Recent trends in rapid detection of Influenza infections by Bio and nanobiosensor Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-23 Soodabeh Hassanpour, Behzad Baradaran, Maryam Hejazi, Mohammad Hasanzadeh, Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Miguel de la Guardia
A literature update has been made about the progress and improvements in the use of biosensors for sensitive, rapid and specific detection of influenza virus. Background information about influenza virus and its structure together with a general discussion about the characteristics and significant aspects of different types of biosensors were used as a frame to put inside the main recent developments on the use of nanobiosensors for the detection of influenza virus. Working criteria of biosensors and their applications in different species of influenza virus diagnosis have been the primary concern of this review, which critically discusses the main advantages and limitations of studies in this field during the last two decades and their applications.
Portable and Smart Devices for Monitoring Heavy Metal Ions Integrated with Nanomaterials Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-22 Yawen Li, Yuzhi Chen, Hao Yu, Limei Tian, Zhuo Wang
With increasing concerns of ecological environment, safe drinkable water and healthy food, the detection for heavy metal ions (HMIs) becomes an attractive research field. On the basis of optical, electrical and other signals from nanomaterials, many interesting methods and portable devices for detection of HMIs are growing flourishingly. In this review, we focus on the portable and smart devices integrated with nanomaterials for monitoring HMIs. The interesting design of the miniaturization, portability, and commercialization of HMIs detection devices are summarized and introduced comprehensively.
Advances in sample preparation strategies for MS-based qualitative and quantitative N-Glycomics Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-22 Ying Zhang, Ye Peng, Lijun Yang, Haojie Lu
N-glycosylation, as the most prevalent post-translational modification of proteins, plays an important part in many life processes. Characterization of N-glycome has been widely applied in the fields like biomarker mining and biopharmaceutical evaluation. However, the inherent low abundance of N-glycans hampers identification, structural elucidation and quantitation of the N-glycome using mass spectrometry (MS). Recently, a series of pre-treatment approaches, including N-glycan release, separation, enrichment and derivatization, are developed to achieve highly sensitive and accurate analysis of N-glycome. Herein, we summarize and highlight recent sample preparation strategies for MS-based identification and quantitation of N-glycome. We hope that this review serves as both an overview of the field and a guide to help scientists employing these powerful approaches in their research.
Voltammetric Sensing of Biomolecules at Carbon Based Electrode Interfaces: A Review Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-17 Dhanjai, Ankita Sinha, Xianbo Lu, Lingxia Wu, Dongqin Tan, Yun Li, Jiping Chen, Rajeev Jain
Brazilian requirements for stability indicating methods Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-01 Ana Cerúlia Moraes do Carmo, Raphael Sanches Pereira, Tais Gratieri
Stability studies guarantees that quality attributes will be maintained during a period under the influence of a variety of environmental factors, consequently maintaining drug product efficacy and safety. In this context, stability indicating analytical methods (SIAM) appears as a regulatory requirement to detect common observed impurities and those likely to appear during product shelf-life due to degradation. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA), The International Council on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Medicinal Products for Human Use (ICH), World Health Organization (WHO), European Medicine Agency (EMA) have been discussing SIAM concepts and applications, as well as other scientific organisms. Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (Anvisa) approached SIAM concept through regulations and guidelines in 2015. Hereupon this note intends to expose Brazilian requirements for drug products registration related to SIAM by establishing a comparison to international scenario.
The application of graphene-based materials as chromatographic stationary phases Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-15 Xiaojing Liang, Xiudan Hou, James HM. Chan, Yong Guo, Emily F. Hilder
There is tremendous interest in graphene since its discovery. In the past few years, graphene-based materials attracted much attention in analytical chemistry due to their large surface area, π-electron-rich structure and good thermal and chemical stability. In this article, an overview of the most significant results so far achieved in the application of graphene-based materials: graphene, graphene oxide and graphene quantum dot as chromatographic stationary phases is presented. In particular, we focus on the separation performance in capillary gas chromatography, in high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography. Different synthesis strategies (physical coating, chemical bonding and some other preparation techniques) in preparing graphene-based stationary phases and the relationship with chromatographic behavior is also considered. Finally, we discuss possible challenges and future perspectives in this rapidly developing field.
The crux of inept biomarkers for risks and benefits of trace elements Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-15 Julia Bornhorst, Anna P. Kipp, Hajo Haase, Sören Meyer, Tanja Schwerdtle
Nowadays, the role of trace elements (TE) is of growing interest because dyshomeostasis of selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) is supposed to be a risk factor for several diseases. Thereby, research focuses on identifying new biomarkers for the TE status to allow for a more reliable description of the individual TE and health status. This review mirrors a lack of well-defined, sensitive, and selective biomarkers and summarizes technical limitations to measure them. Thus, the capacity to assess the relationship between dietary TE intake, homeostasis, and health is restricted, which would otherwise provide the basis to define adequate intake levels of single TE in both healthy and diseased humans. Besides that, our knowledge is even more limited with respect to the real life situation of combined TE intake and putative interactions between single TE.
‘Quality by Design’ approach for the analysis of impurities in pharmaceutical drug products and drug substances Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-14 Amandine Dispas, Hermane T. Avohou, Pierre Lebrun, Philippe Hubert, Cédric Hubert
The pharmaceutical industry is highly regulated by quality policies. The concept of risk management is strongly integrated into the quality assurance system to ensure pharmaceuticals’ quality and patients’ safety. In the context of quality control, the detection of impurities in raw materials and finished products is a major concern. It can be challenging for analytical scientists to meet specificity/selectivity and sensitivity requirements. Obviously, separation techniques are widely used for the detection of impurities but the method development required to achieve Analytical Target Profile (ATP) concerns is often challenging. Therefore, to ensure pragmatic and systematic methods development and simultaneously manage the risk associated with analytical methods, the principles of Quality by Design (QbD) should be applied. This paper provides an overview of QbD principles and statistical strategies (mainly DoE-DS approach) which can be applied to impurity detection methods, as well as a review of the literature where QbD has been applied to these types of analytical methods.
Recent developments in analytical quantitation approaches for parabens in human-associated samples Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-14 Nadeem Raza, Ki-Hyun Kim, Muhammad Abdullah, Waseem Raza, Richard J.C. Brown
Parabens are an important class of antimicrobial compounds used as preservatives. Although they are considered to be safe when used within specified concentration limits, concerns about their potential toxicity have been raised due to their presence in cancerous breast tissues and their association with estrogenic activity, various kinds of allergies, and the malfunctioning of reproductive organs. The small quantities of parabens in human samples and complex nature of biological matrices make it difficult to determine free and/or conjugated forms of parabens and their metabolites. As such, it is desirable to develop sophisticated approaches for sample pretreatments and their subsequent determination. This review presents recent developments in the extraction, pre-concentration, and instrumental detection methods needed for the accurate quantification of parabens in human samples. Accordingly, it will help us assess their potential impacts on human health through proper depiction of their exposure routes to human.
Analytical Control Strategies for Mutagenic Impurities: Current Challenges and Future Opportunities? Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-12 Andrew Teasdale, David P. Elder
The last decade has seen continued development and refinement of guidance related to mutagenic impurities (MIs); culminating in June 2014 with the publication of ICH M7. This has seen an introduction of factors such as durationally adjusted limits and emergence of alternative approaches to demonstrate control, such as purge factor calculations, Teasdale et al.This review examines the impact of these changes on the approaches taken to the analysis of MIs. Observed is the emergence of platform approaches; methods that can be applied to a class of MIs rather than simply to individual analytes. Another observation and concern is the continued development of highly specific sensitive methods for analytes, where appropriate knowledge of the status of the analyte (i.e. it is actually non-mutagenic), would have precluded the necessity to do so. This illustrates the need to conduct a thorough review of the available literature before analytical method development is commenced.
Measurement of impurities to support process development and manufacture of biopharmaceuticals Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-12 Sheun Oshinbolu, Louisa J. Wilson, Will Lewis, Rachana Shah, Daniel G. Bracewell
The biopharmaceutical industry is a growing market relying on analytical methods to bring safe and efficacious drugs from conception to market. Analytical methods are required during the entire drug life cycle as it plays a vital role during decision making. Impurities influence product quality, stability and efficacy, so their levels need to be minimised. There are regulatory guidelines that set out principles for consideration in meeting product quality specifications. Analytical methods have limits in their sensitivity and accuracy of measurement, their sample throughput and/or range of detection. This highlights the need to have orthogonal assays that can confidently quantify critical impurities to the appropriate levels. In this review, we discuss three major analytically challenging critical quality attributes – two product related impurities (aggregates and incorrect glycosylation) and one process related impurity (host cell proteins) – and the analytical assays that are commonly used to measure their quantity and quality.
Reactive impurities in large and small molecule pharmaceutical excipients – a review Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-11 Kelly Zhang, Jackson D. Pellett, Ajit Narang, Y. John Wang, Yonghua Taylor Zhang
Reactive impurities in excipients can cause drug product degradation or protein modification even at trace levels, and thus impact drug stability and quality. It is critical to understand the potential impact of these impurities during development in order to ensure a robust clinical and commercial product. In this article, we review reactive impurities in pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical excipients for both small molecule and large molecule drugs. The common reactive impurities in excipients, including peroxides, aldehydes, organic acids, reducing sugars and elemental impurities are reviewed. Sources of these impurities, reactions and impact, analytical methods, and control and risk mitigation strategies are also discussed.
Impurity Investigations by Phases of Drug and Product Development Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-11 Bernard A. Olsen, Alavattam Sreedhara, Steven W. Baertschi
Thorough knowledge and control of impurities is an expectation for the registration of pharmaceuticals. Actual and potential impurity investigations are phased during drug development to acquire the appropriate information necessary to ensure drug safety from the standpoint of patient exposure to impurities. Regulatory expectations and common practices for the timing of impurity investigations during development are discussed. Investigations for synthetic drug substances include process-related impurities such as intermediates, by-products, mutagenic impurities, residual solvents, and elemental impurities. Stress or forced degradation studies are used to investigate degradation impurities for both drug substances and products. The goals of stress studies conducted at different phases of development are discussed. Protein products have related considerations for impurity investigations, but the nature of impurities and technologies used for determining them can be quite different compared to classical synthetic molecules. Considerations for protein product impurities are discussed with an emphasis on process impurities in monoclonal antibodies.
New perspectives in the non-invasive, in situ identification of painting materials: the advanced MWIR hyperspectral imaging Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-11 Alessia Daveri, Simone Paziani, Mathiew Marmion, Harri Harju, Andreas Vidman, Michela Azzarelli, Manuela Vagnini
Identification, Analysis and Safety Assessment of Leachables and Extractables Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-11 Dennis Jenke
Pharmaceutical drug products (DP) can contain foreign impurities due to contact with manufacturing, storage, distribution and administration systems. These foreign impurities (leachables) are leached from these systems by the drug product and can be linked to extractables measured in the systems during laboratory investigations. Assessing the impact of leachables on the suitability of the DP requires that it be screened to discover, identify and quantify leachables. Given the large number and great chemical diversity of potential leachables, an analytical strategy involving multiple, orthogonal analytical methods is necessary to generate a complete leachables profile. Once the profile has been delineated, the effect of leachables on the DP’s suitability can be established. The potential adverse effect of leachables on patient safety can be established via chemical safety risk assessment, which involves comparing a DP user’s (patient) exposure to individual leachables with exposure thresholds which are toxicologically established for the individual leachables.
Literature update of analytical methods for biogenic amines determination in food and beverages Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-10 Myrsini Papageorgiou, Dimitra Lambropoulou, Calum Morrison, Ewa Kłodzińska, Jacek Namieśnik, Justyna Płotka-Wasylka
Nanostructured (Bio)Sensors For Smart Agriculture Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-10 Amina Antonacci, Fabiana Arduini, Danila Moscone, Giuseppe Palleschi, Viviana Scognamiglio
Intense farming represents one of the main sources causing detriments to vital resources as lands and water, due to unsustainable agricultural practices and the resulting environmental pollution. Furthermore, the increasing world population and the impact of climate change contribute to worsen these constraints. To these regards, several attempts have been completed to provide pioneering technologies for facing against these challenges, including nanostructured (bio)sensors. Indeed, nanotechnology-based (bio)sensors, thanks to the exploitation of fascinating properties of functional materials at the nanoscale, can support farmers in delivering fast, accurate, cost-effective, and in field analyses of i) soil humidity, ii) water and soil nutrients/pesticides, and iii) plant pathogens. Herein, we report a glance of the nano nanostructured (bio)sensors developed to support smart agriculture, reporting representative examples form the literature of the last 10 years.
Dendrimers based sorbents: promising materials for analytical extractions Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-10 Muhammad Sajid
Dendrimers are macromolecules with highly repetitive branched structures resembling with a tree. Their size, shape, inner core and outer functionalities can be tailored and modified per required molecular design, which encourages their use as a selective extracting phase in analytical extractions. Their multifunctional architecture can provide high selectivity as well as enrichment factors. To date, these materials have been widely used in biomedical applications such as drug delivery, gene and cancer therapy, and tissue engineering. Recently, an emerging trend has been seen for using dendrimers based sorbents in analytical extractions such as solid phase extraction, solid phase microextraction, capillary microextraction, dispersive micro solid phase extraction, and stir-bar sorptive extraction. This review intends to provide a brief overview of this trend to analytical community.
Advances in mass spectrometry for iron speciation in plants Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-10 Ghaya Choubassi, Justyna Aszyk, Paulina Pisarek, Katarzyna Bierla, Laurent Ouerdane, Joanna Szpunar, Ryszard Lobinski
Iron is an important nutrient essential for plants and critical for human health. The state-of-the art of methods for iron speciation in cereal grains and plant fluids is critically reviewed. Particular attention is given to the latest developments in the coupling of HPLC with the parallel ICP MS and electrospray ionization (ESI) MS/MS detection, usually QTOF MS or Q-Orbitrap MS, for the identification and quantification of iron species. The coupled techniques allow the direct microanalysis of plant intracellular fluids (xylem and phloem) and complement X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS). The increasing resolution and sensitivity of electrospray mass spectrometers and emergence of software allowing extraction of iron specific data from large chromatographic data sets are responsible for the growing role of electrospray MS/MS in speciation studies. The use of stable isotopes for the probing of the reactivity and stability of endogenous metal complexes and quantitative analysis are rising in importance.
Multisyringe flow injection analysis in spectroanalytical techniques – A review Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-07 Victor Cerdà, Laura Ferrer, Lindomar A. Portugal, Cheilane T. de Souza, Sergio L.C. Ferreira
Quantification techniques for important environmental contaminants in milk and dairy products Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-08 Nadeem Raza, Ki-Hyun Kim
The growing demands of milk and milk products necessitated the use of various kinds of chemicals including antibiotics, urea, and hormones. Although they are essential in the bulk production of milk, they can pose serious health issues not only to animals but also to consumers. To identify and quantify various contaminants (e.g., antibiotics, pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in milk and its related products, reliable instrumental techniques need to be established. This review was organized to summarize the analytical techniques currently available for the identification and quantification of contaminants in milk and dairy products. To this end, this review emphasizes the compositional diversity of various contaminants in milk and its products. This study may provide valuable insights into the essential protocols for the quantification of dairy-related contaminants while helping make the fast and firm decisions needed for the legislation, regulations, and health care.
Critical review on establishment and availability of impurity and degradation product reference standards, challenges faced by the users, recent developments, and trends Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-06 Dilip Kumar Singh, Archana Sahu, Sanjay Kumar, Saranjit Singh
The reference standards of impurities (IMPs) and degradation products (DPs) are required by pharmaceutical industry the world over to comply with stringent thresholds prescribed in the compendial tests. In all the major pharmacopoeias, more and more monographs are currently being modified to include tests for IMPs and DPs. This review does a critical analysis of the whole situation with respect to development, supply, costs, etc. of reference standards of IMPs and DPs. It is found that significant differences exist not only regarding the above-mentioned issues, but even definitions, nomenclatures, types, instructions for use, storage, handling, etc. Typical suggestions have been put forth, which may prove handy to pharmacopoeial agencies during harmonization exercise. The write-up also discusses difficulties faced by the users, recent developments and the trends.
Magnetic solids in electrochemical analysis Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-05 Jiri Kudr, Borivoj Klejdus, Vojtech Adam, Ondrej Zitka
Magnetic solids possess several attractive properties for electrochemists as they simplify the creation of nanotechnology-based complex structures directly on electrodes or for electrode modification. In addition, affinity-based immobilization of targets on magnetic solids enables their actuation via the magnetism phenomenon and provides easy washing steps, thereby minimizing the sample matrix effect and reducing the analysis time. Furthermore, magnetic materials increase the specific surface area of electrodes; thus, various sensing platforms benefit from the enlargement of the recognition layer and enhanced target binding efficiency. Here, advances in electrochemical analysis exploiting catalytic and electrocatalytic properties of magnetic particles and molecularly imprinted polymers are discussed. In addition, nucleic acids, proteins and cell biosensors that utilize magnetic materials are reviewed here.
Computational modeling of molecularly imprinted polymers as a green approach to the development of novel analytical sorbents Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-03 Mariusz Marć, Teobald Kupka, Piotr Paweł Wieczorek, Jacek Namieśnik
The development of novel molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) sorbents for specific chemical compounds require a lot of tedious and time-consuming laboratory work. Significant quantities of solvents and reagents are consumed in the course of the verification of appropriate configurations of polymerization reagents. Implementation of molecular modeling in the MIP sorbent development process appears to provide a solution to this problem. Appropriate simulations and computations facilitate the determination of the nature of interaction between the reagents and thus the selection of the best configuration of chemicals for the preparation of the sorbent. The article presents literature information on major computer software used for molecular modeling, its application in the development of MIP sorbents, as well as the advantages resulting from the implementation of computer-assisted techniques. The appropriate choice of polymerization reagents and conditions allows for a significant reduction of the adverse environmental impact of the entire laboratory process.
Recent trends in the development of complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensors to detect foodborne bacterial pathogens Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-02 Buddolla Viswanath, Yuzon Ma Kristine, Sanghyo Kim
Among the foodborne microorganisms, bacteria are the leading reason for serious outbreaks and lead to spread the diseases irrespective of the region. Therefore, immediate detection has become an important issue to stop the spread of the bacterial pathogens before it leads to serious outbreaks. In recent years, rapid advances in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology gained importance as a dominant technology for fabricating microdevices to use in biomedical research and diagnosis. This technology is consistent, manufacturable, requires low power, low cost, and, perhaps most importantly, scalable. In this feature article, we discuss the recent progresses of CMOS image sensors in the detection foodborne bacterial pathogens. In addition, this article presents and discusses trends in designing of CMOS sensors along with the challenges and future prospective of these sensors to detect foodborne bacterial pathogens. In conclusion, these methods of pathogen detection would offer a great commercial advantage than other methods.
Overview of The Techniques Used for The Study of Non-Terrestrial Bodies: Proposition of Novel Non-Destructive Methodology Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-31 J. Aramendia, L. Gomez-Nubla, K. Castro, S. Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, G. Arana, M. Maguregui, V.G. Baonza, J. Medina, F. Rull, J.M. Madariaga
Meteorites and impact glasses have been largely analysed using different techniques, but most studies have been focused on their geological-mineralogical characterization and isotopic ratios, mainly of a destructive nature. However, much more information can be gained by applying novel non-destructive analytical procedures and techniques that have been scarcely used to analyse these materials. This overview presents some new methodologies to study these materials and compares these new approaches with the commonly used ones. Techniques such as X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), for elemental characterisation, the hyphenated Raman spectroscopy-SEM/EDS and the combination of them, allow extracting simultaneous information from elemental, molecular and structural data of the studied sample; furthermore, the spectroscopic image capabilities of such techniques allow a better understanding of the mineralogical distribution.
Recent trends in element speciation analysis of crude oils and heavy petroleum fractions Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-28 Sara Gutiérrez Sama, Caroline Barrère-Mangote, Brice Bouyssière, Pierre Giusti, Ryszard Lobinski
Medium and heavy crude oils and high-boiling distillation fractions which are increasingly used in petroleum industry contain high concentrations of sulfur and metals. Their behavior in refining processes is critically dependent on the speciation. Recent analytical developments, especially on the level of coupled techniques and high-resolution mass spectrometry, start allowing the speciation of individual metal compounds in crude oil known for its extreme complexity. These developments include: (i) GC stationary phases of high thermal stability and the high-temperature interfaces with ICP-MS and TOF-MS; (ii) high-efficiency microcolumn gel-permeation chromatography with detection by sector-field ICP-MS; (iii) thin layer chromatography coupling with laser ablation ICP-MS detection; and (iv) two-dimensional separation protocols increasing the purity of heteroelement containing fractions. Progress in electrospray and atmospheric-pressure photoionization Fourier Transform MS allows resolutions of above 1,000,000 to be achieved making it possible to identify by accurate mass measurement individual sulfur and metal species directly in crude oils.
Recombinase Polymerase Amplification: Basics, applications and recent advances Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-26 Ivan Magriñá Lobato, Ciara K. O’Sullivan
Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a highly sensitive and selective isothermal amplification technique, operating at 37-42ºC, with minimal sample preparation and capable of amplifying as low as 1-10 DNA target copies in less than 20 minutes. It has been used to amplify diverse targets, including RNA, miRNA, ssDNA and dsDNA from a wide variety of organisms and samples. An ever increasing number of publications detailing the use of RPA are appearing and amplification has been carried out in solution phase, solid phase as well as in a bridge amplification format. Furthermore, RPA has been successfully integrated with different detection strategies, from end-point lateral flow strips to real-time fluorescent detection amongst others. This review focuses on the different methodologies and advances related to RPA technology, as well as highlighting some of the advantages and drawbacks of the technique.
Functionalized fluorescent nanomaterials for sensing pollutants in the environment: A critical review Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-21 Laxman Walekar, Tanushree Dutta, Pawan Kumar, Yong Sik Ok, Samadhan Pawar, Akash Deep, Ki-Hyun Kim
Quantitation of environmental pollutants has gained momentum due to its widespread requirement in the fields of clinical research, occupational hygiene, public health, and societal welfare. The use of functionalized fluorescent nanomaterials (FFNMs: e.g., metal nanoparticles, semiconductor quantum dots, carbon dots, nanotubes, and nanocrystals) has opened a new avenue for creating simple, selective, and non-invasive real-time analysis, as they can satisfy the growing demand for rapid and cost-effective quantitation. Here, we discuss novel strategies for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of a variety of organic and inorganic environmental pollutants by detecting changes in photo-physical or optical properties (e.g., fluorescence, absorbance, and color) of FFNMs used as probes. Particularly, we emphasize potential approaches for the synthesis and characterization of FFNMs and their underlying interactions with environmental pollutants. The simplification of design and enhancement of specificity towards target analytes should be pursued further to upgrade their real-world applicability in diverse fields.
Advances in aptamers-based lateral flow assays Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-21 Miriam Jauset-Rubio, Mohammad S. El-Shahawi, Abdulaziz S. Bashammakh, Abdulrahman O. Alyoubi, Ciara K. O´Sullivan
The use of lateral flow assays exploiting antibodies is well established in different fields due to their advantages, which include low cost, ease of production and rapid response, with the only required end-user intervention being sample addition. In recent years, aptamer-based lateral flow assays are garnering increasing interest offering a highly cost-effective and more flexible alternative to antibodies. In this review, an overview of the aptamer-based lateral flow assays developed to date is provided, highlighting the advantages of using aptamers and their ability to be incorporated into formats not possible with antibodies.
Helicobacter pylori point-of-care diagnosis: Nano-scale biosensors and microfluidic systems Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-21 Rahim Nosrati, Behrouz Golichenari, Alireza Nezami, Seyed Mohammad Taghdisi, Bahareh Karimi, Mohammad Ramezani, Khalil Abnous, Seyed Ali Mousavi Shaegh
Helicobacter pylori is a species of bacteria that can colonize the human stomach mucosa. It is closely associated with gastric diseases. The restrictions of traditional methods have encouraged the development of innovative methods for rapid, reliable, and cost-effective diagnosis of H. pylori infection. In recent years, the concept of biosensor and microfluidic-based devices has opened new horizons in high-precision detection. Once combined with nanomaterials, nano-scale biosensors and microfluidic systems provide powerful analytical platforms for point of care (POC) diagnosing of H. pylori. In this article, a brief overview of general aspects of H. pylori infection and current diagnostic methods are firstly discussed. In addition, a clear and concise review of recent advances of biosensors, paper-based and microfluidic systems based on nanomaterials for the detection of H. pylori are discussed herein. Subsequently, the latest development of integrated and miniaturized microfluidic biosensing technologies for POC detection of H. pylori is explained.
Microscale differential ion mobility spectrometry for field deployable chemical analysis Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-20 K.M. Mohibul Kabir, William A. Donald
Differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) has emerged to be particularly well suited for the rapid and selective identification of gas phase ions at atmospheric pressure. DMS can overcome some limitations associated with mass spectrometry (MS) and conventional ion mobility spectrometry such as the use of vacuum systems. Miniaturization of DMS to the size of a palm portable device using state-of-art microelectromechanical systems significantly lowers power consumption, decreases analysis times (sub milliseconds) and reduces sample consumption. Microscale DMS can be used as both a standalone ion detector or coupled to MS and gas and liquid chromatography platforms to enable the detection of a wide range of chemical species in the field. Here, recent significant progress in the development and application of microscale DMS is comprehensively reviewed. The advantages, limitations, and future challenges for microscale DMS instrumentation for analytical, environmental, and bioanalytical chemistry applications are addressed.
Advances in electrospray mass spectrometry for the selenium speciation: focus on Se-rich yeast Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-20 Katarzyna Bierla, Simon Godin, Ryszard Lobinski, Joanna Szpunar
Selenium is an essential element of which the deficiency is often compensated for by supplementation with products based on yeast grown on Se-rich media. Advances in HPLC with element- and molecule-specific detection by mass spectrometry have resulted in evidence of the presence of hundreds of selenocompounds in Se-rich yeast, with different properties and in a large concentration range. This spurs interest in extending –omics-type approaches to selenium speciation analysis to other samples with the ultimate goal to confer biological significance to the obtained data. This review critically evaluates the recent advances in selenium speciation analysis, especially in terms of sensitivity and specificity of ICP-MS and electrospray-MS, and, in terms of resolution, mass accuracy and multistage fragmentation by electrospray-MS. A focus is made on the evolution of the perception of the competitiveness and complementarity of ICP-MS and electrospray-MS detection in HPLC for qualitative and quantitative Se speciation analysis.
Speciation of arsenic – a review of phenylarsenicals and related arsenic metabolites Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-20 Qingqing Liu, Xiufen Lu, Hanyong Peng, Aleksandra Popowich, Jeffrey Tao, Jagdeesh S. Uppal, Xiaowen Yan, Dana Boe, X. Chris Le
Polypyrrole Based Next Generation Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors: A Review Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-20 Rajeev Jain, Nimisha Jadon, Archana Pawaiya
Recent Developments in the Electrochemical Detection of Explosives: Towards Field-Deployable Devices for Forensic Science Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-19 Holly A. Yu, David A. DeTata, Simon W. Lewis, Debbie S. Silvester
The identification and transportation of trace explosive residues following the detonation of an explosive device or during an explosive related criminal investigation is a crucial yet often time consuming process. The ability to detect explosives at or near an explosion scene therefore offers considerable time advantages in the investigation. For this reason, the development of field-deployable portable analytical instruments is an active area of research. This review explores the potential use of electrochemical sensors for in-situ trace explosives detection. A key focus of this review article is the use of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for the electrochemical detection of explosives. The review compares reaction mechanisms for the electrochemical reduction of TNT in aqueous solutions and in RTILs, before a discussion is made on recent work investigating explosives detection in aqueous, non-aqueous and RTIL-based samples. Finally, commentary is made on the anticipated future direction and challenges of this field.
Nanomaterial-based biosensors for detection of pathogenic virus Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-13 Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Reza Eivazzadeh-Keihan, Paria Pashazadeh, Maryam Hejazi, Nasrin Gharaatifar, Mohammad Hasanzadeh, Behzad Baradaran, Miguel de la Guardia
Viruses, are real menace to human safety that causes devastating viral disease. The high prevalence of these diseases is due to improper detecting tools. Therefore, there is a remarkable demand to identify viruses in a fast, selective and accurate way. Several biosensors have been designed and commercialized for detection of pathogenic viruses. However, they present many challenges. Nanotechnology overcome these challenges and perform direct detection of molecular targets in real time. In this overview, studies concerning nanotechnology-based biosensors for pathogenic virus detection have been summarized, paying special attention to biosensors based on graphene oxide, silica, carbon nanotubes, gold, silver, zinc oxide and magnetic nanoparticles, which could pave the way to detect viral diseases and provide healthy life for infected patients.
Synergistic analytical preconcentration with ionic liquid-nanomaterial hybrids Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-12 Estefanía M. Martinis, Alexander Castro Grijalba, María B. Pérez, Mauricio Llaver, Rodolfo G. Wuilloud
Nanomaterials and ionic liquids (ILs) have very attractive properties for improved analytical preconcentration methods. Thus, ILs have been used as excellent tools to functionalize nanomaterials, giving them specific chemical properties for higher selectivity, extraction efficiency and extended re-utilization in preconcentration. Moreover, incorporation of IL-nanomaterial hybrids in miniaturized solid phase and liquid phase microextraction procedures is being increasingly exploited to obtain high analytical recoveries while developing environmentally friendly analytical methods. In this review, the design and application of innovative and efficient analytical methods for sensitive and selective determination of inorganic and organic analytes is described. The synthesis of some IL-nanomaterial hybrids is presented along with a revision of the most important synergistic physicochemical properties useful for the extraction of analytes. Finally, practical considerations concerning the application of IL-nanomaterial hybrids for the development of modern analytical separation and preconcentration techniques are fully discussed in this work.
A critical review of advances in surface plasmon resonance imaging sensitivity Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-12 Chanjuan Liu, Feichi Hu, Wei Yang, Jiying Xu, Yi Chen
Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) has more and more applications in the fields of biology and life sciences due to its unique features of label-free and high-throughput detection and workability in physiological conditions, but it is suffering from insufficient sensitivity, especially in detecting the small molecules or low level of substances. Various methods have since been developed to improve its sensitivity, but it lacks of summary except for their working principles, setups and applications. This review is thus designed to summary the sensitivity-oriented research progresses, covering signal enhancement and/or amplification, and noise and background suppression, with chemistry-enhancing strategies as focus and non-chemistry as supplement. A brief prospect in near future is also given.
Capabilities and Limitations of LIBS in Food Analysis Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-10 Banu Sezer, Gonca Bilge, Ismail Hakki Boyaci
Food is the main source of different elements which are essential, trace and fundamental for human diet and health. The type and level of elements in foods indicates whether it’s toxic or not. Therefore, determination of elements and their amounts is crucial for food safety and quality. In order to fulfill the increasing demand on multi-elemental information for product monitoring, rapid and sensitive analytical techniques which are capable of detecting major and trace elements with good precision and accuracy are required. In this review, the most recent literature about the use of LIBS for the analysis of food and capabilities and limitations of LIBS on foods have been reported. This review provides comprehensive overview of the applications on food quality and fraud monitoring of several foods, sampling techniques and some limitations of LIBS. Furthermore, it provides a critical outlook on the developments to analyze food matrices with proper sample preparations.
Beyond dried blood spot: current microsampling techniques in the context of biomedical applications Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-10 Gwenaël Nys, Miranda G.M. Kok, Anne-Catherine Servais, Marianne Fillet
Dried blood spot (DBS) has been used for more than 50 years for the screening of inborn errors of metabolism in newborns. Although DBS has remained the standard approach for most applications for many years, alternative sampling tools have been developed in parallel in attempts to overcome some of the well-described limitations of DBS. These alternatives were developed to accurately collect microliters of blood (typically 5-30 μl) in the least invasive way possible. In this review, three novel microsampling devices (dried plasma spots, capillary microsampling and volumetric absorptive microsampling) are compared to DBS and conventional plasma sampling. Covered domains include omics fields, pre-clinical studies, diagnosis, patient care (via therapeutic drug monitoring) and forensic toxicology. Specific advantages and limitations of each technique are presented for the different disciplines and perspectives for these promising technologies are discussed.
Trends on (Elemental and Molecular) Mass Spectrometry based strategies for Speciation and Metallomics Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-03 M. Montes-Bayón, M. Sharar, M. Corte-Rodriguez
Advances in absolute protein quantification and quantitative protein mapping using ICP-MS Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-30 Laura Cid-Barrio, Francisco Calderón-Celis, Patricia Abásolo-Linares, M. Luisa Fernández-Sánchez, José Manuel Costa-Fernández, Jorge Ruiz Encinar, Alfredo Sanz-Medel
Protein and peptide detection with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) can provide their direct and reliable absolute quantification without the need for specific standards, which greatly complements molecular mass spectrometry features in proteomics. We discuss recent research to shed new light on this particular surge in the analytical applicability of ICP-MS and identify possible niches that could attract future analytical activity within this emerging field.
Problems and challenges associated with estimating the emissions of organic compounds from indoor materials Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-27 Mariusz Marć
For several years intensive research has been carried out with the aim of developing a database of the types and amounts of pollutants released from indoor materials to the indoor environment. The paper discusses in detail basic problems and challenges encountered when estimating the emissions of chemical compounds released from of indoor materials. Factors affecting the validity of data obtained by using two different types of analytical devices operating in a dynamic mode (the ex-situ methods) or passive mode (the in-situ methods) for collecting the analytes samples from the gaseous phase were discussed. The main advantages and important limitations of specific analytical devices and aspects of the morphology of the studied indoor material that may influence the type and amount of chemical compounds released into the air were also highlighted. Attention has also been drawn to challenges encountered when developing candidate reference materials dedicated for measuring emissions from indoor matrices.
Advanced Metallomics Methods in Anticancer Metallodrug Mode of Action Studies Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-27 Hannah U. Holtkamp, Christian G. Hartinger
The development of more potent metal-based drugs relies heavily on the understanding of their metabolism in biological environments. Although the specific physicochemical properties of metal ions and their coordination compounds allow the application of element-specific techniques to track their fate after administration to a living organism, the ease of ligand exchanges makes speciation and target identification a challenge. In this review, we discuss selected examples of novel analytical metallomics methods utilizing mass spectrometric detectors often hyphenated with separation systems, and their application to anticancer metallodrug research. An emphasis is put on how these techniques help research to advance in this important scientific area with ultimate ambition of introducing new anticancer agents into clinical development and use.
Indium Tin Oxide (ITO): A promising material in biosensing technology Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-25 Elif Burcu Aydın, Mustafa Kemal Sezgintürk
This review focuses on the recent advances in indium tin oxide (ITO) based biosensors and sensors, which are utilized in different areas such as clinical diagnosis, food analysis and environmental monitoring. The purpose of the review is to provide useful insights in ITO thin film properties, modification methods of ITO thin film coated electrodes, biorecognition elements and immobilization procedures for fabrication of ITO based biosensors and other practical aspects. Following a brief introduction of ITO thin film production, utilization of thin films in biosensor technology and nanomaterial based ITO biosensors are described. Furthermore, the effect of different nanomaterials on the biosensing performance, and applications based on ITO electrodes are summarized by using tables and performance criteria such as detection limits-working ranges are compared.
High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) for quantitative metabolite profiling of non-metal drugs Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-22 Balázs Klencsár, Sanwang Li, Lieve Balcaen, Frank Vanhaecke
ICP - (tandem) mass spectrometry or ICP-MS(/MS) is a well-known technique for ultra-trace element determination. It can also be used in the context of elemental speciation when combined as a sensitive element-specific detector with an adequate separation technique, e.g., (ultra)high-performance liquid chromatography ((U)HPLC). As the ICP-MS signal intensity is independent of the structure of the molecule the analyte element is present in, (U)HPLC-ICP-MS(/MS) offers a promising alternative for quantitative drug metabolite profiling, eliminating the disadvantages of the standard technique, i.e. HPLC followed by radiodetection. This review describes the current status of (U)HPLC-ICP-MS(/MS) in the field of quantitative metabolite profiling of pharmaceutical drugs not containing a metal, with special emphasis on quantification approaches. Next to the possibilities for interference-free monitoring of the most typical (non-metal) hetero-elements in pharmaceutical drugs, also derivatization strategies for drugs originally not containing an element that can be monitored using ICP-MS(MS) are discussed within this review paper.
Applications of liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in the biosciences: a tutorial review and recent developments Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-22 David P. Bishop, Dominic J. Hare, David Clases, Philip A. Doble
The biological function of minor and trace elements is ordinarily determined by their association with specific proteins, peptides and other biomolecules. Therefore, measuring the total elemental content of a biological sample provides limited information, particularly when a specific effect is due to an individual metal-protein complex. Speciation of metalloproteins, heteroatom-containing molecules and exogenous metals used for species-specific tagging can be used to overcome this limitation. A range of chromatographic separation techniques with on-line elemental detection using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) have been applied to the biosciences, and each technique has intrinsic features that must be considered when designing speciation experiments. This tutorial review provides an overview speciation in the biosciences, highlighting the unique abilities and limitations encountered. A selection of recent technical advances and new applications, the challenges of sample preparation and implementation of new technical developments are discussed, as well as the future directions of technology that is rapidly gaining a foothold in the contemporary biochemistry laboratory.
Speciation of technologically critical elements in the environment using chromatography with element and molecule specific detection Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-22 Justyna Wojcieszek, Joanna Szpunar, Ryszard Lobinski
The growing release of technology-critical elements (TCEs): Ga, Ge, In, Nb, Ta, Te, Tl, and most of the platinum group elements (PGEs), and rare earth elements (REEs) requires the understanding of their mobility, reactivity and chemical transformations in the environment which are critically dependent on their chemical form (speciation). The total concentrations of these elements at the trace levels make their speciation analysis challenging. Coupled techniques combining a high resolution chromatographic separation with ultrasensitive element-specific detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) often offer the unique possibility of accessing the information on the identities and concentrations of individual metal species present in environmental samples. This paper reviews the advantages and limitations of these techniques to TCEs speciation and highlights the development trends in analytical methodology that may contribute to our understanding of the risks associated with the increasing environmental presence of TCEs.
Kinetic thermometric methods in Analytical Chemistry Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-22 Piyawan Phansi, Kaewta Danchana, Víctor Cerdà
Advances in element speciation analysis of biomedical samples using synchrotron-based techniques Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-21 Francesco Porcaro, Stéphane Roudeau, Asuncion Carmona, Richard Ortega
Synchrotron-radiation X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a direct method for speciation analysis with atomic resolution, providing information about the local chemical environment of the probed element. This article gives an overview of the basic principles of XAS and its application to element speciation in biomedical research. The basic principle and experimental modalities of XAS are introduced, followed by a discussion of both its limitations, such as beam damage or detection limits, and practical advices to improve experiments. An updated review of biomedical studies involving XAS published over the last 5 years is then provided, paying special attention to metal-based drug biotransformation, metal and nanoparticle toxicology, and element speciation in cancer, neurological, and general pathophysiology. Finally, trends and future developments such as hyphenated methods, in situ correlative imaging and speciation, in vivo X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), full-field XANES, and X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) XAS are presented.
Spectroscopy with computational analysis in virological studies: A decade (2006-2016) Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-21 Marfran C.D. Santos, Camilo L.M. Morais, Yasmin M. Nascimento, Josélio M.G. Araujo, Kássio M.G. Lima
Early detection of contamination and defect in foodstuffs by electronic nose: A review Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-21 Alireza Sanaeifar, Hassan ZakiDizaji, Abdolabbas Jafari, Miguel de la Guardia
Electronic nose (e-nose) has emerged as a potential instrument in various areas of food safety assessment for rapid early detection of contamination and defect in food production chain. E-nose is an innovative measurement system designed for detecting and discriminating complex odours through mimicking the working mechanism and the principal building blocks of the mammalian olfactory system. This paper describes a literature update of the applications of the e-nose for ensuring health and safety in the food industry. Finally, its future trend, perspectives and challenging problem are also mentioned.
Self-assembly of Plasmonic Nanostructures into Superlattices for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Applications Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-20 Rui Liu, Shisha Li, Jing-Fu Liu
Since the initial discovery that the interparticle nanogaps in nanoparticle aggregates was the surface-enhanced Raman scattering(SERS) hotspots that facilitated the enormous enhancements in SERS, the controllable assembly of plasmonic nanoparticles into superstructures is recognized as the most effective strategy for fabricating SERS substrate. The homogenous distribution abundant SERS hotspots inside the self-assembly reproducibly amplify the SERS signal. This ultimately makes SERS an ultrasensitive analytical method with the potential to elicit fundamental chemistry, biology, and physics breakthroughs.This review focuses on recent developments in self-assemble of plasmonic NPs for SERS applications, including: 1) Template-guided self-assemble of plasmonic NPs 2) Templateless self-assemble of plasmonic NPs 3) Taking full advantage of the assembly process: integration of target analyte recognition and capture capacity into the assembly 4) Assembly makes perfect: new opportunities created by large self-assembling SERS substrates. 5) Future directions and possible applications of self-assembled SERS substrates. 1) Template-guided self-assemble of plasmonic NPs 2) Templateless self-assemble of plasmonic NPs 3) Taking full advantage of the assembly process: integration of target analyte recognition and capture capacity into the assembly 4) Assembly makes perfect: new opportunities created by large self-assembling SERS substrates. 5) Future directions and possible applications of self-assembled SERS substrates.
Unconventional steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy as an analytical technique for analyses of complex-multifluorophoric mixtures Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-20 Keshav Kumar, Madhumita Tarai, A.K. Mishra
Over the years mainly three unconventional fluorescence techniques, Excitation-emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF), synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS), and total synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (TSFS) are introduced for the analysis of multifluorophoric mixtures. Application of EEMF, SFS and TSFS are conceptually different. The existing literature lacks a review article that gives an overview on conceptual and analytical aspects of EEMF, SFS and TSFS for general as well as specialized fluorescence scientific community. The present review article attempts to address these issues and discusses various conceptual and practical aspects of EEMF, SFS and TSFS spectroscopy. The present article contains numerous novel fluorescence parameters, concept of concentration dependent red shift, protocol for finding the optimum wavelength offset for SFS data acquisition is introduced, various practical aspects of integrating chemometric methods with TSFS and number of successful applications of EEMF, SFS and TSFS for the analysis of complex and simple multifluorophoric mixtures is discussed.
Overview of experimental and computational methods for the determination of the pKa values of 5-fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, imatinib and methotrexate Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-18 Katarzyna Mioduszewska, Joanna Dołżonek, Dariusz Wyrzykowski, Łukasz Kubik, Paweł Wiczling, Celina Sikorska, Michał Toński, Zbigniew Kaczyński, Piotr Stepnowski, Anna Białk-Bielińska
We present a review of the available literature concerning pKa values and methods for the determination of selected anticancer drugs as well as the most up-to-date knowledge on their different ionic forms depending on solution pH. Additionally, to clarify the existing state of knowledge we have presented an overview on the obtained pKa values with the use of experimental and computational methods. As a result, we have demonstrated and proposed acid-base equilibria of cyclophosphamide (CF), ifosfamide (IF), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), methotrexate (MTX), and imatinib (IMT) in an aqueous solution, and their species distribution curves as a function of pH calculated on the basis of the acid dissociation constants, which are as follows:
Impact and practicability of recently introduced requirements on elemental impurities Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-18 Pawel Pohl, Aleksandra Bielawska-Pohl, Anna Dzimitrowicz, Piotr Jamroz, Maja Welna
Spectrochemical elemental analysis of pharmaceuticals and raw materials used for their production will be in the nearest future an obligatory part of quality and safety control for compliance with new standards announced by the International Council for Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH Q3D). The present paper surveys R&D articles and scientific papers devoted to determination of the elemental impurities by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry (ICP-OES and ICP-MS) in different pharmaceuticals products that have been published since 2000. In reference to recent changes described in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) general chapters <232> and <233>, different aspects of such measurements are presented, including appropriate sample preparation procedures, possible interferences and means of their avoidance, suitable calibration strategies and validation parameters that have to be assessed to prove reliability of the analytical results on the elemental impurities in pharmaceutical products.
Critical review of reports on impurity and degradation product profiling in the last decade Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-17 Sándor Görög
Drug impurity and degradation profiling mean the detection, structure elucidation and quantitative determination of impurities and degradation products in bulk drug materials and pharmaceutical formulations. This is today one of the most important fields of activities in pharmaceutical analysis. The reason for this is that unidentified, potentially toxic impurities are health hazards, and in order to increase the safety of drug therapy, impurities should be identified and determined by selective methods.The aim of this review is to characterise the state-of-art in the field of impurity and degradation profiling of drugs based on papers published in the last decade. The separation and determination of impurities and degradants with a known structure are discussed, but emphasis is placed on the structure elucidation and determination of new (unknown) impurities and degradation products by off-line and on-line chromatographic – spectroscopic methods. The analytical aspects of enantiomeric purity of chiral drugs are also discussed.
Sample treatment for the determination of emerging organic contaminants in aquatic organisms Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-15 Mireia Núñez, Francesc Borrull, Eva Pocurull, Núria Fontanals
Chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry has become an important tool for determining emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in environmental samples such as aquatic organisms. Sample treatment, which includes extraction and clean-up, continues to play an important role in the analysis of complex matrices. Indeed it often becomes a bottleneck in the compromise between time and efficiency when obtaining suitable extracts for analysis. This article focuses on the state of the art in the treatment of aquatic organism samples for determining EOCs. A review is carried out of the most recent relevant publications from 2011 up to the present, in which new methods for determining EOCs in aquatic organisms were developed. The most common extraction techniques employed in these studies, like pressurised liquid extraction, solid-liquid extraction, QuEChERS, microwave-assisted extraction and matrix solid-phase extraction along with the subsequent clean-up steps, are also examined. The most important parameters involving extraction and clean-up are discussed.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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