to improve forecast accuracy, but does not directly use historical weather data to improve the underlying model. Here, we introduce “GraphCast,” a machine learning-based method trained directly from reanalysis data

  •   Large effective magnetic fields from chiral phonons in rare-earth halides
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-09
    Jiaming Luo, Tong Lin, Junjie Zhang, Xiaotong Chen, Elizabeth R. Blackert, Rui Xu, Boris I. Yakobson, Hanyu Zhu

    Time-reversal symmetry (TRS) is pivotal for materials’ optical, magnetic, topological, and transport properties. Chiral phonons, characterized by atoms rotating unidirectionally around their equilibrium positions, generate dynamic lattice structures that break TRS. Here, we report that coherent chiral phonons, driven by circularly polarized terahertz light pulses, polarize the paramagnetic spins in

  •   Plant cell wall patterning and expansion mediated by protein-peptide-polysaccharide interaction
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-09
    Steven Moussu, Hyun Kyung Lee, Kalina T. Haas, Caroline Broyart, Ursina Rathgeb, Damien De Bellis, Thomas Levasseur, Sébastjen Schoenaers, Gorka S. Fernandez, Ueli Grossniklaus, Estelle Bonnin, Eric Hosy, Kris Vissenberg, Niko Geldner, Bernard Cathala, Herman Höfte, Julia Santiago

    Assembly of cell wall polysaccharides into specific patterns is required for plant growth. A complex of RAPID ALKALINIZATION FACTOR 4 (RALF4) and its cell wall–anchored LEUCINE-RICH REPEAT EXTENSIN 8 (LRX8)–interacting protein is crucial for cell wall integrity during pollen tube growth, but its molecular connection with the cell wall is unknown. Here, we show that LRX8-RALF4 complexes adopt a heterotetrametric

  •   A solution-processed radiative cooling glass
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-09
    Xinpeng Zhao, Tangyuan Li, Hua Xie, He Liu, Lingzhe Wang, Yurui Qu, Stephanie C. Li, Shufeng Liu, Alexandra H. Brozena, Zongfu Yu, Jelena Srebric, Liangbing Hu

    Passive daytime radiative cooling materials could reduce the energy needed for building cooling up to 60% by reflecting sunlight and emitting long-wave infrared (LWIR) radiation into the cold Universe (~3 kelvin). However, developing passive cooling structures that are both practical to manufacture and apply while also displaying long-term environmental stability is challenging. We developed a randomized

  •   Prediction-powered inference
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-09
    Anastasios N. Angelopoulos, Stephen Bates, Clara Fannjiang, Michael I. Jordan, Tijana Zrnic

    Prediction-powered inference is a framework for performing valid statistical inference when an experimental dataset is supplemented with predictions from a machine-learning system. The framework yields simple algorithms for computing provably valid confidence intervals for quantities such as means, quantiles, and linear and logistic regression coefficients without making any assumptions about the machine-learning

  •   Histone removal in sperm protects paternal chromosomes from premature division at fertilization
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-09
    Raphaëlle Dubruille, Marion Herbette, Maxime Revel, Béatrice Horard, Ching-Ho Chang, Benjamin Loppin

    The global replacement of histones with protamines in sperm chromatin is widespread in animals, including insects, but its actual function remains enigmatic. We show that in the Drosophila paternal effect mutant paternal loss ( pal ), sperm chromatin retains germline histones H3 and H4 genome wide without impairing sperm viability. However, after fertilization, pal sperm chromosomes are targeted by

  •   Ultrafast mode-locked laser in nanophotonic lithium niobate
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-09
    Qiushi Guo, Benjamin K. Gutierrez, Ryoto Sekine, Robert M. Gray, James A. Williams, Luis Ledezma, Luis Costa, Arkadev Roy, Selina Zhou, Mingchen Liu, Alireza Marandi

    Mode-locked lasers (MLLs) generate ultrashort pulses with peak powers substantially exceeding their average powers. However, integrated MLLs that drive ultrafast nanophotonic circuits have remained elusive because of their typically low peak powers, lack of controllability, and challenges when integrating with nanophotonic platforms. In this work, we demonstrate an electrically pumped actively MLL

  •   Miniature battery-free bioelectronics
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-09
    Vishnu Nair, Ashley N. Dalrymple, Zhanghao Yu, Gaurav Balakrishnan, Christopher J. Bettinger, Douglas J. Weber, Kaiyuan Yang, Jacob T. Robinson

    Miniature wireless bioelectronic implants that can operate for extended periods of time can transform how we treat disorders by acting rapidly on precise nerves and organs in a way that drugs cannot. To reach this goal, materials and methods are needed to wirelessly transfer energy through the body or harvest energy from the body itself. We review some of the capabilities of emerging energy transfer

  •   Rapid bacteria-phage coevolution drives the emergence of multiscale networks
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-09
    Joshua M. Borin, Justin J. Lee, Adriana Lucia-Sanz, Krista R. Gerbino, Joshua S. Weitz, Justin R. Meyer

    Interactions between species catalyze the evolution of multiscale ecological networks, including both nested and modular elements that regulate the function of diverse communities. One common assumption is that such complex pattern formation requires spatial isolation or long evolutionary timescales. We show that multiscale network structure can evolve rapidly under simple ecological conditions without

  •   Hierarchically structured passive radiative cooling ceramic with high solar reflectivity
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-09
    Kaixin Lin, Siru Chen, Yijun Zeng, Tsz Chung Ho, Yihao Zhu, Xiong Wang, Fayu Liu, Baoling Huang, Christopher Yu-Hang Chao, Zuankai Wang, Chi Yan Tso

    Passive radiative cooling using nanophotonic structures is limited by its high cost and poor compatibility with existing end uses, whereas polymeric photonic alternatives lack weather resistance and effective solar reflection. We developed a cellular ceramic that can achieve highly efficient light scattering and a near-perfect solar reflectivity of 99.6%. These qualities, coupled with high thermal

  •   Rising wildfire risk to houses in the United States, especially in grasslands and shrublands
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-09
    Volker C. Radeloff, Miranda H. Mockrin, David Helmers, Amanda Carlson, Todd J. Hawbaker, Sebastian Martinuzzi, Franz Schug, Patricia M. Alexandre, H. Anu Kramer, Anna M. Pidgeon

    Wildfire risks to homes are increasing, especially in the wildland-urban interface (WUI), where wildland vegetation and houses are in close proximity. Notably, we found that more houses are exposed to and destroyed by grassland and shrubland fires than by forest fires in the United States. Destruction was more likely in forest fires, but they burned less WUI. The number of houses within wildfire perimeters

  •   Quantum control of trapped polyatomic molecules for eEDM searches
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-09
    Loïc Anderegg, Nathaniel B. Vilas, Christian Hallas, Paige Robichaud, Arian Jadbabaie, John M. Doyle, Nicholas R. Hutzler

    Ultracold polyatomic molecules are promising candidates for experiments in quantum science and precision searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. A key requirement is the ability to achieve full quantum control over the internal structure of the molecules. In this work, we established coherent control of individual quantum states in calcium monohydroxide (CaOH) and demonstrated a method for

  •   Aster-dependent nonvesicular transport facilitates dietary cholesterol uptake
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-09
    Alessandra Ferrari, Emily Whang, Xu Xiao, John P. Kennelly, Beatriz Romartinez-Alonso, Julia J. Mack, Thomas Weston, Kai Chen, Youngjae Kim, Marcus J. Tol, Lara Bideyan, Alexander Nguyen, Yajing Gao, Liujuan Cui, Alexander H. Bedard, Jaspreet Sandhu, Stephen D. Lee, Louise Fairall, Kevin J. Williams, Wenxin Song, Priscilla Munguia, Robert A. Russell, Martin G. Martin, Michael E. Jung, Haibo Jiang,

    Intestinal absorption is an important contributor to systemic cholesterol homeostasis. Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1) assists in the initial step of dietary cholesterol uptake, but how cholesterol moves downstream of NPC1L1 is unknown. We show that Aster-B and Aster-C are critical for nonvesicular cholesterol movement in enterocytes. Loss of NPC1L1 diminishes accessible plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol

  •   AI’s challenge of understanding the world
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-09
    Melanie Mitchell

    In thinking about the challenge of getting artificial intelligence (AI) to understand our complex world, I recalled a Twitter post from a user of Tesla’s self-driving system. The user tweeted that his car kept stopping abruptly at a particular location for no apparent reason. Then he noticed a billboard advertisement on the side of the road, featuring a sheriff holding up a stop sign. The car’s vision

  •   Design of a trigonal halide superionic conductor by regulating cation order-disorder
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-02
    Seungju Yu, Joohyeon Noh, Byunghoon Kim, Jun-Hyuk Song, Kyungbae Oh, Jaekyun Yoo, Sunyoung Lee, Sung-O Park, Wonju Kim, Byungwook Kang, Donghyun Kil, Kisuk Kang

    Lithium-metal-halides have emerged as a class of solid electrolytes that can deliver superionic conductivity comparable to that of state-of-the-art sulfide electrolytes, as well as electrochemical stability that is suitable for high-voltage (>4 volt) operations. We show that the superionic conduction in a trigonal halide, such as Li 3 MCl 6 [where metal (M) is Y or Er], is governed by the in-plane

  •   Universal chiral Luttinger liquid behavior in a graphene fractional quantum Hall point contact
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-02
    Liam A. Cohen, Noah L. Samuelson, Taige Wang, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Michael P. Zaletel, Andrea F. Young

    One-dimensional conductors are described by Luttinger liquid theory, which predicts a power-law suppression of the single-electron tunneling density of states at low voltages. The scaling exponent is predicted to be quantized when tunneling into a single isolated chiral edge state of the fractional quantum Hall effect. We report conductance measurements across a point contact linking integer and fractional

  •   Volitional activation of remote place representations with a hippocampal brain–machine interface
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-02
    Chongxi Lai, Shinsuke Tanaka, Timothy D. Harris, Albert K. Lee

    The hippocampus is critical for recollecting and imagining experiences. This is believed to involve voluntarily drawing from hippocampal memory representations of people, events, and places, including maplike representations of familiar environments. However, whether representations in such “cognitive maps” can be volitionally accessed is unknown. We developed a brain–machine interface to test whether

  •   Biodiversity market doublespeak
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-02
    Michael J. Vardon, David B. Lindenmayer

    The notion that biodiversity markets can raise money desperately needed for biodiversity conservation is gaining momentum. The dire state of biodiversity and the enormous biodiversity repair bill means that every funding option must be explored. However, the risk that trading ill-defined generic biodiversity credits will result in biodiversity loss, not conservation, should be considered. Scarce resources

  •   APOBEC3 deaminase editing in mpox virus as evidence for sustained human transmission since at least 2016
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-02
    Áine O’Toole, Richard A. Neher, Nnaemeka Ndodo, Vitor Borges, Ben Gannon, João Paulo Gomes, Natalie Groves, David J. King, Daniel Maloney, Philippe Lemey, Kuiama Lewandowski, Nicholas Loman, Richard Myers, Ifeanyi F. Omah, Marc A. Suchard, Michael Worobey, Meera Chand, Chikwe Ihekweazu, David Ulaeto, Ifedayo Adetifa, Andrew Rambaut

    Historically, mpox has been characterized as an endemic zoonotic disease that transmits through contact with the reservoir rodent host in West and Central Africa. However, in May 2022, human cases of mpox were detected spreading internationally beyond countries with known endemic reservoirs. When the first cases from 2022 were sequenced, they shared 42 nucleotide differences from the closest mpox virus

  •   Autoregulatory control of mitochondrial glutathione homeostasis
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-02
    Yuyang Liu, Shanshan Liu, Anju Tomar, Frederick S. Yen, Gokhan Unlu, Nathalie Ropek, Ross A. Weber, Ying Wang, Artem Khan, Mark Gad, Junhui Peng, Erdem Terzi, Hanan Alwaseem, Alexandra E. Pagano, Søren Heissel, Henrik Molina, Benjamin Allwein, Timothy C. Kenny, Richard L. Possemato, Li Zhao, Richard K. Hite, Ekaterina V. Vinogradova, Sheref S. Mansy, Kıvanç Birsoy

    Mitochondria must maintain adequate amounts of metabolites for protective and biosynthetic functions. However, how mitochondria sense the abundance of metabolites and regulate metabolic homeostasis is not well understood. We focused on glutathione (GSH), a critical redox metabolite in mitochondria and identified a feedback mechanism that controls its abundance through the mitochondrial GSH transporter

  •   Southern Hemisphere dominates recent decline in global water availability
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-02
    Yongqiang Zhang, Congcong Li, Francis H. S. Chiew, David A. Post, Xuanze Zhang, Ning Ma, Jing Tian, Dongdong Kong, L. Ruby Leung, Qiang Yu, Jiancheng Shi, Changming Liu

    Global land water underpins livelihoods, socioeconomic development, and ecosystems. It remains unclear how water availability has changed in recent decades. Using an ensemble of observations, we quantified global land water availability over the past two decades. We show that the Southern Hemisphere has dominated the declining trend in global water availability from 2001 to 2020. The significant decrease

  •   The −KTS splice variant of WT1 is essential for ovarian determination in mice
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-02
    Elodie P. Gregoire, Marie-Cécile De Cian, Roberta Migale, Aitana Perea-Gomez, Sébastien Schaub, Natividad Bellido-Carreras, Isabelle Stévant, Chloé Mayère, Yasmine Neirijnck, Agnès Loubat, Paul Rivaud, Miriam Llorian Sopena, Simon Lachambre, Margot M. Linssen, Peter Hohenstein, Robin Lovell-Badge, Serge Nef, Frédéric Chalmel, Andreas Schedl, Marie-Christine Chaboissier

    Sex determination in mammals depends on the differentiation of the supporting lineage of the gonads into Sertoli or pregranulosa cells that govern testis and ovary development, respectively. Although the Y-linked testis-determining gene Sry has been identified, the ovarian-determining factor remains unknown. In this study, we identified −KTS, a major, alternatively spliced isoform of the Wilms tumor

  •   Cascade-heterogated biphasic gel iontronics for electronic-to-multi-ionic signal transmission
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-02
    Weipeng Chen, Linxin Zhai, Suli Zhang, Ziguang Zhao, Yuhao Hu, Yun Xiang, Huirong Liu, Zhiping Xu, Lei Jiang, Liping Wen

    Currently, electronics and iontronics in abiotic-biotic systems can only use electrons and single-species ions as unitary signal carriers. Thus, a mechanism of gating transmission for multiple biosignals in such devices is needed to match and modulate complex aqueous-phase biological systems. Here we report the use of cascade-heterogated biphasic gel iontronics to achieve diverse electronic-to-multi-ionic

  •   Electrically gated molecular thermal switch
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-02
    Man Li, Huan Wu, Erin M. Avery, Zihao Qin, Dominic P. Goronzy, Huu Duy Nguyen, Tianhan Liu, Paul S. Weiss, Yongjie Hu

    Controlling heat flow is a key challenge for applications ranging from thermal management in electronics to energy systems, industrial processing, and thermal therapy. However, progress has generally been limited by slow response times and low tunability in thermal conductance. In this work, we demonstrate an electronically gated solid-state thermal switch using self-assembled molecular junctions to

  •   Make the upcoming IPCC Cities Special Report count
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2023-11-02
    Xuemei Bai

    Cities are receiving increasing attention in global assessments over the past two decades. It has been a hard-fought shift for many urban researchers, but the biggest impetus stems from the pivotal role cities play both as drivers and bearers of impacts of global environmental change. Notably, cities are home to 57% of the world’s population, responsible for over 70% of global consumption–related carbon

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