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  • Combating COVID-19—The role of robotics in managing public health and infectious diseases
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Guang-Zhong Yang, Bradley J. Nelson, Robin R. Murphy, Howie Choset, Henrik Christensen, Steven H. Collins, Paolo Dario, Ken Goldberg, Koji Ikuta, Neil Jacobstein, Danica Kragic, Russell H. Taylor, Marcia McNutt

    COVID-19 may drive sustained research in robotics to address risks of infectious diseases.

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • Improving the energy economy of human running with powered and unpowered ankle exoskeleton assistance
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Kirby A. Witte, Pieter Fiers, Alison L. Sheets-Singer, Steven H. Collins

    Exoskeletons that reduce energetic cost could make recreational running more enjoyable and improve running performance. Although there are many ways to assist runners, the best approaches remain unclear. In our study, we used a tethered ankle exoskeleton emulator to optimize both powered and spring-like exoskeleton characteristics while participants ran on a treadmill. We expected powered conditions

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • An untethered isoperimetric soft robot
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2020-03-18
    Nathan S. Usevitch, Zachary M. Hammond, Mac Schwager, Allison M. Okamura, Elliot W. Hawkes, Sean Follmer

    For robots to be useful for real-world applications, they must be safe around humans, be adaptable to their environment, and operate in an untethered manner. Soft robots could potentially meet these requirements; however, existing soft robotic architectures are limited by their ability to scale to human sizes and operate at these scales without a tether to transmit power or pressurized air from an

    更新日期:2020-03-19
  • Dynamic obstacle avoidance for quadrotors with event cameras
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2020-03-18
    Davide Falanga, Kevin Kleber, Davide Scaramuzza

    Today’s autonomous drones have reaction times of tens of milliseconds, which is not enough for navigating fast in complex dynamic environments. To safely avoid fast moving objects, drones need low-latency sensors and algorithms. We departed from state-of-the-art approaches by using event cameras, which are bioinspired sensors with reaction times of microseconds. Our approach exploits the temporal information

    更新日期:2020-03-19
  • Autonomous cars in science fiction
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Robin R. Murphy

    We view autonomous cars just like the ones in science fiction, and that could be a problem.

    更新日期:2020-02-27
  • Sustainable manufacturing of sensors onto soft systems using self-coagulating conductive Pickering emulsions
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Sang Yup Kim, Youngwoo Choo, R. Adam Bilodeau, Michelle C. Yuen, Gilad Kaufman, Dylan S. Shah, Chinedum O. Osuji, Rebecca Kramer-Bottiglio

    Compliant sensors based on composite materials are necessary components for geometrically complex systems such as wearable devices or soft robots. Composite materials consisting of polymer matrices and conductive fillers have facilitated the manufacture of compliant sensors due to their potential to be scaled in printing processes. Printing composite materials generally entails the use of solvents

    更新日期:2020-02-27
  • Modeling engagement in long-term, in-home socially assistive robot interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Shomik Jain, Balasubramanian Thiagarajan, Zhonghao Shi, Caitlyn Clabaugh, Maja J. Matarić

    Socially assistive robotics (SAR) has great potential to provide accessible, affordable, and personalized therapeutic interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, human-robot interaction (HRI) methods are still limited in their ability to autonomously recognize and respond to behavioral cues, especially in atypical users and everyday settings. This work applies supervised

    更新日期:2020-02-27
  • A ferrobotic system for automated microfluidic logistics
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Wenzhuo Yu, Haisong Lin, Yilian Wang, Xu He, Nathan Chen, Kevin Sun, Darren Lo, Brian Cheng, Christopher Yeung, Jiawei Tan, Dino Di Carlo, Sam Emaminejad

    Automated technologies that can perform massively parallelized and sequential fluidic operations at small length scales can resolve major bottlenecks encountered in various fields, including medical diagnostics, -omics, drug development, and chemical/material synthesis. Inspired by the transformational impact of automated guided vehicle systems on manufacturing, warehousing, and distribution industries

    更新日期:2020-02-27
  • Autonomic perspiration in 3D-printed hydrogel actuators
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2020-01-29
    Anand K. Mishra, Thomas J. Wallin, Wenyang Pan, Patricia Xu, Kaiyang Wang, Emmanuel P. Giannelis, Barbara Mazzolai, Robert F. Shepherd

    In both biological and engineered systems, functioning at peak power output for prolonged periods of time requires thermoregulation. Here, we report a soft hydrogel-based actuator that can maintain stable body temperatures via autonomic perspiration. Using multimaterial stereolithography, we three-dimensionally print finger-like fluidic elastomer actuators having a poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAm)

    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • A bioinspired Separated Flow wing provides turbulence resilience and aerodynamic efficiency for miniature drones
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2020-01-29
    Matteo Di Luca, Stefano Mintchev, Yunxing Su, Eric Shaw, Kenneth Breuer

    Small-scale drones have enough sensing and computing power to find use across a growing number of applications. However, flying in the low–Reynolds number regime remains challenging. High sensitivity to atmospheric turbulence compromises vehicle stability and control, and low aerodynamic efficiency limits flight duration. Conventional wing designs have thus far failed to address these two deficiencies

    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • An organosynthetic dynamic heart model with enhanced biomimicry guided by cardiac diffusion tensor imaging
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2020-01-29
    Clara Park, Yiling Fan, Gregor Hager, Hyunwoo Yuk, Manisha Singh, Allison Rojas, Aamir Hameed, Mossab Saeed, Nikolay V. Vasilyev, Terry W. J. Steele, Xuanhe Zhao, Christopher T. Nguyen, Ellen T. Roche

    The complex motion of the beating heart is accomplished by the spatial arrangement of contracting cardiomyocytes with varying orientation across the transmural layers, which is difficult to imitate in organic or synthetic models. High-fidelity testing of intracardiac devices requires anthropomorphic, dynamic cardiac models that represent this complex motion while maintaining the intricate anatomical

    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • Metal or muscle? The future of biologically inspired robots
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Barry Andrew Trimmer

    Biology has inspired the development of agile robots, and it is now teaching us how to grow machines from living cells.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Human adipose–derived mesenchymal stem cell–based medical microrobot system for knee cartilage regeneration in vivo
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Gwangjun Go, Sin-Gu Jeong, Ami Yoo, Jiwon Han, Byungjeon Kang, Seokjae Kim, Kim Tien Nguyen, Zhen Jin, Chang-Sei Kim, Yu Ri Seo, Ju Yeon Kang, Ju Yong Na, Eun Kyoo Song, Yongyeon Jeong, Jong Keun Seon, Jong-Oh Park, Eunpyo Choi

    Targeted cell delivery by a magnetically actuated microrobot with a porous structure is a promising technique to enhance the low targeting efficiency of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) in tissue regeneration. However, the relevant research performed to date is only in its proof-of-concept stage. To use the microrobot in a clinical stage, biocompatibility and biodegradation materials should be considered

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • A vision for future bioinspired and biohybrid robots
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Barbara Mazzolai, Cecilia Laschi

    Bioinspired and biohybrid robots can help respond to diverse, sustainable application needs.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Soft biohybrid morphing wings with feathers underactuated by wrist and finger motion
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Eric Chang, Laura Y. Matloff, Amanda K. Stowers, David Lentink

    Since the Wright Flyer, engineers have strived to develop flying machines with morphing wings that can control flight as deftly as birds. Birds morph their wing planform parameters simultaneously—including sweep, span, and area—in a way that has proven to be particularly challenging to embody robotically. Previous solutions have primarily centered around the classical aerospace paradigm of controlling

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Forging global cooperation and collaboration
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Guang-Zhong Yang, Tong Boon Quek, Stefano Stramigioli, Han Ding, Dong Sun, Junku Yuh

    As researchers create better robots, major robotics initiatives and government funding programs need better international cooperation and collaboration.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • A tale of two explanations: Enhancing human trust by explaining robot behavior
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Mark Edmonds, Feng Gao, Hangxin Liu, Xu Xie, Siyuan Qi, Brandon Rothrock, Yixin Zhu, Ying Nian Wu, Hongjing Lu, Song-Chun Zhu

    The ability to provide comprehensive explanations of chosen actions is a hallmark of intelligence. Lack of this ability impedes the general acceptance of AI and robot systems in critical tasks. This paper examines what forms of explanations best foster human trust in machines and proposes a framework in which explanations are generated from both functional and mechanistic perspectives. The robot system

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • A formal methods approach to interpretable reinforcement learning for robotic planning
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Xiao Li, Zachary Serlin, Guang Yang, Calin Belta

    Growing interest in reinforcement learning approaches to robotic planning and control raises concerns of predictability and safety of robot behaviors realized solely through learned control policies. In addition, formally defining reward functions for complex tasks is challenging, and faulty rewards are prone to exploitation by the learning agent. Here, we propose a formal methods approach to reinforcement

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • An autonomous untethered fast soft robotic insect driven by low-voltage dielectric elastomer actuators
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Xiaobin Ji, Xinchang Liu, Vito Cacucciolo, Matthias Imboden, Yoan Civet, Alae El Haitami, Sophie Cantin, Yves Perriard, Herbert Shea

    Insects are a constant source of inspiration for roboticists. Their compliant bodies allow them to squeeze through small openings and be highly resilient to impacts. However, making subgram autonomous soft robots untethered and capable of responding intelligently to the environment is a long-standing challenge. One obstacle is the low power density of soft actuators, leading to small robots unable

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • XAI—Explainable artificial intelligence
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    David Gunning, Mark Stefik, Jaesik Choi, Timothy Miller, Simone Stumpf, Guang-Zhong Yang

    Explainability is essential for users to effectively understand, trust, and manage powerful artificial intelligence applications.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Explainable robotics in science fiction
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Robin R. Murphy

    Would we trust a robot? Science fiction says no, but explainable robotics may find a way.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Bioinspired dual-morphing stretchable origami
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Woongbae Kim, Junghwan Byun, Jae-Kyeong Kim, Woo-Young Choi, Kirsten Jakobsen, Joachim Jakobsen, Dae-Young Lee, Kyu-Jin Cho

    Nature demonstrates adaptive and extreme shape morphing via unique patterns of movement. Many of them have been explained by monolithic shape-changing mechanisms, such as chemical swelling, skin stretching, origami/kirigami morphing, or geometric eversion, that were successfully mimicked in artificial analogs. However, there still remains an unexplored regime of natural morphing that cannot be reproduced

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A robotic Intelligent Towing Tank for learning complex fluid-structure dynamics
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    D. Fan, G. Jodin, T. R. Consi, L. Bonfiglio, Y. Ma, L. R. Keyes, G. E. Karniadakis, M. S. Triantafyllou

    We describe the development of the Intelligent Towing Tank, an automated experimental facility guided by active learning to conduct a sequence of vortex-induced vibration (VIV) experiments, wherein the parameters of each next experiment are selected by minimizing suitable acquisition functions of quantified uncertainties. This constitutes a potential paradigm shift in conducting experimental research

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Using the fringe field of a clinical MRI scanner enables robotic navigation of tethered instruments in deeper vascular regions
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Arash Azizi, Charles C. Tremblay, Kévin Gagné, Sylvain Martel

    Navigating tethered instruments through the vasculatures to reach deeper physiological locations presently inaccessible would extend the applicability of many medical interventions, including but not limited to local diagnostics, imaging, and therapies. Navigation through narrower vessels requires minimizing the diameter of the instrument, resulting in a decrease of its stiffness until steerability

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Dynamic locomotion synchronization of bipedal robot and human operator via bilateral feedback teleoperation
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Joao Ramos, Sangbae Kim

    Despite remarkable progress in artificial intelligence, autonomous humanoid robots are still far from matching human-level manipulation and locomotion proficiency in real applications. Proficient robots would be ideal first responders to dangerous scenarios such as natural or man-made disasters. When handling these situations, robots must be capable of navigating highly unstructured terrain and dexterously

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Magnetic quadrupole assemblies with arbitrary shapes and magnetizations
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Hongri Gu, Quentin Boehler, Daniel Ahmed, Bradley J. Nelson

    Magnetic dipole-dipole interactions govern the behavior of magnetic matter across scales from micrometer colloidal particles to centimeter magnetic soft robots. This pairwise long-range interaction creates rich emergent phenomena under both static and dynamic magnetic fields. However, magnetic dipole particles, from either ferromagnetic or paramagnetic materials, tend to form chain-like structures

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Teaching robots social autonomy from in situ human guidance
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Emmanuel Senft, Séverin Lemaignan, Paul E. Baxter, Madeleine Bartlett, Tony Belpaeme

    Striking the right balance between robot autonomy and human control is a core challenge in social robotics, in both technical and ethical terms. On the one hand, extended robot autonomy offers the potential for increased human productivity and for the off-loading of physical and cognitive tasks. On the other hand, making the most of human technical and social expertise, as well as maintaining accountability

    更新日期:2019-10-24
  • Your mileage may vary
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Elena Messina

    Rigorous experiments enabling reproducibility are needed to advance the rapidly growing field of robotics more efficiently.

    更新日期:2019-10-24
  • Minimal navigation solution for a swarm of tiny flying robots to explore an unknown environment
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    K. N. McGuire, C. De Wagter, K. Tuyls, H. J. Kappen, G. C. H. E. de Croon

    Swarms of tiny flying robots hold great potential for exploring unknown, indoor environments. Their small size allows them to move in narrow spaces, and their light weight makes them safe for operating around humans. Until now, this task has been out of reach due to the lack of adequate navigation strategies. The absence of external infrastructure implies that any positioning attempts must be performed

    更新日期:2019-10-24
  • A robot made of robots: Emergent transport and control of a smarticle ensemble
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    William Savoie, Thomas A. Berrueta, Zachary Jackson, Ana Pervan, Ross Warkentin, Shengkai Li, Todd D. Murphey, Kurt Wiesenfeld, Daniel I. Goldman

    Robot locomotion is typically generated by coordinated integration of single-purpose components, like actuators, sensors, body segments, and limbs. We posit that certain future robots could self-propel using systems in which a delineation of components and their interactions is not so clear, becoming robust and flexible entities composed of functional components that are redundant and generic and can

    更新日期:2019-09-19
  • Tuna robotics: A high-frequency experimental platform exploring the performance space of swimming fishes
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    J. Zhu, C. White, D. K. Wainwright, V. Di Santo, G. V. Lauder, H. Bart-Smith

    Tuna and related scombrid fishes are high-performance swimmers that often operate at high frequencies, especially during behaviors such as escaping from predators or catching prey. This contrasts with most fish-like robotic systems that typically operate at low frequencies (< 2 hertz). To explore the high-frequency fish swimming performance space, we designed and tested a new platform based on yellowfin

    更新日期:2019-09-19
  • Optical lace for synthetic afferent neural networks
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-09-11
    Patricia A. Xu, A. K. Mishra, H. Bai, C. A. Aubin, L. Zullo, R. F. Shepherd

    Whereas vision dominates sensing in robots, animals with limited vision deftly navigate their environment using other forms of perception, such as touch. Efforts have been made to apply artificial skins with tactile sensing to robots for similarly sophisticated mobile and manipulative skills. The ability to functionally mimic the afferent sensory neural network, required for distributed sensing and

    更新日期:2019-09-12
  • Consecutive aquatic jump-gliding with water-reactive fuel
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-09-11
    R. Zufferey, A. Ortega Ancel, A. Farinha, R. Siddall, S. F. Armanini, M. Nasr, R. V. Brahmal, G. Kennedy, M. Kovac

    Robotic vehicles that are capable of autonomously transitioning between various terrains and fluids have received notable attention in the past decade due to their potential to navigate previously unexplored and/or unpredictable environments. Specifically, aerial-aquatic mobility will enable robots to operate in cluttered aquatic environments and carry out a variety of sensing tasks. One of the principal

    更新日期:2019-09-12
  • Ultragentle manipulation of delicate structures using a soft robotic gripper
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    Nina R. Sinatra, Clark B. Teeple, Daniel M. Vogt, Kevin Kit Parker, David F. Gruber, Robert J. Wood

    Here, we present ultragentle soft robotic actuators capable of grasping delicate specimens of gelatinous marine life. Although state-of-the-art soft robotic manipulators have demonstrated gentle gripping of brittle animals (e.g., corals) and echinoderms (e.g., sea cucumbers) in the deep sea, they are unable to nondestructively grasp more fragile soft-bodied organisms, such as jellyfish. Through an

    更新日期:2019-08-29
  • Multifunctional metallic backbones for origami robotics with strain sensing and wireless communication capabilities
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    Haitao Yang, Bok Seng Yeow, Zhipeng Li, Kerui Li, Ting-Hsiang Chang, Lin Jing, Yang Li, John S. Ho, Hongliang Ren, Po-Yen Chen

    The tight integration of actuation, sensing, and communication capabilities into origami robots enables the development of new-generation functional robots. However, this task is challenging because the conventional materials (e.g., papers and plastics) for building origami robots lack design opportunities for incorporating add-on functionalities. Installing external electronics requires high system

    更新日期:2019-08-29
  • An actuatable soft reservoir modulates host foreign body response
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    E. B. Dolan, C. E. Varela, K. Mendez, W. Whyte, R. E. Levey, S. T. Robinson, E. Maye, J. O’Dwyer, R. Beatty, A. Rothman, Y. Fan, J. Hochstein, S. E. Rothenbucher, R. Wylie, J. R. Starr, M. Monaghan, P. Dockery, G. P. Duffy, E. T. Roche

    The performance of indwelling medical devices that depend on an interface with soft tissue is plagued by complex, unpredictable foreign body responses. Such devices—including breast implants, biosensors, and drug delivery devices—are often subject to a collection of biological host responses, including fibrosis, which can impair device functionality. This work describes a milliscale dynamic soft reservoir

    更新日期:2019-08-29
  • Ferromagnetic soft continuum robots
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    Yoonho Kim, German A. Parada, Shengduo Liu, Xuanhe Zhao

    Small-scale soft continuum robots capable of active steering and navigation in a remotely controllable manner hold great promise in diverse areas, particularly in medical applications. Existing continuum robots, however, are often limited to millimeter or centimeter scales due to miniaturization challenges inherent in conventional actuation mechanisms, such as pulling mechanical wires, inflating pneumatic

    更新日期:2019-08-29
  • A soft matter computer for soft robots
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    M. Garrad, G. Soter, A. T. Conn, H. Hauser, J. Rossiter

    Despite the growing interest in soft robotics, little attention has been paid to the development of soft matter computational mechanisms. Embedding computation directly into soft materials is not only necessary for the next generation of fully soft robots but also for smart materials to move beyond stimulus-response relationships and toward the intelligent behaviors seen in biological systems. This

    更新日期:2019-08-22
  • Untethered soft robotic matter with passive control of shape morphing and propulsion
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    Arda Kotikian, Connor McMahan, Emily C. Davidson, Jalilah M. Muhammad, Robert D. Weeks, Chiara Daraio, Jennifer A. Lewis

    There is growing interest in creating untethered soft robotic matter that can repeatedly shape-morph and self-propel in response to external stimuli. Toward this goal, we printed soft robotic matter composed of liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) bilayers with orthogonal director alignment and different nematic-to-isotropic transition temperatures (TNI) to form active hinges that interconnect polymeric

    更新日期:2019-08-22
  • Soft phototactic swimmer based on self-sustained hydrogel oscillator
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    Yusen Zhao, Chen Xuan, Xiaoshi Qian, Yousif Alsaid, Mutian Hua, Lihua Jin, Ximin He

    Oscillations are widely found in living organisms to generate propulsion-based locomotion often driven by constant ambient conditions, such as phototactic movements. Such environment-powered and environment-directed locomotions may advance fully autonomous remotely steered robots. However, most man-made oscillations require nonconstant energy input and cannot perform environment-dictated movement.

    更新日期:2019-08-22
  • MXene artificial muscles based on ionically cross-linked Ti3C2Tx electrode for kinetic soft robotics
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    Sima Umrao, Rassoul Tabassian, Jaehwan Kim, Van Hiep Nguyen, Qitao Zhou, Sanghee Nam, Il-Kwon Oh

    Existing ionic artificial muscles still require a technology breakthrough for much faster response speed, higher bending strain, and longer durability. Here, we report an MXene artificial muscle based on ionically cross-linked Ti3C2Tx with poly(3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), showing ultrafast rise time of within 1 s in DC responses, extremely large bending strain up to 1.37% in

    更新日期:2019-08-22
  • Insect-scale fast moving and ultrarobust soft robot
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-07-31
    Yichuan Wu, Justin K. Yim, Jiaming Liang, Zhichun Shao, Mingjing Qi, Junwen Zhong, Zihao Luo, Xiaojun Yan, Min Zhang, Xiaohao Wang, Ronald S. Fearing, Robert J. Full, Liwei Lin

    Mobility and robustness are two important features for practical applications of robots. Soft robots made of polymeric materials have the potential to achieve both attributes simultaneously. Inspired by nature, this research presents soft robots based on a curved unimorph piezoelectric structure whose relative speed of 20 body lengths per second is the fastest measured among published artificial insect-scale

    更新日期:2019-08-01
  • Microwheels on microroads: Enhanced translation on topographic surfaces
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-07-31
    Tao Yang, Andrew Tomaka, Tonguc O. Tasci, Keith B. Neeves, Ning Wu, David W. M. Marr

    Microbot locomotion is challenging because of the reversible nature of microscale fluid flow, a limitation that can be overcome by breaking flowfield symmetry with a nearby surface. We have used this strategy with rotating wheel-shaped microbots, microwheels (μwheels), that roll on surfaces leading to enhanced propulsion and fast translation speeds. Despite this, studies to date on flat surfaces show

    更新日期:2019-08-01
  • A microrobotic system guided by photoacoustic computed tomography for targeted navigation in intestines in vivo
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-07-24
    Zhiguang Wu, Lei Li, Yiran Yang, Peng Hu, Yang Li, So-Yoon Yang, Lihong V. Wang, Wei Gao

    Recently, tremendous progress in synthetic micro/nanomotors in diverse environment has been made for potential biomedical applications. However, existing micro/nanomotor platforms are inefficient for deep tissue imaging and motion control in vivo. Here, we present a photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT)–guided investigation of micromotors in intestines in vivo. The micromotors enveloped in microcapsules

    更新日期:2019-07-25
  • Biomimetic sensory feedback through peripheral nerve stimulation improves dexterous use of a bionic hand
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-07-24
    J. A. George, D. T. Kluger, T. S. Davis, S. M. Wendelken, E. V. Okorokova, Q. He, C. C. Duncan, D. T. Hutchinson, Z. C. Thumser, D. T. Beckler, P. D. Marasco, S. J. Bensmaia, G. A. Clark

    We describe use of a bidirectional neuromyoelectric prosthetic hand that conveys biomimetic sensory feedback. Electromyographic recordings from residual arm muscles were decoded to provide independent and proportional control of a six-DOF prosthetic hand and wrist—the DEKA LUKE arm. Activation of contact sensors on the prosthesis resulted in intraneural microstimulation of residual sensory nerve fibers

    更新日期:2019-07-25
  • A neuro-inspired artificial peripheral nervous system for scalable electronic skins
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-07-17
    Wang Wei Lee, Yu Jun Tan, Haicheng Yao, Si Li, Hian Hian See, Matthew Hon, Kian Ann Ng, Betty Xiong, John S. Ho, Benjamin C. K. Tee

    The human sense of touch is essential for dexterous tool usage, spatial awareness, and social communication. Equipping intelligent human-like androids and prosthetics with electronic skins—a large array of sensors spatially distributed and capable of rapid somatosensory perception—will enable them to work collaboratively and naturally with humans to manipulate objects in unstructured living environments

    更新日期:2019-07-18
  • Long-term implant of intramuscular sensors and nerve transfers for wireless control of robotic arms in above-elbow amputees
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-07-17
    S. Salminger, A. Sturma, C. Hofer, M. Evangelista, M. Perrin, K. D. Bergmeister, A. D. Roche, T. Hasenoehrl, H. Dietl, D. Farina, O. C. Aszmann

    Targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) amplifies the electrical activity of nerves at the stump of amputees by redirecting them in remnant muscles above the amputation. The electrical activity of the reinnervated muscles can be used to extract natural control signals. Nonetheless, current control systems, mainly based on noninvasive muscle recordings, fail to provide accurate and reliable control over

    更新日期:2019-07-18
  • A biosensing soft robot: Autonomous parsing of chemical signals through integrated organic and inorganic interfaces
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-06-26
    Kyle B. Justus, Tess Hellebrekers, Daniel D. Lewis, Adam Wood, Christian Ingham, Carmel Majidi, Philip R. LeDuc, Cheemeng Tan

    The integration of synthetic biology and soft robotics can fundamentally advance sensory, diagnostic, and therapeutic functionality of bioinspired machines. However, such integration is currently impeded by the lack of soft-matter architectures that interface synthetic cells with electronics and actuators for controlled stimulation and response during robotic operation. Here, we synthesized a soft

    更新日期:2019-06-27
  • A soft ring oscillator
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-06-26
    Daniel J. Preston, Haihui Joy Jiang, Vanessa Sanchez, Philipp Rothemund, Jeff Rawson, Markus P. Nemitz, Won-Kyu Lee, Zhigang Suo, Conor J. Walsh, George M. Whitesides

    Periodic actuation of multiple soft, pneumatic actuators requires coordinated function of multiple, separate components. This work demonstrates a soft, pneumatic ring oscillator that induces temporally coordinated periodic motion in soft actuators using a single, constant-pressure source, without hard valves or electronic controls. The fundamental unit of this ring oscillator is a soft, pneumatic inverter

    更新日期:2019-06-27
  • A myoelectric prosthetic hand with muscle synergy–based motion determination and impedance model–based biomimetic control
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-06-26
    Akira Furui, Shintaro Eto, Kosuke Nakagaki, Kyohei Shimada, Go Nakamura, Akito Masuda, Takaaki Chin, Toshio Tsuji

    Prosthetic hands are prescribed to patients who have suffered an amputation of the upper limb due to an accident or a disease. This is done to allow patients to regain functionality of their lost hands. Myoelectric prosthetic hands were found to have the possibility of implementing intuitive controls based on operator’s electromyogram (EMG) signals. These controls have been extensively studied and

    更新日期:2019-06-27
  • Effortless creation of safe robots from modules through self-programming and self-verification
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-06-19
    M. Althoff, A. Giusti, S. B. Liu, A. Pereira

    Industrial robots cannot be reconfigured to optimally fulfill a given task and often have to be caged to guarantee human safety. Consequently, production processes are meticulously planned so that they last for long periods to make automation affordable. However, the ongoing trend toward mass customization and small-scale manufacturing requires purchasing new robots on a regular basis to cope with

    更新日期:2019-06-20
  • Noninvasive neuroimaging enhances continuous neural tracking for robotic device control.
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-06-19
    B J Edelman,J Meng,D Suma,C Zurn,E Nagarajan,B S Baxter,C C Cline,B He

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) utilizing signals acquired with intracortical implants have achieved successful high-dimensional robotic device control useful for completing daily tasks. However, the substantial amount of medical and surgical expertise required to correctly implant and operate these systems significantly limits their use beyond a few clinical cases. A noninvasive counterpart requiring

    更新日期:2019-06-20
  • Intelligent magnetic manipulation for gastrointestinal ultrasound.
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-06-19
    Joseph C Norton,Piotr R Slawinski,Holly S Lay,James W Martin,Benjamin F Cox,Gerard Cummins,Marc P Y Desmulliez,Richard E Clutton,Keith L Obstein,Sandy Cochran,Pietro Valdastri

    Diagnostic endoscopy in the gastrointestinal tract has remained largely unchanged for decades and is limited to the visualization of the tissue surface, the collection of biopsy samples for diagnoses, and minor interventions such as clipping or tissue removal. In this work, we present the autonomous servoing of a magnetic capsule robot for in-situ, subsurface diagnostics of microanatomy. We investigated

    更新日期:2019-06-20
  • Shared control–based bimanual robot manipulation
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-05-29
    Daniel Rakita, Bilge Mutlu, Michael Gleicher, Laura M. Hiatt

    Human-centered environments provide affordances for and require the use of two-handed, or bimanual, manipulations. Robots designed to function in, and physically interact with, these environments have not been able to meet these requirements because standard bimanual control approaches have not accommodated the diverse, dynamic, and intricate coordinations between two arms to complete bimanual tasks

    更新日期:2019-05-31
  • Magnetically actuated microrobots as a platform for stem cell transplantation
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-05-29
    Sungwoong Jeon, Sangwon Kim, Shinwon Ha, Seungmin Lee, Eunhee Kim, So Yeun Kim, Sun Hwa Park, Jung Ho Jeon, Sung Won Kim, Cheil Moon, Bradley J. Nelson, Jin-young Kim, Seong-Woon Yu, Hongsoo Choi

    Magnetic microrobots were developed for three-dimensional culture and the precise delivery of stem cells in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. Hippocampal neural stem cells attached to the microrobots proliferated and differentiated into astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurons. Moreover, microrobots were used to transport colorectal carcinoma cancer cells to tumor microtissue in a body-on-a-chip, which

    更新日期:2019-05-31
  • Does computer vision matter for action?
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-05-22
    Brady Zhou, Philipp Krähenbühl, Vladlen Koltun

    Controlled experiments indicate that explicit intermediate representations help action.

    更新日期:2019-05-24
  • Computer vision and machine learning in science fiction
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-05-22
    Robin R. Murphy

    Science fiction has a cautionary view of computer vision and machine learning.

    更新日期:2019-05-24
  • Efficient nonparametric belief propagation for pose estimation and manipulation of articulated objects
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-05-22
    Karthik Desingh, Shiyang Lu, Anthony Opipari, Odest Chadwicke Jenkins

    Robots working in human environments often encounter a wide range of articulated objects, such as tools, cabinets, and other jointed objects. Such articulated objects can take an infinite number of possible poses, as a point in a potentially high-dimensional continuous space. A robot must perceive this continuous pose to manipulate the object to a desired pose. This problem of perception and manipulation

    更新日期:2019-05-23
  • Autonomous robotic intracardiac catheter navigation using haptic vision
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-04-24
    G. Fagogenis, M. Mencattelli, Z. Machaidze, B. Rosa, K. Price, F. Wu, V. Weixler, M. Saeed, J. E. Mayer, P. E. Dupont

    Although all minimally invasive procedures involve navigating from a small incision in the skin to the site of the intervention, it has not been previously demonstrated how this can be performed autonomously. To show that autonomous navigation is possible, we investigated it in the hardest place to do it—inside the beating heart. We created a robotic catheter that can navigate through the blood-filled

    更新日期:2019-04-25
  • Catalytic antimicrobial robots for biofilm eradication
    Sci. Robot. (IF 19.4) Pub Date : 2019-04-24
    Geelsu Hwang, Amauri J. Paula, Elizabeth E. Hunter, Yuan Liu, Alaa Babeer, Bekir Karabucak, Kathleen Stebe, Vijay Kumar, Edward Steager, Hyun Koo

    Magnetically driven robots can perform complex functions in biological settings with minimal destruction. However, robots designed to damage deleterious biostructures may also be useful. Biofilms are intractable, firmly attached structures associated with drug-resistant infections and surface destruction. We designed catalytic antimicrobial robots (CARs) that precisely, efficiently, and controllably

    更新日期:2019-04-25
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