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  • OralCam: Enabling Self-Examination and Awareness ofOral Health Using a Smartphone Camera
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Yuan Liang; Hsuan-Wei Fan; Zhujun Fang; Leiying Miao; Wen Li; Xuan Zhang; Weibin Sun; Kun Wang; Lei He; Xiang Anthony Chen

    Due to a lack of medical resources or oral health awareness, oral diseases are often left unexamined and untreated, affecting a large population worldwide. With the advent of low-cost, sensor-equipped smartphones, mobile apps offer a promising possibility for promoting oral health. However, to the best of our knowledge, no mobile health (mHealth) solutions can directly support a user to self-examine their oral health condition. This paper presents \textit{OralCam}, the first interactive app that enables end-users' self-examination of five common oral conditions (diseases or early disease signals) by taking smartphone photos of one's oral cavity. \textit{OralCam} allows a user to annotate additional information (e.g. living habits, pain, and bleeding) to augment the input image, and presents the output hierarchically, probabilistically and with visual explanations to help a laymen user understand examination results. Developed on our in-house dataset that consists of 3,182 oral photos annotated by dental experts, our deep learning based framework achieved an average detection sensitivity of 0.787 over five conditions with high localization accuracy. In a week-long in-the-wild user study (N=18), most participants had no trouble using \textit{OralCam} and interpreting the examination results. Two expert interviews further validate the feasibility of \textit{OralCam} for promoting users' awareness of oral health.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • GUIComp: A GUI Design Assistant with Real-Time, Multi-Faceted Feedback
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Chunggi Lee; Sanghoon Kim; Dongyun Han; Hongjun Yang; Young-Woo Park; Bum Chul Kwon; Sungahn Ko

    Users may face challenges while designing graphical user interfaces, due to a lack of relevant experience and guidance. This paper aims to investigate the issues that users with no experience face during the design process, and how to resolve them. To this end, we conducted semi-structured interviews, based on which we built a GUI prototyping assistance tool called GUIComp. This tool can be connected to GUI design software as an extension, and it provides real-time, multi-faceted feedback on a user's current design. Additionally, we conducted two user studies, in which we asked participants to create mobile GUIs with or without GUIComp, and requested online workers to assess the created GUIs. The experimental results show that GUIComp facilitated iterative design and the participants with GUIComp had better a user experience and produced more acceptable designs than those who did not.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • A Technology-aided Multi-modal Training Approach to Assist Abdominal Palpation Training and its Assessment in Medical Education
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    A. Asadipour; K. Debattista; V. Patel; A. Chalmers

    Computer-assisted multimodal training is an effective way of learning complex motor skills in various applications. In particular disciplines (eg. healthcare) incompetency in performing dexterous hands-on examinations (clinical palpation) may result in misdiagnosis of symptoms, serious injuries or even death. Furthermore, a high quality clinical examination can help to exclude significant pathology, and reduce time and cost of diagnosis by eliminating the need for unnecessary medical imaging. Medical palpation is used regularly as an effective preliminary diagnosis method all around the world but years of training are required currently to achieve competency. This paper focuses on a multimodal palpation training system to teach and improve clinical examination skills in relation to the abdomen. It is our aim to shorten significantly the palpation training duration by increasing the frequency of rehearsals as well as providing essential augmented feedback on how to perform various abdominal palpation techniques which has been captured and modelled from medical experts. Twenty three first year medical students divided into a control group (n=8), a semi-visually trained group (n=8), and a fully visually trained group (n=7) were invited to perform three palpation tasks (superficial, deep and liver). The medical students performances were assessed using both computer-based and human-based methods where a positive correlation was shown between the generated scores, r=.62, p(one-tailed)<.05. The visually-trained group significantly outperformed the control group in which abstract visualisation of applied forces and their palmar locations were provided to the students during each palpation examination (p<.05). Moreover, a positive trend was observed between groups when visual feedback was presented, J=132, z=2.62, r=0.55.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Emotional Avatars: The Interplay between Affect and Ownership of a Virtual Body
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Aske Mottelson; Kasper Hornbæk

    Human bodies influence the owners' affect through posture, facial expressions, and movement. It remains unclear whether similar links between virtual bodies and affect exist. Such links could present design opportunities for virtual environments and advance our understanding of fundamental concepts of embodied VR. An initial outside-the-lab between-subjects study using commodity equipment presented 207 participants with seven avatar manipulations, related to posture, facial expression, and speed. We conducted a lab-based between-subjects study using high-end VR equipment with 41 subjects to clarify affect's impact on body ownership. The results show that some avatar manipulations can subtly influence affect. Study I found that facial manipulations emerged as most effective in this regard, particularly for positive affect. Also, body ownership showed a moderating influence on affect: in Study I body ownership varied with valence but not with arousal, and Study II showed body ownership to vary with positive but not with negative affect.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Establishing Human-Robot Trust through Music-Driven Robotic Emotion Prosody and Gesture
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Richard Savery; Ryan Rose; Gil Weinberg

    As human-robot collaboration opportunities continue to expand, trust becomes ever more important for full engagement and utilization of robots. Affective trust, built on emotional relationship and interpersonal bonds is particularly critical as it is more resilient to mistakes and increases the willingness to collaborate. In this paper we present a novel model built on music-driven emotional prosody and gestures that encourages the perception of a robotic identity, designed to avoid uncanny valley. Symbolic musical phrases were generated and tagged with emotional information by human musicians. These phrases controlled a synthesis engine playing back pre-rendered audio samples generated through interpolation of phonemes and electronic instruments. Gestures were also driven by the symbolic phrases, encoding the emotion from the musical phrase to low degree-of-freedom movements. Through a user study we showed that our system was able to accurately portray a range of emotions to the user. We also showed with a significant result that our non-linguistic audio generation achieved an 8% higher mean of average trust than using a state-of-the-art text-to-speech system.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • "Why is 'Chicago' deceptive?" Towards Building Model-Driven Tutorials for Humans
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Vivian Lai; Han Liu; Chenhao Tan

    To support human decision making with machine learning models, we often need to elucidate patterns embedded in the models that are unsalient, unknown, or counterintuitive to humans. While existing approaches focus on explaining machine predictions with real-time assistance, we explore model-driven tutorials to help humans understand these patterns in a training phase. We consider both tutorials with guidelines from scientific papers, analogous to current practices of science communication, and automatically selected examples from training data with explanations. We use deceptive review detection as a testbed and conduct large-scale, randomized human-subject experiments to examine the effectiveness of such tutorials. We find that tutorials indeed improve human performance, with and without real-time assistance. In particular, although deep learning provides superior predictive performance than simple models, tutorials and explanations from simple models are more useful to humans. Our work suggests future directions for human-centered tutorials and explanations towards a synergy between humans and AI.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • On Expert Behaviors and Question Types for Efficient Query-Based Ontology Fault Localization
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Patrick Rodler

    We challenge existing query-based ontology fault localization methods wrt. assumptions they make, criteria they optimize, and interaction means they use. We find that their efficiency depends largely on the behavior of the interacting expert, that performed calculations can be inefficient or imprecise, and that used optimization criteria are often not fully realistic. As a remedy, we suggest a novel (and simpler) interaction approach which overcomes all identified problems and, in comprehensive experiments on faulty real-world ontologies, enables a successful fault localization while requiring fewer expert interactions in 66 % of the cases, and always at least 80 % less expert waiting time, compared to existing methods.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Enhancing performance of subject-specific models via subject-independent information for SSVEP-based BCIs
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2019-07-19
    Mohammad Hadi Mehdizavareh; Sobhan Hemati; Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh

    Recently, brain-computer interface (BCI) systems developed based on steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) have attracted much attention due to their high information transfer rate (ITR) and increasing number of targets. However, SSVEP-based methods can be improved in terms of their accuracy and target detection time. We propose a new method based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to integrate subject-specific models and subject-independent information and enhance BCI performance. We propose to use training data of other subjects to optimize hyperparameters for CCA-based model of a specific subject. An ensemble version of the proposed method is also developed for a fair comparison with ensemble task-related component analysis (TRCA). The proposed method is compared with TRCA and extended CCA methods. A publicly available, 35-subject SSVEP benchmark dataset is used for comparison studies and performance is quantified by classification accuracy and ITR. The ITR of the proposed method is higher than those of TRCA and extended CCA. The proposed method outperforms extended CCA in all conditions and TRCA for time windows greater than 0.3 s. The proposed method also outperforms TRCA when there are limited training blocks and electrodes. This study illustrates that adding subject-independent information to subject-specific models can improve performance of SSVEP-based BCIs.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • AutoAIViz: Opening the Blackbox of Automated Artificial Intelligence with Conditional Parallel Coordinates
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Daniel Karl I. Weidele; Justin D. Weisz; Eno Oduor; Michael Muller; Josh Andres; Alexander Gray; Dakuo Wang

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) can now automate the algorithm selection, feature engineering, and hyperparameter tuning steps in a machine learning workflow. Commonly known as AutoML or AutoAI, these technologies aim to relieve data scientists from the tedious manual work. However, today's AutoAI systems often present only limited to no information about the process of how they select and generate model results. Thus, users often do not understand the process, neither do they trust the outputs. In this short paper, we provide a first user evaluation by 10 data scientists of an experimental system, AutoAIViz, that aims to visualize AutoAI's model generation process. We find that the proposed system helps users to complete the data science tasks, and increases their understanding, toward the goal of increasing trust in the AutoAI system.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • CheXplain: Enabling Physicians to Explore and UnderstandData-Driven, AI-Enabled Medical Imaging Analysis
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Yao Xie; Melody Chen; David Kao; Ge Gao; Xiang 'Anthony' Chen

    The recent development of data-driven AI promises to automate medical diagnosis; however, most AI functions as `black boxes' to physicians with limited computational knowledge. Using medical imaging as a point of departure, we conducted three iterations of design activities to formulate CheXplain---a system that enables physicians to explore and understand AI-enabled chest X-ray analysis: \one a paired survey between referring physicians and radiologists reveals whether, when, and what kinds of explanations are needed; \two a low-fidelity prototype co-designed with three physicians formulates eight key features; and \three a high-fidelity prototype evaluated by another six physicians provides detailed summative insights on how each feature enables the exploration and understanding of AI. We summarize by discussing recommendations for future work to design and implement explainable medical AI systems that encompass four recurring themes: motivation, constraint, explanation, and justification.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Relevance Prediction from Eye-movements Using Semi-interpretable Convolutional Neural Networks
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Nilavra Bhattacharya; Somnath Rakshit; Jacek Gwizdka; Paul Kogut

    We propose an image-classification method to predict the perceived-relevance of text documents from eye-movements. An eye-tracking study was conducted where participants read short news articles, and rated them as relevant or irrelevant for answering a trigger question. We encode participants' eye-movement scanpaths as images, and then train a convolutional neural network classifier using these scanpath images. The trained classifier is used to predict participants' perceived-relevance of news articles from the corresponding scanpath images. This method is content-independent, as the classifier does not require knowledge of the screen-content, or the user's information-task. Even with little data, the image classifier can predict perceived-relevance with up to 80% accuracy. When compared to similar eye-tracking studies from the literature, this scanpath image classification method outperforms previously reported metrics by appreciable margins. We also attempt to interpret how the image classifier differentiates between scanpaths on relevant and irrelevant documents.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • ShapeVis: High-dimensional Data Visualization at Scale
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Nupur Kumari; Siddarth R.; Akash Rupela; Piyush Gupta; Balaji Krishnamurthy

    We present ShapeVis, a scalable visualization technique for point cloud data inspired from topological data analysis. Our method captures the underlying geometric and topological structure of the data in a compressed graphical representation. Much success has been reported by the data visualization technique Mapper, that discretely approximates the Reeb graph of a filter function on the data. However, when using standard dimensionality reduction algorithms as the filter function, Mapper suffers from considerable computational cost. This makes it difficult to scale to high-dimensional data. Our proposed technique relies on finding a subset of points called landmarks along the data manifold to construct a weighted witness-graph over it. This graph captures the structural characteristics of the point cloud and its weights are determined using a Finite Markov Chain. We further compress this graph by applying induced maps from standard community detection algorithms. Using techniques borrowed from manifold tearing, we prune and reinstate edges in the induced graph based on their modularity to summarize the shape of data. We empirically demonstrate how our technique captures the structural characteristics of real and synthetic data sets. Further, we compare our approach with Mapper using various filter functions like t-SNE, UMAP, LargeVis and show that our algorithm scales to millions of data points while preserving the quality of data visualization.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Teddy: A System for Interactive Review Analysis
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Xiong Zhang; Jonathan Engel; Sara Evensen; Yuliang Li; Çağatay Demiralp; Wang-Chiew Tan

    Reviews are integral to e-commerce services and products. They contain a wealth of information about the opinions and experiences of users, which can help better understand consumer decisions and improve user experience with products and services. Today, data scientists analyze reviews by developing rules and models to extract, aggregate, and understand information embedded in the review text. However, working with thousands of reviews, which are typically noisy incomplete text, can be daunting without proper tools. Here we first contribute results from an interview study that we conducted with fifteen data scientists who work with review text, providing insights into their practices and challenges. Results suggest data scientists need interactive systems for many review analysis tasks. In response we introduce Teddy, an interactive system that enables data scientists to quickly obtain insights from reviews and improve their extraction and modeling pipelines.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Auto Completion of User Interface Layout Design Using Transformer-Based Tree Decoders
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Yang Li; Julien Amelot; Xin Zhou; Samy Bengio; Si Si

    It has been of increasing interest in the field to develop automatic machineries to facilitate the design process. In this paper, we focus on assisting graphical user interface (UI) layout design, a crucial task in app development. Given a partial layout, which a designer has entered, our model learns to complete the layout by predicting the remaining UI elements with a correct position and dimension as well as the hierarchical structures. Such automation will significantly ease the effort of UI designers and developers. While we focus on interface layout prediction, our model can be generally applicable for other layout prediction problems that involve tree structures and 2-dimensional placements. Particularly, we design two versions of Transformer-based tree decoders: Pointer and Recursive Transformer, and experiment with these models on a public dataset. We also propose several metrics for measuring the accuracy of tree prediction and ground these metrics in the domain of user experience. These contribute a new task and methods to deep learning research.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Scout: Rapid Exploration of Interface Layout Alternatives through High-Level Design Constraints
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Amanda Swearngin; Chenglong Wang; Alannah Oleson; James Fogarty; Amy J. Ko

    Although exploring alternatives is fundamental to creating better interface designs, current processes for creating alternatives are generally manual, limiting the alternatives a designer can explore. We present Scout, a system that helps designers rapidly explore alternatives through mixed-initiative interaction with high-level constraints and design feedback. Prior constraint-based layout systems use low-level spatial constraints and generally produce a single design. Tosupport designer exploration of alternatives, Scout introduces high-level constraints based on design concepts (e.g.,~semantic structure, emphasis, order) and formalizes them into low-level spatial constraints that a solver uses to generate potential layouts. In an evaluation with 18 interface designers, we found that Scout: (1) helps designers create more spatially diverse layouts with similar quality to those created with a baseline tool and (2) can help designers avoid a linear design process and quickly ideate layouts they do not believe they would have thought of on their own.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Visual Designs for Binned Aggregation of Multi-Class Scatterplots
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2018-10-04
    Florian Heimerl; Chih-Ching Chang; Alper Sarikaya; Michael Gleicher

    Point sets in 2D with multiple classes are a common type of data. A canonical visualization design for them are scatterplots, which do not scale to large collections of points. For these larger data sets, binned aggregation (or binning) is often used to summarize the data, with many possible design alternatives for creating effective visual representations of these summaries. There are a wide range of designs to show summaries of 2D multi-class point data, each capable of supporting different analysis tasks. In this paper, we explore the space of visual designs for such data, and provide design guidelines for different analysis scenarios. To support these guidelines, we compile a set of abstract tasks and ground them in concrete examples using multiple sample datasets. We then assess designs, and survey a range of design decisions, considering their appropriateness to the tasks. In addition, we provide a web-based implementation to experiment with design choices, supporting the validation of designs based on task needs.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Is Your Smartband Smart Enough to Know Who You Are: Continuous Physiological Authentication in The Wild
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Deniz Ekiz; Yekta Said Can; Yagmur Ceren Dardagan; Cem Ersoy

    The use of cloud services that process privacy-sensitive information such as digital banking, pervasive healthcare, smart home applications requires an implicit continuous authentication solution which will make these systems less vulnerable to the spoofing attacks. Physiological signals can be used for continuous authentication due to their personal uniqueness. Ubiquitous wrist-worn wearable devices are equipped with photoplethysmogram sensors which enable to extract heart rate variability (HRV) features. In this study, we show that these devices can be used for continuous physiological authentication, for enhancing the security of the cloud, edge services, and IoT devices. A system that is suitable for the smartband framework comes with new challenges such as relatively low signal quality and artifacts due to placement which were not encountered in full lead electrocardiogram systems. After the artifact removal, cleaned physiological signals are fed to the machine learning algorithms. In order to train our machine learning models, we collected physiological data using off-the-shelf smartbands and smartwatches in a real-life event. Performance evaluation of selected machine learning algorithms shows that HRV is a strong candidate for continuous unobtrusive implicit physiological authentication.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Emotion Recognition Using Wearables: A Systematic Literature Review Work in progress
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2019-12-22
    Stanisław Saganowski; Anna Dutkowiak; Adam Dziadek; Maciej Dzieżyc; Joanna Komoszyńska; Weronika Michalska; Adam Polak; Michał Ujma; Przemysław Kazienko

    Wearables like smartwatches or wrist bands equipped with pervasive sensors enable us to monitor our physiological signals. In this study, we address the question whether they can help us to recognize our emotions in our everyday life for ubiquitous computing. Using the systematic literature review, we identified crucial research steps and discussed the main limitations and problems in the domain.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Examining the Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal on Takeover Performance in Conditionally Automated Driving
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Na Du; Feng Zhou; Elizabeth Pulver; Dawn M. Tilbury; Lionel P. Robert; Anuj K. Pradhan; X. Jessie Yang

    In conditionally automated driving, drivers have difficulty in takeover transitions as they become increasingly decoupled from the operational level of driving. Factors influencing takeover performance, such as takeover lead time and the engagement of non-driving related tasks, have been studied in the past. However, despite the important role emotions play in human-machine interaction and in manual driving, little is known about how emotions influence drivers takeover performance. This study, therefore, examined the effects of emotional valence and arousal on drivers takeover timeliness and quality in conditionally automated driving. We conducted a driving simulation experiment with 32 participants. Movie clips were played for emotion induction. Participants with different levels of emotional valence and arousal were required to take over control from automated driving, and their takeover time and quality were analyzed. Results indicate that positive valence led to better takeover quality in the form of a smaller maximum resulting acceleration and a smaller maximum resulting jerk. However, high arousal did not yield an advantage in takeover time. This study contributes to the literature by demonstrating how emotional valence and arousal affect takeover performance. The benefits of positive emotions carry over from manual driving to conditionally automated driving while the benefits of arousal do not.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Heteroglossia: In-Situ Story Ideation with the Crowd
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Chieh-Yang HuangKenneth; Shih-Hong HuangKenneth; Ting-HaoKenneth; Huang

    Ideation is essential for creative writing. Many authors struggle to come up with ideas throughout the writing process, yet modern writing tools fail to provide on-the-spot assistance for writers when they get stuck. This paper introduces Heteroglossia, an add-on for Google Docs that allows writers to elicit story ideas from the online crowd using their text editors. Writers can share snippets of their working drafts and ask the crowd to provide follow-up story ideas based on it. Heteroglossia employs a strategy called "role play", where each worker is assigned a fictional character in a story and asked to brainstorm plot ideas from that character's perspective. Our deployment with two experienced story writers shows that Heteroglossia is easy to use and can generate interesting ideas. Heteroglossia allows us to gain insight into how future technologies can be developed to support ideation in creative writing

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Effects of Persuasive Dialogues: Testing Bot Identities and Inquiry Strategies
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Weiyan Shi; Xuewei Wang; Yoo Jung Oh; Jingwen Zhang; Saurav Sahay; Zhou Yu

    Intelligent conversational agents, or chatbots, can take on various identities and are increasingly engaging in more human-centered conversations with persuasive goals. However, little is known about how identities and inquiry strategies influence the conversation's effectiveness. We conducted an online study involving 790 participants to be persuaded by a chatbot for charity donation. We designed a two by four factorial experiment (two chatbot identities and four inquiry strategies) where participants were randomly assigned to different conditions. Findings showed that the perceived identity of the chatbot had significant effects on the persuasion outcome (i.e., donation) and interpersonal perceptions (i.e., competence, confidence, warmth, and sincerity). Further, we identified interaction effects among perceived identities and inquiry strategies. We discuss the findings for theoretical and practical implications for developing ethical and effective persuasive chatbots. Our published data, codes, and analyses serve as the first step towards building competent ethical persuasive chatbots.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • 180-degree Outpainting from a Single Image
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Zhenqiang Ying; Alan Bovik

    Presenting context images to a viewer's peripheral vision is one of the most effective techniques to enhance immersive visual experiences. However, most images only present a narrow view, since the field-of-view (FoV) of standard cameras is small. To overcome this limitation, we propose a deep learning approach that learns to predict a 180{\deg} panoramic image from a narrow-view image. Specifically, we design a foveated framework that applies different strategies on near-periphery and mid-periphery regions. Two networks are trained separately, and then are employed jointly to sequentially perform narrow-to-90{\deg} generation and 90{\deg}-to-180{\deg} generation. The generated outputs are then fused with their aligned inputs to produce expanded equirectangular images for viewing. Our experimental results show that single-view-to-panoramic image generation using deep learning is both feasible and promising.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Nudge for Deliberativeness: How Interface Features Influence Online Discourse
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Sanju Menon; Weiyu Zhang; Simon T. Perrault

    Cognitive load is a significant challenge to users for being deliberative. Interface design has been used to mitigate this cognitive state. This paper surveys literature on the anchoring effect, partitioning effect and point-of-choice effect, based on which we propose three interface nudges, namely, the word-count anchor, partitioning text fields, and reply choice prompt. We then conducted a 2*2*2 factorial experiment with 80 participants (10 for each condition), testing how these nudges affect deliberativeness. The results showed a significant positive impact of the word-count anchor. There was also a significant positive impact of the partitioning text fields on the word count of response. The reply choice prompt showed a surprisingly negative affect on the quantity of response, hinting at the possibility that the reply choice prompt induces a fear of evaluation, which could in turn dampen the willingness to reply.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Detecting depression in dyadic conversations with multimodal narratives and visualizations
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Joshua Y. Kim; Greyson Y. Kim; Kalina Yacef

    Conversations contain a wide spectrum of multimodal information that gives us hints about the emotions and moods of the speaker. In this paper, we developed a system that supports humans to analyze conversations. Our main contribution is the identification of appropriate multimodal features and the integration of such features into verbatim conversation transcripts. We demonstrate the ability of our system to take in a wide range of multimodal information and automatically generated a prediction score for the depression state of the individual. Our experiments showed that this approach yielded better performance than the baseline model. Furthermore, the multimodal narrative approach makes it easy to integrate learnings from other disciplines, such as conversational analysis and psychology. Lastly, this interdisciplinary and automated approach is a step towards emulating how practitioners record the course of treatment as well as emulating how conversational analysts have been analyzing conversations by hand.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Conceptual Design and Preliminary Results of a VR-based Radiation Safety Training System for Interventional Radiologists
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Yi Guo; Li Mao; Gongsen Zhang; Zhi Chen; Xi Pei; X. George Xu

    Recent studies have reported an increased risk of developing brain and neck tumors, as well as cataracts, in practitioners in interventional radiology (IR). Occupational radiation protection in IR has been a top concern for regulatory agencies and professional societies. To help minimize occupational radiation exposure in IR, we conceptualized a virtual reality (VR) based radiation safety training system to help operators understand complex radiation fields and to avoid high radiation areas through game-like interactive simulations. The preliminary development of the system has yielded results suggesting that the training system can calculate and report the radiation exposure after each training session based on a database precalculated from computational phantoms and Monte Carlo simulations and the position information provided in real-time by the MS Hololens headset worn by trainee. In addition, real-time dose rate and cumulative dose will be displayed to the trainee by MS Hololens to help them adjust their practice. This paper presents the conceptual design of the overall hardware and software design, as well as preliminary results to combine MS HoloLens headset and complex 3D X-ray field spatial distribution data to create a mixed reality environment for safety training purpose in IR.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Keeping Community in the Loop: Understanding Wikipedia Stakeholder Values for Machine Learning-Based Systems
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    C. Estelle Smith; Bowen Yu; Anjali Srivastava; Aaron Halfaker; Loren Terveen; Haiyi Zhu

    On Wikipedia, sophisticated algorithmic tools are used to assess the quality of edits and take corrective actions. However, algorithms can fail to solve the problems they were designed for if they conflict with the values of communities who use them. In this study, we take a Value-Sensitive Algorithm Design approach to understanding a community-created and -maintained machine learning-based algorithm called the Objective Revision Evaluation System (ORES)---a quality prediction system used in numerous Wikipedia applications and contexts. Five major values converged across stakeholder groups that ORES (and its dependent applications) should: (1) reduce the effort of community maintenance, (2) maintain human judgement as the final authority, (3) support differing peoples' differing workflows, (4) encourage positive engagement with diverse editor groups, and (5) establish trustworthiness of people and algorithms within the community. We reveal tensions between these values and discuss implications for future research to improve algorithms like ORES.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Disseminating Research News in HCI: Perceived Hazards, How-To's, and Opportunities for Innovation
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    C. Estelle Smith; Eduardo Nevarez; Haiyi Zhu

    Mass media afford researchers critical opportunities to disseminate research findings and trends to the general public. Yet researchers also perceive that their work can be miscommunicated in mass media, thus generating unintended understandings of HCI research by the general public. We conduct a Grounded Theory analysis of interviews with 12 HCI researchers and find that miscommunication can occur at four origins along the socio-technical infrastructure known as the Media Production Pipeline (MPP) for science news. Results yield researchers' perceived hazards of disseminating their work through mass media, as well as strategies for fostering effective communication of research. We conclude with implications for augmenting or innovating new MPP technologies.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • SocNav1: A Dataset to Benchmark and Learn Social Navigation Conventions
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2019-09-06
    Luis J. Manso; Pedro Nunez; Luis V. Calderita; Diego R. Faria; Pilar Bachiller

    Adapting to social conventions is an unavoidable requirement for the acceptance of assistive and social robots. While the scientific community broadly accepts that assistive robots and social robot companions are unlikely to have widespread use in the near future, their presence in health-care and other medium-sized institutions is becoming a reality. These robots will have a beneficial impact in industry and other fields such as health care. The growing number of research contributions to social navigation is also indicative of the importance of the topic. To foster the future prevalence of these robots, they must be useful, but also socially accepted. The first step to be able to actively ask for collaboration or permission is to estimate whether the robot would make people feel uncomfortable otherwise, and that is precisely the goal of algorithms evaluating social navigation compliance. Some approaches provide analytic models, whereas others use machine learning techniques such as neural networks. This data report presents and describes SocNav1, a dataset for social navigation conventions. The aims of SocNav1 are two-fold: a) enabling comparison of the algorithms that robots use to assess the convenience of their presence in a particular position when navigating; b) providing a sufficient amount of data so that modern machine learning algorithms such as deep neural networks can be used. Because of the structured nature of the data, SocNav1 is particularly well-suited to be used to benchmark non-Euclidean machine learning algorithms such as Graph Neural Networks (see [1]). The dataset has been made available in a public repository.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Recognition and Localisation of Pointing Gestures using a RGB-D Camera
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Naina Dhingra; Eugenio Valli; Andreas Kunz

    Non-verbal communication is part of our regular conversation, and multiple gestures are used to exchange information. Among those gestures, pointing is the most important one. If such gestures cannot be perceived by other team members, e.g. by blind and visually impaired people (BVIP), they lack important information and can hardly participate in a lively workflow. Thus, this paper describes a system for detecting such pointing gestures to provide input for suitable output modalities to BVIP. Our system employs an RGB-D camera to recognize the pointing gestures performed by the users. The system also locates the target of pointing e.g. on a common workspace. We evaluated the system by conducting a user study with 26 users. The results show that the system has a success rate of 89.59 and 79.92 % for a 2 x 3 matrix using the left and right arm respectively, and 73.57 and 68.99 % for 3 x 4 matrix using the left and right arm respectively.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • The Next Generation of Human-Drone Partnerships: Co-Designing an Emergency Response System
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-12
    Ankit AgrawalUniversity of Notre Dame, USA; Sophia AbrahamUniversity of Notre Dame, USA; Benjamin BurgerUniversity of Notre Dame, USA; Chichi ChristineUniversity of Notre Dame, USA; Luke FraserUniversity of Notre Dame, USA; John HoeksemaUniversity of Notre Dame, USA; Sara HwangUniversity of Notre Dame, USA; Elizabeth TravnikUniversity of Notre Dame, USA; Shreya KumarUniversity of Notre Dame, USA; Walter ScheirerUniversity of Notre Dame, USA; Jane Cleland-HuangUniversity of Notre Dame, USA; Michael VierhauserJohannes Keppler University, Linz, Austria; Ryan BauerSouth Bend Fire Department, South Bend, IN, USA; Steve CoxSouth Bend Fire Department, South Bend, IN, USA

    The use of semi-autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) to support emergency response scenarios, such as fire surveillance and search and rescue, offers the potential for huge societal benefits. However, designing an effective solution in this complex domain represents a "wicked design" problem, requiring a careful balance between trade-offs associated with drone autonomy versus human control, mission functionality versus safety, and the diverse needs of different stakeholders. This paper focuses on designing for situational awareness (SA) using a scenario-driven, participatory design process. We developed SA cards describing six common design-problems, known as SA demons, and three new demons of importance to our domain. We then used these SA cards to equip domain experts with SA knowledge so that they could more fully engage in the design process. We designed a potentially reusable solution for achieving SA in multi-stakeholder, multi-UAV, emergency response applications.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Wearable Haptics for Remote Social Walking
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-12
    Tommaso Lisini Baldi; Gianluca Paolocci; Davide Barcelli; Domenico Prattichizzo

    Walking is an essential activity for a healthy life, which becomes less tiring and more enjoyable if done together. Common difficulties we have in performing sufficient physical exercise, for instance the lack of motivation, can be overcome by exploiting its social aspect. However, our lifestyle sometimes makes it very difficult to find time together with others who live far away from us to go for a walk. In this paper we propose a novel system enabling people to have a 'remote social walk' by streaming the gait cadence between two persons walking in different places, increasing the sense of mutual presence. Vibrations provided at the users' ankles display the partner's sensation perceived during the heel-strike. In order to achieve the aforementioned goal in a two users experiment, we envisaged a four-step incremental validation process: i) a single walker has to adapt the cadence with a virtual reference generated by a software; ii) a single user is tasked to follow a predefined time varying gait cadence; iii) a leader-follower scenario in which the haptic actuation is mono-directional; iv) a peer-to-peer case with bi-directional haptic communication. Careful experimental validation was conducted involving a total of 50 people, which confirmed the efficacy of our system in perceiving the partners' gait cadence in each of the proposed scenarios.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • 'I Just Want to Hack Myself to Not Get Distracted': Evaluating Design Interventions for Self-Control on Facebook
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Ulrik Lyngs; Kai Lukoff; Petr Slovak; William Seymour; Helena Webb; Marina Jirotka; Max Van Kleek; Nigel Shadbolt

    Beyond being the world's largest social network, Facebook is for many also one of its greatest sources of digital distraction. For students, problematic use has been associated with negative effects on academic achievement and general wellbeing. To understand what strategies could help users regain control, we investigated how simple interventions to the Facebook UI affect behaviour and perceived control. We assigned 58 university students to one of three interventions: goal reminders, removed newsfeed, or white background (control). We logged use for 6 weeks, applied interventions in the middle weeks, and administered fortnightly surveys. Both goal reminders and removed newsfeed helped participants stay on task and avoid distraction. However, goal reminders were often annoying, and removing the newsfeed made some fear missing out on information. Our findings point to future interventions such as controls for adjusting types and amount of available information, and flexible blocking which matches individual definitions of 'distraction'.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Button Simulation and Design via FDVV Models
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Yi-Chi Liao; Sunjun Kim; Byungjoo Lee; Antti Oulasvirta

    Designing a push-button with desired sensation and performance is challenging because the mechanical construction must have the right response characteristics. Physical simulation of a button's force-displacement (FD) response has been studied to facilitate prototyping; however, the simulations' scope and realism have been limited. In this paper, we extend FD modeling to include vibration (V) and velocity-dependence characteristics (V). The resulting FDVV models better capture tactility characteristics of buttons, including snap. They increase the range of simulated buttons and the perceived realism relative to FD models. The paper also demonstrates methods for obtaining these models, editing them, and simulating accordingly. This end-to-end approach enables the analysis, prototyping, and optimization of buttons, and supports exploring designs that would be hard to implement mechanically.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • TurkEyes: A Web-Based Toolbox for Crowdsourcing Attention Data
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Anelise Newman; Barry McNamara; Camilo Fosco; Yun Bin Zhang; Pat Sukhum; Matthew Tancik; Nam Wook Kim; Zoya Bylinskii

    Eye movements provide insight into what parts of an image a viewer finds most salient, interesting, or relevant to the task at hand. Unfortunately, eye tracking data, a commonly-used proxy for attention, is cumbersome to collect. Here we explore an alternative: a comprehensive web-based toolbox for crowdsourcing visual attention. We draw from four main classes of attention-capturing methodologies in the literature. ZoomMaps is a novel "zoom-based" interface that captures viewing on a mobile phone. CodeCharts is a "self-reporting" methodology that records points of interest at precise viewing durations. ImportAnnots is an "annotation" tool for selecting important image regions, and "cursor-based" BubbleView lets viewers click to deblur a small area. We compare these methodologies using a common analysis framework in order to develop appropriate use cases for each interface. This toolbox and our analyses provide a blueprint for how to gather attention data at scale without an eye tracker.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • LESS is More: Rethinking Probabilistic Models of Human Behavior
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Andreea Bobu; Dexter R. R. Scobee; Jaime F. Fisac; S. Shankar Sastry; Anca D. Dragan

    Robots need models of human behavior for both inferring human goals and preferences, and predicting what people will do. A common model is the Boltzmann noisily-rational decision model, which assumes people approximately optimize a reward function and choose trajectories in proportion to their exponentiated reward. While this model has been successful in a variety of robotics domains, its roots lie in econometrics, and in modeling decisions among different discrete options, each with its own utility or reward. In contrast, human trajectories lie in a continuous space, with continuous-valued features that influence the reward function. We propose that it is time to rethink the Boltzmann model, and design it from the ground up to operate over such trajectory spaces. We introduce a model that explicitly accounts for distances between trajectories, rather than only their rewards. Rather than each trajectory affecting the decision independently, similar trajectories now affect the decision together. We start by showing that our model better explains human behavior in a user study. We then analyze the implications this has for robot inference, first in toy environments where we have ground truth and find more accurate inference, and finally for a 7DOF robot arm learning from user demonstrations.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Efficient 3D Reconstruction and Streaming for Group-Scale Multi-Client Live Telepresence
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2019-08-08
    Patrick Stotko; Stefan Krumpen; Michael Weinmann; Reinhard Klein

    Sharing live telepresence experiences for teleconferencing or remote collaboration receives increasing interest with the recent progress in capturing and AR/VR technology. Whereas impressive telepresence systems have been proposed on top of on-the-fly scene capture, data transmission and visualization, these systems are restricted to the immersion of single or up to a low number of users into the respective scenarios. In this paper, we direct our attention on immersing significantly larger groups of people into live-captured scenes as required in education, entertainment or collaboration scenarios. For this purpose, rather than abandoning previous approaches, we present a range of optimizations of the involved reconstruction and streaming components that allow the immersion of a group of more than 24 users within the same scene - which is about a factor of 6 higher than in previous work - without introducing further latency or changing the involved consumer hardware setup. We demonstrate that our optimized system is capable of generating high-quality scene reconstructions as well as providing an immersive viewing experience to a large group of people within these live-captured scenes.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Optimality and limitations of audio-visual integration for cognitive systems
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    W. Paul Boyce; Tony Lindsay; Arkady Zgonnikov; Ignacio Rano; KongFatt Wong-Lin

    Multimodal integration is an important process in perceptual decision-making. In humans, this process has often been shown to be statistically optimal, or near optimal: sensory information is combined in a fashion that minimises the average error in perceptual representation of stimuli. However, sometimes there are costs that come with the optimization, manifesting as illusory percepts. We review audio-visual facilitations and illusions that are products of multisensory integration, and the computational models that account for these phenomena. In particular, the same optimal computational model can lead to illusory percepts, and we suggest that more studies should be needed to detect and mitigate these illusions, as artefacts in artificial cognitive systems. We provide cautionary considerations when designing artificial cognitive systems with the view of avoiding such artefacts. Finally, we suggest avenues of research towards solutions to potential pitfalls in system design. We conclude that detailed understanding of multisensory integration and the mechanisms behind audio-visual illusions can benefit the design of artificial cognitive systems.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Four Years in Review: Statistical Practices of Likert Scales in Human-Robot Interaction Studies
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Mariah L. Schrum; Michael Johnson; Muyleng Ghuy; Matthew C. Gombolay

    As robots become more prevalent, the importance of the field of human-robot interaction (HRI) grows accordingly. As such, we should endeavor to employ the best statistical practices. Likert scales are commonly used metrics in HRI to measure perceptions and attitudes. Due to misinformation or honest mistakes, most HRI researchers do not adopt best practices when analyzing Likert data. We conduct a review of psychometric literature to determine the current standard for Likert scale design and analysis. Next, we conduct a survey of four years of the International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (2016 through 2019) and report on incorrect statistical practices and design of Likert scales. During these years, only 3 of the 110 papers applied proper statistical testing to correctly-designed Likert scales. Our analysis suggests there are areas for meaningful improvement in the design and testing of Likert scales. Lastly, we provide recommendations to improve the accuracy of conclusions drawn from Likert data.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Du Bois Wrapped Bar Chart: Visualizing categorical data with disproportionate values
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Alireza Karduni; Ryan Wesslen; Isaac Cho; Wenwen Dou

    We propose a visualization technique, Du Bois wrapped bar chart, inspired by work of W.E.B Du Bois. Du Bois wrapped bar charts enable better large-to-small bar comparison by wrapping large bars over a certain threshold. We first present two crowdsourcing experiments comparing wrapped and standard bar charts to evaluate (1) the benefit of wrapped bars in helping participants identify and compare values; (2) the characteristics of data most suitable for wrapped bars. In the first study (n=98) using real-world datasets, we find that wrapped bar charts lead to higher accuracy in identifying and estimating ratios between bars. In a follow-up study (n=190) with 13 simulated datasets, we find participants were consistently more accurate with wrapped bar charts when certain category values are disproportionate as measured by entropy and H-spread. Finally, in an in-lab study, we investigate participants' experience and strategies, leading to guidelines for when and how to use wrapped bar charts.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Optimal Sensor Position for a Computer Mouse
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Sunjun Kim; Byungjoo Lee; Thomas van Gemert; Antti Oulasvirta

    Computer mice have their displacement sensors in various locations (center, front, and rear). However, there has been little research into the effects of sensor position or on engineering approaches to exploit it. This paper first discusses the mechanisms via which sensor position affects mouse movement and reports the results from a study of a pointing task in which the sensor position was systematically varied. Placing the sensor in the center turned out to be the best compromise: improvements over front and rear were in the 11--14% range for throughput and 20--23% for path deviation. However, users varied in their personal optima. Accordingly, variable-sensor-position mice are then presented, with a demonstration that high accuracy can be achieved with two static optical sensors. A virtual sensor model is described that allows software-side repositioning of the sensor. Individual-specific calibration should yield an added 4% improvement in throughput over the default center position.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Exploratory Study on User's Dynamic Visual Acuity and Quality Perception of Impaired Images
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Jolien De Letter; Anissa All; Lieven De Marez; Vasileios Avramelos; Peter Lambert; Glenn Van Wallendael

    In this paper we assess the impact of head movement on user's visual acuity and their quality perception of impaired images. There are physical limitations on the amount of visual information a person can perceive and physical limitations regarding the speed at which our body, and as a consequence our head, can explore a scene. In these limitations lie fundamental solutions for the communication of multimedia systems. As such, subjects were asked to evaluate the perceptual quality of static images presented on a TV screen while their head was in a dynamic (moving) state. The idea is potentially applicable to virtual reality applications and therefore, we also measured the image quality perception of each subject on a head mounted display. Experiments show the significant decrease in visual acuity and quality perception when the user's head is not static, and give an indication on how much the quality can be reduced without the user noticing any impairments.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • AutoGain: Gain Function Adaptation with Submovement Efficiency Optimization
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2016-11-24
    Byungjoo Lee; Mathieu Nancel; Sunjun Kim; Antti Oulasvirta

    A well-designed control-to-display gain function can improve pointing performance with indirect pointing devices like trackpads. However, the design of gain functions is challenging and mostly based on trial and error. AutoGain is a novel method to individualize a gain function for indirect pointing devices in contexts where cursor trajectories can be tracked. It gradually improves pointing efficiency by using a novel submovement-level tracking+optimization technique that minimizes aiming error (undershooting/overshooting) for each submovement. We first show that AutoGain can produce, from scratch, gain functions with performance comparable to commercial designs, in less than a half-hour of active use. Second, we demonstrate AutoGain's applicability to emerging input devices (here, a Leap Motion controller) with no reference gain functions. Third, a one-month longitudinal study of normal computer use with AutoGain showed performance improvements from participants' default functions.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Understanding the Use of Crisis Informatics Technology among Older Adults
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Yixuan Zhang; Nurul Suhaimi; Rana Azghandi; Mary Amulya Joseph; Miso Kim; Jacqueline Griffin; Andrea G. Parker

    Mass emergencies increasingly pose significant threats to human life, with a disproportionate burden being incurred by older adults. Research has explored how mobile technology can mitigate the effects of mass emergencies. However, less work has examined how mobile technologies support older adults during emergencies, considering their unique needs. To address this research gap, we interviewed 16 older adults who had recent experience with an emergency evacuation to understand the perceived value of using mobile technology during emergencies. We found that there was a lack of awareness and engagement with existing crisis apps. Our findings characterize the ways in which our participants did and did not feel crisis informatics tools address human values, including basic needs and esteem needs. We contribute an understanding of how older adults used mobile technology during emergencies and their perspectives on how well such tools address human values.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • SirenLess: reveal the intention behind news
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Xumeng Chen; Leo Yu-Ho Lo; Huamin Qu

    News articles tend to be increasingly misleading nowadays, preventing readers from making subjective judgments towards certain events. While some machine learning approaches have been proposed to detect misleading news, most of them are black boxes that provide limited help for humans in decision making. In this paper, we present SirenLess, a visual analytical system for misleading news detection by linguistic features. The system features article explorer, a novel interactive tool that integrates news metadata and linguistic features to reveal semantic structures of news articles and facilitate textual analysis. We use SirenLess to analyze 18 news articles from different sources and summarize some helpful patterns for misleading news detection. A user study with journalism professionals and university students is conducted to confirm the usefulness and effectiveness of our system.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Spinneret: Aiding Creative Ideation through Non-Obvious Concept Associations
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Suyun "Sandra" Bae; Oh-Hyun Kwon; Senthil Chandrasegaran; Kwan-Liu Ma

    Mind mapping is a popular way to explore a design space in creative thinking exercises, allowing users to form associations between concepts. Yet, most existing digital tools for mind mapping focus on authoring and organization, with little support for addressing the challenges of mind mapping such as stagnation and design fixation. We present Spinneret, a functional approach to aid mind mapping by providing suggestions based on a knowledge graph. Spinneret uses biased random walks to explore the knowledge graph in the neighborhood of an existing concept node in the mind map, and provides "suggestions" for the user to add to the mind map. A comparative study with a baseline mind-mapping tool reveals that participants created more diverse and distinct concepts with Spinneret, and reported that the suggestions inspired them to think of ideas they would otherwise not have explored.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • smartSDH: A Mechanism Design Approach to Building Control
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Ioannis C. Konstantakopoulos; Kristy A. Hamilton; Tanya Veeravalli; Costas Spanos; Roy Dong

    As Internet of Things (IoT) technologies are increasingly being deployed, situations frequently arise where multiple stakeholders must reconcile preferences to control a shared resource. We perform a 5-month long experiment dubbed "smartSDH" (carried out in 27 employees' office space) where users report their preferences for the brightness of overhead lighting. smartSDH implements a modified Vickrey-Clarke-Groves (VCG) mechanism; assuming users are rational, it incentivizes truthful reporting, implements the socially desirable outcome, and compensates participants to ensure higher payoffs under smartSDH when compared with the default outside option. smartSDH assesses the feasibility of the VCG mechanism in the context of smart building control and evaluated smartSDH's effect using metrics such as light level satisfaction, incentive satisfaction, and energy consumption. Despite the mechanism's theoretical properties, we found participants were significantly less satisfied with light brightness and incentives determined by the VCG mechanism over time. These data suggest the need for more realistic behavioral models to design IoT technologies and highlights difficulties in estimating preferences from observable external factors such as atmospheric conditions.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Conversational Search for Learning Technologies
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Sharon Oviatt; Laure Soulier

    Conversational search is based on a user-system cooperation with the objective to solve an information-seeking task. In this report, we discuss the implication of such cooperation with the learning perspective from both user and system side. We also focus on the stimulation of learning through a key component of conversational search, namely the multimodality of communication way, and discuss the implication in terms of information retrieval. We end with a research road map describing promising research directions and perspectives.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • GRIDS: Interactive Layout Design with Integer Programming
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Niraj Dayama; Kashyap Todi; Taru Saarelainen; Antti Oulasvirta

    Grid layouts are used by designers to spatially organise user interfaces when sketching and wireframing. However, their design is largely time consuming manual work. This is challenging due to combinatorial explosion and complex objectives, such as alignment, balance, and expectations regarding positions. This paper proposes a novel optimisation approach for the generation of diverse grid-based layouts. Our mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model offers a rigorous yet efficient method for grid generation that ensures packing, alignment, grouping, and preferential positioning of elements. Further, we present techniques for interactive diversification, enhancement, and completion of grid layouts (Figure 1). These capabilities are demonstrated using GRIDS1, a wireframing tool that provides designers with real-time layout suggestions. We report findings from a ratings study (N = 13) and a design study (N = 16), lending evidence for the benefit of computational grid generation during early stages of design.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Computing Curved Area Labels in Near-Real Time
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Filip Krumpe; Thomas Mendel

    In the Area Labeling Problem one is after placing the label of a geographic area. Given the outer boundary of the area and an optional set of holes. The goal is to find a label position such that the label spans the area and is conform to its shape. The most recent research in this field from Barrault in 2001 proposes an algorithm to compute label placements based on curved support lines. His solution has some drawbacks as he is evaluating many very similar solutions. Furthermore he needs to restrict the search space due to performance issues and therefore might miss interesting solutions. We propose a solution that evaluates the search space more broadly and much more efficient. To achieve this we compute a skeleton of the polygon. The skeleton is pruned such that edges close to the boundary polygon are removed. In the so pruned skeleton we choose a set of candidate paths to be longest distinct subpaths of the graph. Based on these candidates the label support lines are computed and the label positions evaluated. Keywords: Area lettering \and Automated label placement \and Digital cartography \and Geographic information sciences \and Geometric Optimization.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • The TA Framework: Designing Real-time Teaching Augmentation for K-12 Classrooms
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Pengcheng An; Kenneth Holstein; Bernice d'Anjou; Berry Eggen; Saskia Bakker

    Recently, the HCI community has seen increased interest in the design of teaching augmentation (TA): tools that extend and complement teachers' pedagogical abilities during ongoing classroom activities. Examples of TA systems are emerging across multiple disciplines, taking various forms: e.g., ambient displays, wearables, or learning analytics dashboards. However, these diverse examples have not been analyzed together to derive more fundamental insights into the design of teaching augmentation. Addressing this opportunity, we broadly synthesize existing cases to propose the TA framework. Our framework specifies a rich design space in five dimensions, to support the design and analysis of teaching augmentation. We contextualize the framework using existing designs cases, to surface underlying design trade-offs: for example, balancing actionability of presented information with teachers' needs for professional autonomy, or balancing unobtrusiveness with informativeness in the design of TA systems. Applying the TA framework, we identify opportunities for future research and design.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Predicting Student Performance in Interactive Online Question Pools Using Mouse Interaction Features
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Huan Wei; Haotian Li; Meng Xia; Yong Wang; Huamin Qu

    Modeling student learning and further predicting the performance is a well-established task in online learning and is crucial to personalized education by recommending different learning resources to different students based on their needs. Interactive online question pools (e.g., educational game platforms), an important component of online education, have become increasingly popular in recent years. However, most existing work on student performance prediction targets at online learning platforms with a well-structured curriculum, predefined question order and accurate knowledge tags provided by domain experts. It remains unclear how to conduct student performance prediction in interactive online question pools without such well-organized question orders or knowledge tags by experts. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to boost student performance prediction in interactive online question pools by further considering student interaction features and the similarity between questions. Specifically, we introduce new features (e.g., think time, first attempt, and first drag-and-drop) based on student mouse movement trajectories to delineate students' problem-solving details. In addition, heterogeneous information network is applied to integrating students' historical problem-solving information on similar questions, enhancing student performance predictions on a new question. We evaluate the proposed approach on the dataset from a real-world interactive question pool using four typical machine learning models.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • TanGi: Tangible Proxies for Embodied Object Exploration and Manipulation in Virtual Reality
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Martin Feick; Scott Bateman; Anthony Tang; André Miede; Nicolai Marquardt

    Exploring and manipulating complex virtual objects is challenging due to limitations of conventional controllers and free-hand interaction techniques. We present the TanGi toolkit which enables novices to rapidly build physical proxy objects using Composable Shape Primitives. TanGi also provides Manipulators allowing users to build objects including movable parts, making them suitable for rich object exploration and manipulation in VR. With a set of different use cases and applications we show the capabilities of the TanGi toolkit, and evaluate its use. In a study with 16 participants, we demonstrate that novices can quickly build physical proxy objects using the Composable Shape Primitives, and explore how different levels of object embodiment affect virtual object exploration. In a second study with 12 participants we evaluate TanGi's Manipulators, and investigate the effectiveness of embodied interaction. Findings from this study show that TanGi's proxies outperform traditional controllers, and were generally favored by participants.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Trajectron++: Multi-Agent Generative Trajectory Forecasting With Heterogeneous Data for Control
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Tim Salzmann; Boris Ivanovic; Punarjay Chakravarty; Marco Pavone

    Reasoning about human motion through an environment is an important prerequisite to safe and socially-aware robotic navigation. As a result, multi-agent behavior prediction has become a core component of modern human-robot interactive systems, such as self-driving cars. While there exist a multitude of methods for trajectory forecasting, many of them have only been evaluated with one semantic class of agents and only use prior trajectory information, ignoring a plethora of information available online to autonomous systems from common sensors. Towards this end, we present Trajectron++, a modular, graph-structured recurrent model that forecasts the trajectories of a general number of agents with distinct semantic classes while incorporating heterogeneous data (e.g. semantic maps and camera images). Our model is designed to be tightly integrated with robotic planning and control frameworks; it is capable of producing predictions that are conditioned on ego-agent motion plans. We demonstrate the performance of our model on several challenging real-world trajectory forecasting datasets, outperforming a wide array of state-of-the-art deterministic and generative methods.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • On the Utility of Learning about Humans for Human-AI Coordination
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2019-10-13
    Micah Carroll; Rohin Shah; Mark K. Ho; Thomas L. Griffiths; Sanjit A. Seshia; Pieter Abbeel; Anca Dragan

    While we would like agents that can coordinate with humans, current algorithms such as self-play and population-based training create agents that can coordinate with themselves. Agents that assume their partner to be optimal or similar to them can converge to coordination protocols that fail to understand and be understood by humans. To demonstrate this, we introduce a simple environment that requires challenging coordination, based on the popular game Overcooked, and learn a simple model that mimics human play. We evaluate the performance of agents trained via self-play and population-based training. These agents perform very well when paired with themselves, but when paired with our human model, they are significantly worse than agents designed to play with the human model. An experiment with a planning algorithm yields the same conclusion, though only when the human-aware planner is given the exact human model that it is playing with. A user study with real humans shows this pattern as well, though less strongly. Qualitatively, we find that the gains come from having the agent adapt to the human's gameplay. Given this result, we suggest several approaches for designing agents that learn about humans in order to better coordinate with them. Code is available at https://github.com/HumanCompatibleAI/overcooked_ai.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Paths Explored, Paths Omitted, Paths Obscured: Decision Points & Selective Reporting in End-to-End Data Analysis
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Yang Liu; Tim Althoff; Jeffrey Heer

    Drawing reliable inferences from data involves many, sometimes arbitrary, decisions across phases of data collection, wrangling, and modeling. As different choices can lead to diverging conclusions, understanding how researchers make analytic decisions is important for supporting robust and replicable analysis. In this study, we pore over nine published research studies and conduct semi-structured interviews with their authors. We observe that researchers often base their decisions on methodological or theoretical concerns, but subject to constraints arising from the data, expertise, or perceived interpretability. We confirm that researchers may experiment with choices in search of desirable results, but also identify other reasons why researchers explore alternatives yet omit findings. In concert with our interviews, we also contribute visualizations for communicating decision processes throughout an analysis. Based on our results, we identify design opportunities for strengthening end-to-end analysis, for instance via tracking and meta-analysis of multiple decision paths.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Revealing Neural Network Bias to Non-Experts Through Interactive Counterfactual Examples
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Chelsea M. Myers; Evan Freed; Luis Fernando Laris Pardo; Anushay Furqan; Sebastian Risi; Jichen Zhu

    AI algorithms are not immune to biases. Traditionally, non-experts have little control in uncovering potential social bias (e.g., gender bias) in the algorithms that may impact their lives. We present a preliminary design for an interactive visualization tool CEB to reveal biases in a commonly used AI method, Neural Networks (NN). CEB combines counterfactual examples and abstraction of an NN decision process to empower non-experts to detect bias. This paper presents the design of CEB and initial findings of an expert panel (n=6) with AI, HCI, and Social science experts.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Examining Potential Usability and Health Beliefs Among Young Adults Using a Conversational Agent for HPV Vaccine Counseling
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Muhammad Amith; Rebecca Lin; Rachel Cunningham; Qiwei Luna Wu; Lara S. Savas; Yang Gong; Julie A. Boom; Lu Tang; Cui Tao

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is the most effective way to prevent HPV-related cancers. Integrating provider vaccine counseling is crucial to improving HPV vaccine completion rates. Automating the counseling experience through a conversational agent could help improve HPV vaccine coverage and reduce the burden of vaccine counseling for providers. In a previous study, we tested a simulated conversational agent that provided HPV vaccine counseling for parents using the Wizard of OZ protocol. In the current study, we assessed the conversational agent among young college adults (n=24), a population that may have missed the HPV vaccine during their adolescence when vaccination is recommended. We also administered surveys for system and voice usability, and for health beliefs concerning the HPV vaccine. Participants perceived the agent to have high usability that is slightly better or equivalent to other voice interactive interfaces, and there is some evidence that the agent impacted their beliefs concerning the harms, uncertainty, and risk denials for the HPV vaccine. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential for conversational agents to be an impactful tool for health promotion endeavors.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Surfacing Visualization Mirages
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Andrew McNutt; Gordon Kindlmann; Michael Correll

    Dirty data and deceptive design practices can undermine, invert, or invalidate the purported messages of charts and graphs. These failures can arise silently: a conclusion derived from a particular visualization may look plausible unless the analyst looks closer and discovers an issue with the backing data, visual specification, or their own assumptions. We term such silent but significant failures "visualization mirages". We describe a conceptual model of mirages and show how they can be generated at every stage of the visual analytics process. We adapt a methodology from software testing, "metamorphic testing", as a way of automatically surfacing potential mirages at the visual encoding stage of analysis through modifications to the underlying data and chart specification. We show that metamorphic testing can reliably identify mirages across a variety of chart types with relatively little prior knowledge of the data or the domain.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Emo-CNN for Perceiving Stress from Audio Signals: A Brain Chemistry Approach
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Anup Anand Deshmukh; Catherine Soladie; Renaud Seguier

    Emotion plays a key role in many applications like healthcare, to gather patients emotional behavior. There are certain emotions which are given more importance due to their effectiveness in understanding human feelings. In this paper, we propose an approach that models human stress from audio signals. The research challenge in speech emotion detection is defining the very meaning of stress and being able to categorize it in a precise manner. Supervised Machine Learning models, including state of the art Deep Learning classification methods, rely on the availability of clean and labelled data. One of the problems in affective computation and emotion detection is the limited amount of annotated data of stress. The existing labelled stress emotion datasets are highly subjective to the perception of the annotator. We address the first issue of feature selection by exploiting the use of traditional MFCC features in Convolutional Neural Network. Our experiments show that Emo-CNN consistently and significantly outperforms the popular existing methods over multiple datasets. It achieves 90.2% categorical accuracy on the Emo-DB dataset. To tackle the second and the more significant problem of subjectivity in stress labels, we use Lovheim's cube, which is a 3-dimensional projection of emotions. The cube aims at explaining the relationship between these neurotransmitters and the positions of emotions in 3D space. The learnt emotion representations from the Emo-CNN are mapped to the cube using three component PCA (Principal Component Analysis) which is then used to model human stress. This proposed approach not only circumvents the need for labelled stress data but also complies with the psychological theory of emotions given by Lovheim's cube. We believe that this work is the first step towards creating a connection between Artificial Intelligence and the chemistry of human emotions.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • LiftTiles: Constructive Building Blocks for Prototyping Room-scale Shape-changing Interfaces
    arXiv.cs.HC Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Ryo Suzuki; Ryosuke Nakayama; Dan Liu; Yasuaki Kakehi; Mark D. Gross; Daniel Leithinger

    Large-scale shape-changing interfaces have great potential, but creating such systems requires substantial time, cost, space, and efforts, which hinders the research community to explore interactions beyond the scale of human hands. We introduce modular inflatable actuators as building blocks for prototyping room-scale shape-changing interfaces. Each actuator can change its height from 15cm to 150cm, actuated and controlled by air pressure. Each unit is low-cost (8 USD), lightweight (10 kg), compact (15 cm), and robust, making it well-suited for prototyping room-scale shape transformations. Moreover, our modular and reconfigurable design allows researchers and designers to quickly construct different geometries and to explore various applications. This paper contributes to the design and implementation of highly extendable inflatable actuators, and demonstrates a range of scenarios that can leverage this modular building block.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
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