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  • Ionic liquids in capillary electrophoresis for enantioseparation
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2018-01-08
    Qi Zhang

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have received considerable attention in the separation science community due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Several excellent review articles on the application of ILs in analytical chemistry have been published. Rather than provide another comprehensive overview, this review focuses on the development and state-of-the-art of ILs in capillary electrophoresis (CE) for enantioseparation. The contents are divided into six sections according to the application modes of ILs, including achiral ILs modified conventional chiral separation system, chiral ILs synergistic separation system, chiral ILs ligand-exchange CE (LE-CE) system, ILs in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), the development of novel ILs chiral selectors, and some other applications. The critical research questions and solutions of each application modes are systematically summarized. Existing problems and future prospects are also discussed.

  • Noble metal nanostructures in optical biosensors: basics, and their introduction to anti-doping detection
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Hedieh Malekzad, Parham Sahandi Zangabad, Hadi Mohammadi, Mohsen Sadroddini, Zahra Jafari, Niloofar Mahlooji, Somaye Abbaspour, Somaye Gholami, Mana Ghanbarpoor, Rahim Pashazadeh, Ali Beyzavi, Mahdi Karimi, Michael. R. Hamblin

    Nanotechnology has illustrated significant potentials in biomolecular-sensing applications; particularly its introduction to anti-doping detection is of great importance. Illicit recreational drugs, substances that can be potentially abused, and drugs with dosage limitations according to the prohibited lists announced by the World Antidoping Agency (WADA) are becoming of increasing interest to forensic chemists. In this review, the theoretical principles of optical biosensors based on noble metal nanoparticles, and the transduction mechanism of commonly-applied plasmonic biosensors are covered. We review different classes of recently-developed plasmonic biosensors for analytic determination and quantification of illicit drugs in anti-doping applications. The important classes of illicit drugs include anabolic steroids, opioids, stimulants, and peptide hormones. The main emphasis is on the advantages that noble metal nanoparticles bring to optical biosensors for signal enhancement and the development of highly sensitive (label-free) biosensors. In the near future, such optical biosensors may be an invaluable substitute for conventional anti-doping detection methods such as chromatography-based approaches, and may even be commercialized for routine anti-doping tests.

  • A Critical Analysis of Extraction Techniques Used for Botanicals: Trends, Priorities, Industrial Uses and Optimization Strategies
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Tarun Belwal, Shahira M. Ezzat, Luca Rastrelli, Indra D. Bhatt, Maria Daglia, Alessandra Baldi, Hari Prasad Devkota, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Jayanta Kumar Patra, Gitishree Das, C. Anandharamakrishnan, Lourdes Gomez-Gomez, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Atanas G. Atanasov

    Plant extracts have been long used by the traditional healers for providing health benefits and are nowadays suitable ingredient for the production of formulated health products and nutraceuticals. Traditional methods of extraction such as maceration, percolation, digestion, and preparation of decoctions and infusions are now been replaced by advanced extraction methods for increased extraction efficiency and selectivity of bioactive compounds to meet up the increasing market demand. Advanced techniques use different ways for extraction such as microwaves, ultrasound waves, supercritical fluids, enzymes, pressurized liquids, electric field, etc. These innovative extraction techniques, afford final extracts selectively rich in compounds of interest without formation of artifacts, and are often simple, fast, environmentally friendly and fully automated compared to existing extraction method. The present review is focused on the recent trends on the extraction of different bioactive chemical constituents depending on the nature of sample matrices and their chemical classes including anthocyanins, flavonoids, polyphenols, alkaloids, oils, etc.. In addition, we review the strategies for designing extraction, selection of most suitable extraction methods, and trends of extraction methods for botanicals. Recent progress on the research based on these advanced methods of extractions and their industrial importance are also discussed in detail.

  • Mass spectrometry for glycan biomarker discovery
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2018-01-03
    O. Aizpurua-Olaizola, J. Sastre Toraño, J.M. Falcon-Perez, C. Williams, N. Reichardt, G.-J. Boons

    The association between aberrant glycosylation of proteins and many cancers, and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases has been known for many years. Altered glycosylation can occur at the onset and during disease progression and identifying these changes at an early stage may greatly increase survival and improve quality of life. However, the identification of these biomarkers has not been easy, mainly due to the structural diversity and numerous possible glycan isomers. Fortunately, glycomics is becoming more feasible due to major improvements in mass spectrometry and separation science. The present review discusses recent methods for mass-spectrometry (MS) based glycomics for the identification of glycan biomarkers. Recent MS techniques with and without coupling to liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis or ion mobility spectrometry are described, and the most recent glycan biomarker studies are presented and future prospects discussed.

  • Recent development of optical methods in rapid and non-destructive detection of aflatoxin and fungal contamination in agricultural products
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2018-01-03
    Feifei Tao, Haibo Yao, Zuzana Hruska, Wes Burger, Kanniah Rajasekaran, Deepak Bhatnagar

    The demand for developing rapid and non-destructive techniques that is suitable to real-time and on-line detection of aflatoxin and fungal contamination has received significant attentions. Measurement techniques based on fluorescence spectroscopy (FS), near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and hyperspectral imaging (HSI) have provided interesting and promising results for detecting aflatoxin and/or fungal contamination in a variety of foods. As such, the main goal of this article is to give an overview of the current research progress of FS, NIRS and HSI techniques in rapid detection of aflatoxin and fungal contamination in different varieties of agricultural products. These techniques are described in terms of their working principles, features and application advantages in detecting aflatoxins and fungal contamination. The research advances of each technique applied in different agricultural products are reviewed and the results obtained from different studies are compared and discussed. Perspectives on their future trends and challenges are also addressed.

  • Recent advances on nanomaterial based electrochemical and optical aptasesnors for detection of cancer biomarkers
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2018-01-03
    Reza Eivazzadeh-Keihan, Paria Pashazadeh-Panahi, Behzad Baradaran, Ali Maleki, Maryam Hejazi, Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Miguel de la Guardia

    Cancer is a real menace to all societies globally since it is the leading cause of premature mortality in men and women. The incidence of malignancies is enhancing as a result of plenty factors. Physically and economically concerns that occur in cancers patients cannot be neglected. However, current diagnostic methods and cure duration do not fulfill patients requirements. Therefore, it is essential to detect and diagnose cancer biomarkers as soon as possible and overcome the current burdens. Novel aptasensors is emerging as one of the most promising strategies for early recognition of cancer. Aptamers an artificial DNA or RNA sequences, possess plenty of merits such as easy production, modification of their structure, lower immunogenicity, and high affinity to target that pave the way for early detection of cancer biomarkers. This review attempts to list novel and advanced investigation progress of aptamers in biosensor platforms for diagnosing of malignancies.

  • Analysis of pesticide residues in olive oil and other vegetable oils
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2018-01-02
    E. Hakme, A. Lozano, C. Ferrer, F.J. Díaz-Galiano, A.R. Fernández-Alba

    Pesticide residue analysis in olive oil presents difficulties due to the high amount of co-eluted compounds resulting in high matrix effect. Different extraction/clean-up methods including gel permeation chromatography, liquid/liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction and other extraction methods are applied to overcome these difficulties. Recent approaches such as the addition of the freezing-out step and the application of Enhanced Matrix Removal-Lipid sorbent (EMR-Lipid) are reported. Gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry are considered the gold standard technologies covering a wide scope of pesticides. This review recapitulates the methods most widely used for the determination of pesticide residues in vegetable oils. As a continuation of previous reviews, the work conducted is an update review of methods from 2006 in this field, evaluating their strengths and limitations. Main analytical parameters of the different extraction procedures and detection methods are discussed in terms of recoveries, robustness, limit of quantification, and matrix effect.

  • Trends in Developments of Certified Reference Materials for Chemical Analysis - Focus on food, water, soil, and sediment matrices
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-30
    I.R.B. Olivares, G.B. Souza, A.R.A. Nogueira, G.T.K. Toledo, D.C. Marcki

    The growing demand for traceable and reliable results in analytical chemistry can be illustrated with the growth in ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation. Among different technical requirements in this quality system, the use of CRMs is highlighted because of its applications in many operations, such as method validation, proficiency tests, estimation of the uncertainties and quality control. Over the past several years, there has been an increased need to use different types of CRMs in chemical analysis, new CRM publications about its developments and certification. This paper proposes to show a detailed review considering the development of certified reference materials (CRM) for chemical analysis, focusing on food, water, soil and sediment matrices. An evaluation of the trends and best-applied practices in its development in the last 2 years was performed, to guide new developments for this material that is increasingly necessary to laboratories.

  • Critical assessment of hexavalent chromium species from different solid environmental, industrial and food matrices
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-29
    F. Séby, V. Vacchina

    The accurate determination of Cr(VI), the most hazardous form of chromium, is an analytical challenge because of its facility to be reduced during all steps of the analytical procedure. This review presents a synthesis of the available studies for the analysis of Cr species in different solid samples (soils/wastes, working atmosphere, industrial and food samples). A particular attention has been paid on Cr(III) and Cr(VI) interconversions that can occur during extraction and efforts made to avoid these reactions. Although the use of NaOH/Na2CO3 solutions with heating at 90-95°C is the more widespread procedure, species transformation can still occur and several studies suggest that speciated isotope dilution (SID) could be a suitable tool for correction of these interconversions.

  • Key challenges and prospects for optical standoff trace detection of explosives
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-29
    Patrick Wen, Mitesh Amin, William D. Herzog, Roderick R. Kunz

    Sophisticated improvised explosive devices (IEDs) challenge the capabilities of current sensors, particularly in areas away from static checkpoints. This security gap could be filled by standoff chemical sensors that detect IEDs based on external trace explosive residues. Unfortunately, previous efforts have not led to widely deployed capabilities. Crucially, the physical morphology of trace explosive residues and chemical “clutter” present unique challenges to the operational performance of standoff sensors. In this review, an overview of standoff trace explosive detection systems is provided in the context of these unique challenges. Tradespace analysis is performed for two popular standoff detection methods: longwave infrared hyperspectral imaging and deep-UV Raman spectroscopy. The tradespace analysis method described in this review incorporates realistic trace explosive residues and background clutter into the technology development process. The review predicts system performance and areas where additional research is needed for these two technologies to optimize performance.

  • Analysis of Metal-based Contrast Agents in Medicine and the Environment
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-27
    David Clases, Michael Sperling, Uwe Karst

    Technetium (Tc) and Gadolinium (Gd) are the two most widely used metals in diagnostic medicine for scintigraphies and magnet resonance imaging (MRI), respectively. They play a crucial role for the generation or enhancement of contrast and are indispensable in countless diagnostic applications. However, the use of such contrast agents has caused severe health issues and environmental anomalies. This review aims to point out current issues and developments regarding the role and the analysis of these trace metals in medicine and the environment. Basic principles, issues and state of art of analytical methodologies are summarized. Current and future trends and the suggested implementation of novel methodologies and instrumentation are presented.

  • Atomic absorption spectrometry - A multi element technique
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-26
    Sergio L.C. Ferreira, Marcos A. Bezerra, Adilson S. Santos, Walter N.L. dos Santos, Cleber G. Novaes, Olivia M.C. de Oliveira, Michael L. Oliveira, Rui L. Garcia
  • Engineering design and mechanistic mathematical models: Standpoint on cutting edge drug delivery
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-24
    Ankush Parmar, Shweta Sharma

    The process of drug dissolution depends upon a number of physical phenomenon i.e. wetting of the particle’s surface, breakdown of solid state bonds, solvation, diffusion (through the liquid unstirred boundary layer surrounding the particle), and convection. Development of less complex theories and appropriate mathematical equations can be pioneer in describing the drug dissolution kinetics. The mathematical models simplify the analysis and optimize the design of therapeutic device to yield information on the efficacy of release models. For controlled release drug delivery applications, numerous PLGA based micro and nanospheres have been extensively studied. In order to describe the mechanisms involved during PLGA degradation, erosion and drug release from the bulk polymer, various mathematical models have been proposed. Along with describing the current state of art of mathematical modeling in drug dissolution, the review article addresses the role of autocatalysis in mass transport and chemical reaction phenomenon of drug delivery from polymeric drug delivery systems.

  • 更新日期:2017-12-22
  • Cytosensing of cancer cells using antibody-based molecular imprinting: A short-review
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-21
    Mohammad Hasanzadeh, Nasrin Shadjou, Miguel de la Guardia

    Rapid and effective differentiation between normal and cancer cells is an important objective for the diagnosis, prognosis and theranosis of tumours. This short review highlights some of the most recent developments on the application of molecular bioimprinting in detection of cancer cells using antibody-based cancer cell recognition method. The particular emphasis of this review is on sample-to-answer devices and approaches that enable down-stream investigation of the properties of the cells. Given the speed, portability, sensitivity and selectivity achieved using molecular bioimprinting technology on cancer cell monitoring, these methods hold the promise of transformative change in clinical practice.

  • Molecular spectroscopy – Information rich detection for gas chromatography
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-01
    J. Shezmin Zavahir, Yada Nolvachai, Philip J. Marriott

    Molecular spectroscopic detection plays a crucial role in gas chromatography (GC). Some detectors constitute element-selective spectroscopy, where an element-containing species generates the detected signal, e.g. flame photometric detection (S, P, Cu); chemiluminescence detection (S, N). These respond with selective response, usually with excellent analyte detectability and reduced matrix interferences. Classical molecular spectroscopic detectors – Fourier transform infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, ultraviolet – respond by giving a spectrum characteristic of the (intact) molecule. Molecular structure response plays multi-faceted roles: it produces a unique spectrum of a molecule, provided it is resolved by the column and presented to the detector as a single compound; or the chromatogram can be generated by responding to the total signal, or selectively to a given component of the signal. This review summarises the response, sensitivities, applicability, and recent literature reports of molecular spectroscopic detection. Hyphenation with dual detection and brief comments on multidimensional GC is included.

  • Ultrasensitive Detection of Aflatoxin B1 and Its Major Metabolite Aflatoxin M1 Using Aptasensors: A Review
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-18
    Noor Mohammad Danesh, Hasan Badie Bostan, Khalil Abnous, Mohammad Ramezani, Kazem Youssefi, Seyed Mohammad Taghdisi, Gholamreza Karimi

    In regard to tremendous toxicological effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and its major metabolite aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) on human health, quality assessment of food is of great importance. On the other hand, due to extremely low levels of these toxic metabolites in food and feed, the need to develop reliable and sensitive method is inevitable. Although, very different analytical techniques have been introduced for detection of them, hindrances such as time-consuming, labor-intensive, and highly-priced instruments have limited their uses. Aptasensors, as emerging methods, have opened new horizons for sensitive and selective detection of toxins. Aptamers are a new class of characteristic bio-recognition elements, provided by an in vitro process named SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichments). This review discusses Aptasensors developed for detection of AFB1 and AFM1. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of these systems and introduce the best ones.

  • Recent advances in the adsorbents for isolation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from environmental sample solutions
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-18
    Somandla Ncube, Lawrence Madikizela, Ewa Cukrowska, Luke Chimuka

    This article offers a critical review on the materials that have been applied as adsorbents in the isolation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from matrix solutions. The review looks at adsorbents that have been used during the clean-up stage to isolate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous samples and organic solvent extracts from treatment of solid samples. Articles that report the application of adsorbents for solid phase extraction and solid phase microextraction of PAHs in the past decade stretching from 2007 were considered. The review focussed mainly on recent advances that have been done to enhance the applicability of both traditional adsorbents like silica, and modern ones like molecularly imprinted polymers and nanoparticles. The application of adsorbents modified with functional organic groups is critically evaluated with areas for possible improvement suggested. Finally, the authors offer areas of exploration that can allow the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to reach new heights.

  • The role of selenium in mercury toxicity – current analytical techniques and future trends in analysis of selenium and mercury interactions in biological matrices
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-11
    Zuzana Gajdosechova, Zoltan Mester, Jörg Feldmann, Eva M. Krupp

    Mercury forms potent toxic compounds, which cause irreversible damage to the central nervous system, while selenium, if present in an adequate concentration, is an essential micronutrient needed for the regulation of metabolic processes. The interactions between mercury and selenium have been rigorously scrutinized particularly due to observed protective effects of selenium against mercury toxicity, however very few proposed mechanisms are supported by empirical data. With mercury concentrations steadily rising in the environment, this matter is of urgency, and pushes for the development of new sample preparation protocols and analytical techniques. Softer extraction methods should preserve the true chemical species, while a combination of chromatographic and direct analytical techniques enable identification and quantitation. This review summarizes the state of the art of current analytical techniques, which focus on the interactions between mercury and selenium in biological matrices and outlines the future trends that might fill major gaps in our analytical capabilities.

  • Dried matrix spots and clinical elemental analysis. Current status, difficulties, and opportunities
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-11
    M. Resano, M.A. Belarra, E. García-Ruiz, M. Aramendía, L. Rello

    This article examines the increasing importance of dried matrix spot (DMS) specimens (such as dried blood spots, dried urine spots, etc.) in biomedical research, the challenges associated with their analysis when quantitative elemental information is aimed at, as well as the benefits deriving from the further usage of these types of samples. The article briefly reviews the historical evolution of this sampling approach in elemental clinical analysis, stressing prospective areas of applications (e.g., newborns or prosthesis control), the methodologies most recently developed to produce DMS of known volume, as well as novel strategies proposed to analyze them, often related to direct solid sampling techniques or fast lixiviation methods. Finally, the article discusses the type of information that could be obtained after isotopic analysis of DMS when targeting non-traditional stable isotopes (e.g., Cu, Fe or Zn), which can significantly help in the early diagnosis of some medical conditions (e.g. Wilson's disease).

  • Fiber Enhanced Raman Gas Spectroscopy
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-11
    Andreas Knebl, Di Yan, Jürgen Popp, Torsten Frosch

    Fiber enhanced Raman spectroscopy (FERS) is a powerful multigas analysis technique. It combines the unmatched analytical prowess of Raman spectroscopy with the enhancement of small signals through the sophisticated use of hollow core optical fibers. Consequently, FERS is highly selective and very sensitive and as an optical technique label-free, non-invasive, and fast. Hollow core photonic crystal fibers and metal coated capillaries provide enhancement based on the confinement of guided light and gas. The technique allows the unambiguous identification and quantification of various gas mixture components, including hydrogen and nitrogen. The resulting versatility opens a broad range of applications for FERS. Several examples of medical gas sensing are reported. Furthermore, FERS gas sensing is applied in industrial and environmental process monitoring. Newly developed optical fibers and further advances in the field might increase sensitivity and stability.

  • Ultraviolet Resonance Raman Spectroscopic Markers for Protein Structure and Dynamics
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-11
    Ryan S. Jakubek, Joseph Handen, Stephen E. White, Sanford A. Asher, Igor K. Lednev

    UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for investigating the structure of biological molecules, such as proteins. Numerous UVRR spectroscopic markers that provide information on the structure and environment of the protein backbone and of amino acid side chains have recently been discovered. Combining these UVRR markers with hydrogen-deuterium exchange and advanced statistics is a powerful tool for studying protein systems, including the structure and formation mechanism of protein aggregates and amyloid fibrils. These techniques allow crucial new insights into the structure and dynamics of proteins, such as polyglutamine peptides, which are associated with 10 different neurodegenerative diseases. Here we summarize the spectroscopic structural markers recently developed and the important insights they provide.

  • Raman spectroscopy for forensic purposes: recent applications for serology and gunshot residue analysis
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-09
    Kyle C. Doty, Igor K. Lednev

    The realm of forensics is scientifically complex with multiple disciplines utilizing a plethora of analytical techniques to identify, detect, and differentiate between countless types of evidence for solving crimes. The rapid, highly-selective, and nondestructive method of Raman spectroscopy (RS) has shown continued promise for analysis of many types of forensic samples. The incorporation of chemometrics further enhances the specificity of the RS, and offers the opportunity of automatic data analysis and estimation of error rates, which are important requirements for modern forensic tools. Applications of RS in forensic serology and for the analysis of gunshot residue (GSR) were chosen for this review since RS promises significant advancement of these areas for practical forensics. The studies included here, particularly with the utilization of portable instrumentation, support how crucial RS is to the field of forensic science, and should help facilitate its incorporation for routine sample analysis in the near future.

  • Micro/nanofluidics-enabled single-cell biochemical analysis
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-08
    Ling Lin, Qinghua Chen, Jiashu Sun

    The micro/nanofluidic technique has become an important tool for single-cell analysis with the capability to integrate complex experimental procedures. Micro/nanofluidics-based biochemical analysis exhibits advantages over conventional methods in terms of small sample volume, rapid turnaround time, straightforward operation, and efficient processing. Single-cell manipulation, therapy, detection and sequencing could be implemented within a sophisticated and multi-functional micro/nanofluidic platform. Here we review recent developments of micro/nanofluidic technologies for single-cell analysis, with emphasis on cell trapping, treatment, and biochemical studies. The potential of micro/nanofluidics-based single-cell analysis is discussed.

  • Recent advances of mesoporous materials for sample preparation in proteomics research
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-06
    Jizong Yao, Nianrong Sun, Chunhui Deng

    Sample preparation is an indispensable part of proteomics research. Owing to its merits of large surface area, narrow pore size distribution, adjustable pore size, modifiable pore inwalls and so on, mesoporous materials have been widely developed as one of main techniques for sample preparation in proteomics. The uniform mesopores allow small size peptides into mesoporous channels while large size proteins excluded. In addition, large surface area of mesoporous materials could provide more binding sites for modification, and thus improving selectivity of materials and increasing sensitivity during MS analysis. In this review, recent advances in mesoporous materials as sample preparation technique, including enrichment of endogenous peptides, specific enrichment of phosphopeptides and glycopeptides as well as protein digestion were summarized and discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, concerns in synthesis of mesoporous materials and enrichment biases of different functionalized mesoporous materials towards target peptides as well as the problem of sample analysis are also prospected.

  • Bioanalytical Methods for Hypochlorous Acid Detection: Recent Advances and Challenges
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-02
    Run Zhang, Bo Song, Jingli Yuan

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a well-known universal disinfectant in clinical practice, plays important roles in immune systems of animal and human bodies. For understanding the roles of HOCl in living systems, a number of approaches, including chemiluminescence, colorimetric, electrochemical and chromatographic methods have been explored. For the detection of HOCl in live organisms, cutting-edge techniques, such as fluorescence/phosphorescence molecular probes, responsive nanoprobes, Raman and activatable photoacoustic sensors, have also been developed recently. In this review, the recent advances in the development of bioanalytical methods for detection of HOCl in environmental and biological specimens were summarized. More specifically, traditional techniques for assay of HOCl in bulk solution were initially discussed, and then fluorescence molecular probes, phosphorescence probes, responsive nanoprobes and other methods for HOCl detection were reviewed, which gives an overview of the developments and applications in bioanalytical methods for HOCl detection.

  • State-of-the-art and Trends for the SI Traceable Value Assignment of the Purity of Peptides Using the Model Compound Angiotensin I
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-28
    Ralf D. Josephs, Norbert Stoppacher, Adeline Daireaux, Tiphaine Choteau, Katrice A. Lippa, Karen Phinney, Steven Westwood, Robert I. Wielgosz

    Accurate diagnosis, monitoring and treatment are cornerstones of a healthcare system and require reliable measurements. The traceability of measurement results to stated references, and the development of Reference Measurement Systems (RMS), provide mechanisms to achieve the required consistency of results. The primary standards within such an RMS are of pure substance certified reference materials. Developments in modern measurement and mass spectrometric techniques have opened up the possibility to characterize and quantify more complex large molecules such as peptides, enabling RMS to be developed for these analytes. The prohormone angiotensin I is a hypertension biomarker and was selected as a model peptide. The full mass balance approach, the peptide impurity corrected amino acid analysis, elemental analysis and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance approaches have been investigated and optimized to compare the performance of these different methodologies for the purity mass fraction value assignment of an ANG I calibrator material.

  • Recent trends in rapid detection of Influenza infections by Bio and nanobiosensor
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-23
    Soodabeh Hassanpour, Behzad Baradaran, Maryam Hejazi, Mohammad Hasanzadeh, Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Miguel de la Guardia

    A literature update has been made about the progress and improvements in the use of biosensors for sensitive, rapid and specific detection of influenza virus. Background information about influenza virus and its structure together with a general discussion about the characteristics and significant aspects of different types of biosensors were used as a frame to put inside the main recent developments on the use of nanobiosensors for the detection of influenza virus. Working criteria of biosensors and their applications in different species of influenza virus diagnosis have been the primary concern of this review, which critically discusses the main advantages and limitations of studies in this field during the last two decades and their applications.

  • Portable and Smart Devices for Monitoring Heavy Metal Ions Integrated with Nanomaterials
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-22
    Yawen Li, Yuzhi Chen, Hao Yu, Limei Tian, Zhuo Wang

    With increasing concerns of ecological environment, safe drinkable water and healthy food, the detection for heavy metal ions (HMIs) becomes an attractive research field. On the basis of optical, electrical and other signals from nanomaterials, many interesting methods and portable devices for detection of HMIs are growing flourishingly. In this review, we focus on the portable and smart devices integrated with nanomaterials for monitoring HMIs. The interesting design of the miniaturization, portability, and commercialization of HMIs detection devices are summarized and introduced comprehensively.

  • Advances in sample preparation strategies for MS-based qualitative and quantitative N-Glycomics
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-22
    Ying Zhang, Ye Peng, Lijun Yang, Haojie Lu

    N-glycosylation, as the most prevalent post-translational modification of proteins, plays an important part in many life processes. Characterization of N-glycome has been widely applied in the fields like biomarker mining and biopharmaceutical evaluation. However, the inherent low abundance of N-glycans hampers identification, structural elucidation and quantitation of the N-glycome using mass spectrometry (MS). Recently, a series of pre-treatment approaches, including N-glycan release, separation, enrichment and derivatization, are developed to achieve highly sensitive and accurate analysis of N-glycome. Herein, we summarize and highlight recent sample preparation strategies for MS-based identification and quantitation of N-glycome. We hope that this review serves as both an overview of the field and a guide to help scientists employing these powerful approaches in their research.

  • Voltammetric Sensing of Biomolecules at Carbon Based Electrode Interfaces: A Review
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-17
    Dhanjai, Ankita Sinha, Xianbo Lu, Lingxia Wu, Dongqin Tan, Yun Li, Jiping Chen, Rajeev Jain
  • Brazilian requirements for stability indicating methods
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Ana Cerúlia Moraes do Carmo, Raphael Sanches Pereira, Tais Gratieri

    Stability studies guarantees that quality attributes will be maintained during a period under the influence of a variety of environmental factors, consequently maintaining drug product efficacy and safety. In this context, stability indicating analytical methods (SIAM) appears as a regulatory requirement to detect common observed impurities and those likely to appear during product shelf-life due to degradation. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA), The International Council on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Medicinal Products for Human Use (ICH), World Health Organization (WHO), European Medicine Agency (EMA) have been discussing SIAM concepts and applications, as well as other scientific organisms. Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (Anvisa) approached SIAM concept through regulations and guidelines in 2015. Hereupon this note intends to expose Brazilian requirements for drug products registration related to SIAM by establishing a comparison to international scenario.

  • The application of graphene-based materials as chromatographic stationary phases
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Xiaojing Liang, Xiudan Hou, James HM. Chan, Yong Guo, Emily F. Hilder

    There is tremendous interest in graphene since its discovery. In the past few years, graphene-based materials attracted much attention in analytical chemistry due to their large surface area, π-electron-rich structure and good thermal and chemical stability. In this article, an overview of the most significant results so far achieved in the application of graphene-based materials: graphene, graphene oxide and graphene quantum dot as chromatographic stationary phases is presented. In particular, we focus on the separation performance in capillary gas chromatography, in high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography. Different synthesis strategies (physical coating, chemical bonding and some other preparation techniques) in preparing graphene-based stationary phases and the relationship with chromatographic behavior is also considered. Finally, we discuss possible challenges and future perspectives in this rapidly developing field.

  • The crux of inept biomarkers for risks and benefits of trace elements
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Julia Bornhorst, Anna P. Kipp, Hajo Haase, Sören Meyer, Tanja Schwerdtle

    Nowadays, the role of trace elements (TE) is of growing interest because dyshomeostasis of selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) is supposed to be a risk factor for several diseases. Thereby, research focuses on identifying new biomarkers for the TE status to allow for a more reliable description of the individual TE and health status. This review mirrors a lack of well-defined, sensitive, and selective biomarkers and summarizes technical limitations to measure them. Thus, the capacity to assess the relationship between dietary TE intake, homeostasis, and health is restricted, which would otherwise provide the basis to define adequate intake levels of single TE in both healthy and diseased humans. Besides that, our knowledge is even more limited with respect to the real life situation of combined TE intake and putative interactions between single TE.

  • ‘Quality by Design’ approach for the analysis of impurities in pharmaceutical drug products and drug substances
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-14
    Amandine Dispas, Hermane T. Avohou, Pierre Lebrun, Philippe Hubert, Cédric Hubert

    The pharmaceutical industry is highly regulated by quality policies. The concept of risk management is strongly integrated into the quality assurance system to ensure pharmaceuticals’ quality and patients’ safety. In the context of quality control, the detection of impurities in raw materials and finished products is a major concern. It can be challenging for analytical scientists to meet specificity/selectivity and sensitivity requirements. Obviously, separation techniques are widely used for the detection of impurities but the method development required to achieve Analytical Target Profile (ATP) concerns is often challenging. Therefore, to ensure pragmatic and systematic methods development and simultaneously manage the risk associated with analytical methods, the principles of Quality by Design (QbD) should be applied. This paper provides an overview of QbD principles and statistical strategies (mainly DoE-DS approach) which can be applied to impurity detection methods, as well as a review of the literature where QbD has been applied to these types of analytical methods.

  • Recent developments in analytical quantitation approaches for parabens in human-associated samples
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-14
    Nadeem Raza, Ki-Hyun Kim, Muhammad Abdullah, Waseem Raza, Richard J.C. Brown

    Parabens are an important class of antimicrobial compounds used as preservatives. Although they are considered to be safe when used within specified concentration limits, concerns about their potential toxicity have been raised due to their presence in cancerous breast tissues and their association with estrogenic activity, various kinds of allergies, and the malfunctioning of reproductive organs. The small quantities of parabens in human samples and complex nature of biological matrices make it difficult to determine free and/or conjugated forms of parabens and their metabolites. As such, it is desirable to develop sophisticated approaches for sample pretreatments and their subsequent determination. This review presents recent developments in the extraction, pre-concentration, and instrumental detection methods needed for the accurate quantification of parabens in human samples. Accordingly, it will help us assess their potential impacts on human health through proper depiction of their exposure routes to human.

  • Analytical Control Strategies for Mutagenic Impurities: Current Challenges and Future Opportunities?
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-12
    Andrew Teasdale, David P. Elder

    The last decade has seen continued development and refinement of guidance related to mutagenic impurities (MIs); culminating in June 2014 with the publication of ICH M7. This has seen an introduction of factors such as durationally adjusted limits and emergence of alternative approaches to demonstrate control, such as purge factor calculations, Teasdale et al. This review examines the impact of these changes on the approaches taken to the analysis of MIs. Observed is the emergence of platform approaches; methods that can be applied to a class of MIs rather than simply to individual analytes. Another observation and concern is the continued development of highly specific sensitive methods for analytes, where appropriate knowledge of the status of the analyte (i.e. it is actually non-mutagenic), would have precluded the necessity to do so. This illustrates the need to conduct a thorough review of the available literature before analytical method development is commenced.

  • Measurement of impurities to support process development and manufacture of biopharmaceuticals
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-12
    Sheun Oshinbolu, Louisa J. Wilson, Will Lewis, Rachana Shah, Daniel G. Bracewell

    The biopharmaceutical industry is a growing market relying on analytical methods to bring safe and efficacious drugs from conception to market. Analytical methods are required during the entire drug life cycle as it plays a vital role during decision making. Impurities influence product quality, stability and efficacy, so their levels need to be minimised. There are regulatory guidelines that set out principles for consideration in meeting product quality specifications. Analytical methods have limits in their sensitivity and accuracy of measurement, their sample throughput and/or range of detection. This highlights the need to have orthogonal assays that can confidently quantify critical impurities to the appropriate levels. In this review, we discuss three major analytically challenging critical quality attributes – two product related impurities (aggregates and incorrect glycosylation) and one process related impurity (host cell proteins) – and the analytical assays that are commonly used to measure their quantity and quality.

  • Reactive impurities in large and small molecule pharmaceutical excipients – a review
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-11
    Kelly Zhang, Jackson D. Pellett, Ajit Narang, Y. John Wang, Yonghua Taylor Zhang

    Reactive impurities in excipients can cause drug product degradation or protein modification even at trace levels, and thus impact drug stability and quality. It is critical to understand the potential impact of these impurities during development in order to ensure a robust clinical and commercial product. In this article, we review reactive impurities in pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical excipients for both small molecule and large molecule drugs. The common reactive impurities in excipients, including peroxides, aldehydes, organic acids, reducing sugars and elemental impurities are reviewed. Sources of these impurities, reactions and impact, analytical methods, and control and risk mitigation strategies are also discussed.

  • Impurity Investigations by Phases of Drug and Product Development
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-11
    Bernard A. Olsen, Alavattam Sreedhara, Steven W. Baertschi

    Thorough knowledge and control of impurities is an expectation for the registration of pharmaceuticals. Actual and potential impurity investigations are phased during drug development to acquire the appropriate information necessary to ensure drug safety from the standpoint of patient exposure to impurities. Regulatory expectations and common practices for the timing of impurity investigations during development are discussed. Investigations for synthetic drug substances include process-related impurities such as intermediates, by-products, mutagenic impurities, residual solvents, and elemental impurities. Stress or forced degradation studies are used to investigate degradation impurities for both drug substances and products. The goals of stress studies conducted at different phases of development are discussed. Protein products have related considerations for impurity investigations, but the nature of impurities and technologies used for determining them can be quite different compared to classical synthetic molecules. Considerations for protein product impurities are discussed with an emphasis on process impurities in monoclonal antibodies.

  • New perspectives in the non-invasive, in situ identification of painting materials: the advanced MWIR hyperspectral imaging
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-11
    Alessia Daveri, Simone Paziani, Mathiew Marmion, Harri Harju, Andreas Vidman, Michela Azzarelli, Manuela Vagnini
  • Identification, Analysis and Safety Assessment of Leachables and Extractables
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-11
    Dennis Jenke

    Pharmaceutical drug products (DP) can contain foreign impurities due to contact with manufacturing, storage, distribution and administration systems. These foreign impurities (leachables) are leached from these systems by the drug product and can be linked to extractables measured in the systems during laboratory investigations. Assessing the impact of leachables on the suitability of the DP requires that it be screened to discover, identify and quantify leachables. Given the large number and great chemical diversity of potential leachables, an analytical strategy involving multiple, orthogonal analytical methods is necessary to generate a complete leachables profile. Once the profile has been delineated, the effect of leachables on the DP’s suitability can be established. The potential adverse effect of leachables on patient safety can be established via chemical safety risk assessment, which involves comparing a DP user’s (patient) exposure to individual leachables with exposure thresholds which are toxicologically established for the individual leachables.

  • Literature update of analytical methods for biogenic amines determination in food and beverages
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Myrsini Papageorgiou, Dimitra Lambropoulou, Calum Morrison, Ewa Kłodzińska, Jacek Namieśnik, Justyna Płotka-Wasylka
  • Nanostructured (Bio)Sensors For Smart Agriculture
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Amina Antonacci, Fabiana Arduini, Danila Moscone, Giuseppe Palleschi, Viviana Scognamiglio

    Intense farming represents one of the main sources causing detriments to vital resources as lands and water, due to unsustainable agricultural practices and the resulting environmental pollution. Furthermore, the increasing world population and the impact of climate change contribute to worsen these constraints. To these regards, several attempts have been completed to provide pioneering technologies for facing against these challenges, including nanostructured (bio)sensors. Indeed, nanotechnology-based (bio)sensors, thanks to the exploitation of fascinating properties of functional materials at the nanoscale, can support farmers in delivering fast, accurate, cost-effective, and in field analyses of i) soil humidity, ii) water and soil nutrients/pesticides, and iii) plant pathogens. Herein, we report a glance of the nano nanostructured (bio)sensors developed to support smart agriculture, reporting representative examples form the literature of the last 10 years.

  • Dendrimers based sorbents: promising materials for analytical extractions
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Muhammad Sajid

    Dendrimers are macromolecules with highly repetitive branched structures resembling with a tree. Their size, shape, inner core and outer functionalities can be tailored and modified per required molecular design, which encourages their use as a selective extracting phase in analytical extractions. Their multifunctional architecture can provide high selectivity as well as enrichment factors. To date, these materials have been widely used in biomedical applications such as drug delivery, gene and cancer therapy, and tissue engineering. Recently, an emerging trend has been seen for using dendrimers based sorbents in analytical extractions such as solid phase extraction, solid phase microextraction, capillary microextraction, dispersive micro solid phase extraction, and stir-bar sorptive extraction. This review intends to provide a brief overview of this trend to analytical community.

  • Advances in mass spectrometry for iron speciation in plants
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Ghaya Choubassi, Justyna Aszyk, Paulina Pisarek, Katarzyna Bierla, Laurent Ouerdane, Joanna Szpunar, Ryszard Lobinski

    Iron is an important nutrient essential for plants and critical for human health. The state-of-the art of methods for iron speciation in cereal grains and plant fluids is critically reviewed. Particular attention is given to the latest developments in the coupling of HPLC with the parallel ICP MS and electrospray ionization (ESI) MS/MS detection, usually QTOF MS or Q-Orbitrap MS, for the identification and quantification of iron species. The coupled techniques allow the direct microanalysis of plant intracellular fluids (xylem and phloem) and complement X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS). The increasing resolution and sensitivity of electrospray mass spectrometers and emergence of software allowing extraction of iron specific data from large chromatographic data sets are responsible for the growing role of electrospray MS/MS in speciation studies. The use of stable isotopes for the probing of the reactivity and stability of endogenous metal complexes and quantitative analysis are rising in importance.

  • Multisyringe flow injection analysis in spectroanalytical techniques – A review
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Victor Cerdà, Laura Ferrer, Lindomar A. Portugal, Cheilane T. de Souza, Sergio L.C. Ferreira
  • Quantification techniques for important environmental contaminants in milk and dairy products
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Nadeem Raza, Ki-Hyun Kim

    The growing demands of milk and milk products necessitated the use of various kinds of chemicals including antibiotics, urea, and hormones. Although they are essential in the bulk production of milk, they can pose serious health issues not only to animals but also to consumers. To identify and quantify various contaminants (e.g., antibiotics, pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in milk and its related products, reliable instrumental techniques need to be established. This review was organized to summarize the analytical techniques currently available for the identification and quantification of contaminants in milk and dairy products. To this end, this review emphasizes the compositional diversity of various contaminants in milk and its products. This study may provide valuable insights into the essential protocols for the quantification of dairy-related contaminants while helping make the fast and firm decisions needed for the legislation, regulations, and health care.

  • Critical review on establishment and availability of impurity and degradation product reference standards, challenges faced by the users, recent developments, and trends
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Dilip Kumar Singh, Archana Sahu, Sanjay Kumar, Saranjit Singh

    The reference standards of impurities (IMPs) and degradation products (DPs) are required by pharmaceutical industry the world over to comply with stringent thresholds prescribed in the compendial tests. In all the major pharmacopoeias, more and more monographs are currently being modified to include tests for IMPs and DPs. This review does a critical analysis of the whole situation with respect to development, supply, costs, etc. of reference standards of IMPs and DPs. It is found that significant differences exist not only regarding the above-mentioned issues, but even definitions, nomenclatures, types, instructions for use, storage, handling, etc. Typical suggestions have been put forth, which may prove handy to pharmacopoeial agencies during harmonization exercise. The write-up also discusses difficulties faced by the users, recent developments and the trends.

  • Magnetic solids in electrochemical analysis
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-05
    Jiri Kudr, Borivoj Klejdus, Vojtech Adam, Ondrej Zitka

    Magnetic solids possess several attractive properties for electrochemists as they simplify the creation of nanotechnology-based complex structures directly on electrodes or for electrode modification. In addition, affinity-based immobilization of targets on magnetic solids enables their actuation via the magnetism phenomenon and provides easy washing steps, thereby minimizing the sample matrix effect and reducing the analysis time. Furthermore, magnetic materials increase the specific surface area of electrodes; thus, various sensing platforms benefit from the enlargement of the recognition layer and enhanced target binding efficiency. Here, advances in electrochemical analysis exploiting catalytic and electrocatalytic properties of magnetic particles and molecularly imprinted polymers are discussed. In addition, nucleic acids, proteins and cell biosensors that utilize magnetic materials are reviewed here.

  • Computational modeling of molecularly imprinted polymers as a green approach to the development of novel analytical sorbents
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Mariusz Marć, Teobald Kupka, Piotr Paweł Wieczorek, Jacek Namieśnik

    The development of novel molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) sorbents for specific chemical compounds require a lot of tedious and time-consuming laboratory work. Significant quantities of solvents and reagents are consumed in the course of the verification of appropriate configurations of polymerization reagents. Implementation of molecular modeling in the MIP sorbent development process appears to provide a solution to this problem. Appropriate simulations and computations facilitate the determination of the nature of interaction between the reagents and thus the selection of the best configuration of chemicals for the preparation of the sorbent. The article presents literature information on major computer software used for molecular modeling, its application in the development of MIP sorbents, as well as the advantages resulting from the implementation of computer-assisted techniques. The appropriate choice of polymerization reagents and conditions allows for a significant reduction of the adverse environmental impact of the entire laboratory process.

  • Recent trends in the development of complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensors to detect foodborne bacterial pathogens
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-02
    Buddolla Viswanath, Yuzon Ma Kristine, Sanghyo Kim

    Among the foodborne microorganisms, bacteria are the leading reason for serious outbreaks and lead to spread the diseases irrespective of the region. Therefore, immediate detection has become an important issue to stop the spread of the bacterial pathogens before it leads to serious outbreaks. In recent years, rapid advances in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology gained importance as a dominant technology for fabricating microdevices to use in biomedical research and diagnosis. This technology is consistent, manufacturable, requires low power, low cost, and, perhaps most importantly, scalable. In this feature article, we discuss the recent progresses of CMOS image sensors in the detection foodborne bacterial pathogens. In addition, this article presents and discusses trends in designing of CMOS sensors along with the challenges and future prospective of these sensors to detect foodborne bacterial pathogens. In conclusion, these methods of pathogen detection would offer a great commercial advantage than other methods.

  • Overview of The Techniques Used for The Study of Non-Terrestrial Bodies: Proposition of Novel Non-Destructive Methodology
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    J. Aramendia, L. Gomez-Nubla, K. Castro, S. Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, G. Arana, M. Maguregui, V.G. Baonza, J. Medina, F. Rull, J.M. Madariaga

    Meteorites and impact glasses have been largely analysed using different techniques, but most studies have been focused on their geological-mineralogical characterization and isotopic ratios, mainly of a destructive nature. However, much more information can be gained by applying novel non-destructive analytical procedures and techniques that have been scarcely used to analyse these materials. This overview presents some new methodologies to study these materials and compares these new approaches with the commonly used ones. Techniques such as X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), for elemental characterisation, the hyphenated Raman spectroscopy-SEM/EDS and the combination of them, allow extracting simultaneous information from elemental, molecular and structural data of the studied sample; furthermore, the spectroscopic image capabilities of such techniques allow a better understanding of the mineralogical distribution.

  • Recent trends in element speciation analysis of crude oils and heavy petroleum fractions
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-28
    Sara Gutiérrez Sama, Caroline Barrère-Mangote, Brice Bouyssière, Pierre Giusti, Ryszard Lobinski

    Medium and heavy crude oils and high-boiling distillation fractions which are increasingly used in petroleum industry contain high concentrations of sulfur and metals. Their behavior in refining processes is critically dependent on the speciation. Recent analytical developments, especially on the level of coupled techniques and high-resolution mass spectrometry, start allowing the speciation of individual metal compounds in crude oil known for its extreme complexity. These developments include: (i) GC stationary phases of high thermal stability and the high-temperature interfaces with ICP-MS and TOF-MS; (ii) high-efficiency microcolumn gel-permeation chromatography with detection by sector-field ICP-MS; (iii) thin layer chromatography coupling with laser ablation ICP-MS detection; and (iv) two-dimensional separation protocols increasing the purity of heteroelement containing fractions. Progress in electrospray and atmospheric-pressure photoionization Fourier Transform MS allows resolutions of above 1,000,000 to be achieved making it possible to identify by accurate mass measurement individual sulfur and metal species directly in crude oils.

  • Recombinase Polymerase Amplification: Basics, applications and recent advances
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-26
    Ivan Magriñá Lobato, Ciara K. O’Sullivan

    Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a highly sensitive and selective isothermal amplification technique, operating at 37-42ºC, with minimal sample preparation and capable of amplifying as low as 1-10 DNA target copies in less than 20 minutes. It has been used to amplify diverse targets, including RNA, miRNA, ssDNA and dsDNA from a wide variety of organisms and samples. An ever increasing number of publications detailing the use of RPA are appearing and amplification has been carried out in solution phase, solid phase as well as in a bridge amplification format. Furthermore, RPA has been successfully integrated with different detection strategies, from end-point lateral flow strips to real-time fluorescent detection amongst others. This review focuses on the different methodologies and advances related to RPA technology, as well as highlighting some of the advantages and drawbacks of the technique.

  • Functionalized fluorescent nanomaterials for sensing pollutants in the environment: A critical review
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-21
    Laxman Walekar, Tanushree Dutta, Pawan Kumar, Yong Sik Ok, Samadhan Pawar, Akash Deep, Ki-Hyun Kim

    Quantitation of environmental pollutants has gained momentum due to its widespread requirement in the fields of clinical research, occupational hygiene, public health, and societal welfare. The use of functionalized fluorescent nanomaterials (FFNMs: e.g., metal nanoparticles, semiconductor quantum dots, carbon dots, nanotubes, and nanocrystals) has opened a new avenue for creating simple, selective, and non-invasive real-time analysis, as they can satisfy the growing demand for rapid and cost-effective quantitation. Here, we discuss novel strategies for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of a variety of organic and inorganic environmental pollutants by detecting changes in photo-physical or optical properties (e.g., fluorescence, absorbance, and color) of FFNMs used as probes. Particularly, we emphasize potential approaches for the synthesis and characterization of FFNMs and their underlying interactions with environmental pollutants. The simplification of design and enhancement of specificity towards target analytes should be pursued further to upgrade their real-world applicability in diverse fields.

  • Advances in aptamers-based lateral flow assays
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-21
    Miriam Jauset-Rubio, Mohammad S. El-Shahawi, Abdulaziz S. Bashammakh, Abdulrahman O. Alyoubi, Ciara K. O´Sullivan

    The use of lateral flow assays exploiting antibodies is well established in different fields due to their advantages, which include low cost, ease of production and rapid response, with the only required end-user intervention being sample addition. In recent years, aptamer-based lateral flow assays are garnering increasing interest offering a highly cost-effective and more flexible alternative to antibodies. In this review, an overview of the aptamer-based lateral flow assays developed to date is provided, highlighting the advantages of using aptamers and their ability to be incorporated into formats not possible with antibodies.

  • Helicobacter pylori point-of-care diagnosis: Nano-scale biosensors and microfluidic systems
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-21
    Rahim Nosrati, Behrouz Golichenari, Alireza Nezami, Seyed Mohammad Taghdisi, Bahareh Karimi, Mohammad Ramezani, Khalil Abnous, Seyed Ali Mousavi Shaegh

    Helicobacter pylori is a species of bacteria that can colonize the human stomach mucosa. It is closely associated with gastric diseases. The restrictions of traditional methods have encouraged the development of innovative methods for rapid, reliable, and cost-effective diagnosis of H. pylori infection. In recent years, the concept of biosensor and microfluidic-based devices has opened new horizons in high-precision detection. Once combined with nanomaterials, nano-scale biosensors and microfluidic systems provide powerful analytical platforms for point of care (POC) diagnosing of H. pylori. In this article, a brief overview of general aspects of H. pylori infection and current diagnostic methods are firstly discussed. In addition, a clear and concise review of recent advances of biosensors, paper-based and microfluidic systems based on nanomaterials for the detection of H. pylori are discussed herein. Subsequently, the latest development of integrated and miniaturized microfluidic biosensing technologies for POC detection of H. pylori is explained.

  • Microscale differential ion mobility spectrometry for field deployable chemical analysis
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-20
    K.M. Mohibul Kabir, William A. Donald

    Differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) has emerged to be particularly well suited for the rapid and selective identification of gas phase ions at atmospheric pressure. DMS can overcome some limitations associated with mass spectrometry (MS) and conventional ion mobility spectrometry such as the use of vacuum systems. Miniaturization of DMS to the size of a palm portable device using state-of-art microelectromechanical systems significantly lowers power consumption, decreases analysis times (sub milliseconds) and reduces sample consumption. Microscale DMS can be used as both a standalone ion detector or coupled to MS and gas and liquid chromatography platforms to enable the detection of a wide range of chemical species in the field. Here, recent significant progress in the development and application of microscale DMS is comprehensively reviewed. The advantages, limitations, and future challenges for microscale DMS instrumentation for analytical, environmental, and bioanalytical chemistry applications are addressed.

  • Advances in electrospray mass spectrometry for the selenium speciation: focus on Se-rich yeast
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-20
    Katarzyna Bierla, Simon Godin, Ryszard Lobinski, Joanna Szpunar

    Selenium is an essential element of which the deficiency is often compensated for by supplementation with products based on yeast grown on Se-rich media. Advances in HPLC with element- and molecule-specific detection by mass spectrometry have resulted in evidence of the presence of hundreds of selenocompounds in Se-rich yeast, with different properties and in a large concentration range. This spurs interest in extending –omics-type approaches to selenium speciation analysis to other samples with the ultimate goal to confer biological significance to the obtained data. This review critically evaluates the recent advances in selenium speciation analysis, especially in terms of sensitivity and specificity of ICP-MS and electrospray-MS, and, in terms of resolution, mass accuracy and multistage fragmentation by electrospray-MS. A focus is made on the evolution of the perception of the competitiveness and complementarity of ICP-MS and electrospray-MS detection in HPLC for qualitative and quantitative Se speciation analysis.

Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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