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  • 更新日期:2018-01-19
  • High stiffness polymer composite with tunable transparency
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Peter Samora Owuor, Varun Chaudhary, Cristiano F. Woellner, V Sharma, R.V. Ramanujan, Anthony S. Stender, Matias Soto, Sehmus Ozden, Enrique V. Barrera, Robert Vajtai, Douglas S. Galvão, Jun Lou, Chandra Sekhar Tiwary, Pulickel M. Ajayan
  • Scoping the polymer genome: A roadmap for rational polymer dielectrics design and beyond
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-12-19
    Arun Mannodi-Kanakkithodi, Anand Chandrasekaran, Chiho Kim, Tran Doan Huan, Ghanshyam Pilania, Venkatesh Botu, Rampi Ramprasad
  • Ultra-high average figure of merit in synergistic band engineered SnxNa1−xSe0.9S0.1 single crystals
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-12-15
    Kunling Peng, Bin Zhang, Hong Wu, Xianlong Cao, Ang Li, Dingfeng Yang, Xu Lu, Guoyu Wang, Xiaodong Han, Ctirad Uher, Xiaoyuan Zhou
  • Metallic nanoparticles for cancer immunotherapy
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-12-14
    Emily Reiser Evans, Pallavi Bugga, Vishwaratn Asthana, Rebekah Drezek
  • Full-thickness human skin-on-chip with enhanced epidermal morphogenesis and barrier function
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-12-06
    Gopu Sriram, Massimo Alberti, Yuri Dancik, Bo Wu, Ruige Wu, Zhaoxu Feng, Srinivas Ramasamy, Paul Lorenz Bigliardi, Mei Bigliardi-Qi, Zhiping Wang

    Reconstruction of full-thickness skin equivalents with physiologically relevant cellular and matrix architecture is gaining importance as an in vitro tool for basic research, and for the pharmaceutical, toxicological, and cosmetic industries. However, human skin equivalents reconstructed on traditional culture systems are limited by a weak skin barrier function compared to normal human skin. Probable reasons include the lack of mechanical forces and dynamic flow system that provide necessary mechanistic signals and continuous supply and/or drainage of nutrients and metabolites. Here, we combine a fibrin-based dermal matrix with a biomimetic ‘organ-on-chip’ system for the development of human skin equivalents that better recapitulate the structure and functionalities of human skin, compared to conventional static culture systems. We demonstrate that dynamic perfusion and a fine control of the microenvironment enable improved epidermal morphogenesis and differentiation, and enhanced barrier function. It is also shown that integrated 3D culturing and integrity/permeability testing can be conducted directly on the organ-on-chip device owing to the non-contracting properties of the fibrin-based dermal matrix, thus overcoming the limitations of collagen-based skin equivalents used in conventional cell culture inserts and diffusion cells. With this scalable system, it is possible to achieve higher throughput and automation of culture and testing protocols, and deliver low-cost alternatives to animal and clinical studies for drug screening and toxicological applications.

  • Dislocation network in additive manufactured steel breaks strength–ductility trade-off
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-12-06
    Leifeng Liu, Qingqing Ding, Yuan Zhong, Ji Zou, Jing Wu, Yu-Lung Chiu, Jixue Li, Ze Zhang, Qian Yu, Zhijian Shen

    Most mechanisms used for strengthening crystalline materials, e.g. introducing crystalline interfaces, lead to the reduction of ductility. An additive manufacturing process – selective laser melting breaks this trade-off by introducing dislocation network, which produces a stainless steel with both significantly enhanced strength and ductility. Systematic electron microscopy characterization reveals that the pre-existing dislocation network, which maintains its configuration during the entire plastic deformation, is an ideal “modulator” that is able to slow down but not entirely block the dislocation motion. It also promotes the formation of a high density of nano-twins during plastic deformation. This finding paves the way for developing high performance metals by tailoring the microstructure through additive manufacturing processes.

  • Recent advances in emerging 2D nanomaterials for biosensing and bioimaging applications
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-12-06
    Wei Wen, Yang Song, Xu Yan, Chengzhou Zhu, Dan Du, Shengfu Wang, Abdullah M. Asiri, Yuehe Lin

    The great success of graphene throws new light on discovering more two-dimensional (2D) layered nanomaterials that stem from atomically thin 2D sheets. Compared with a single element of graphene, emerging graphene-like 2D materials composed of multiple elements that possess more versatility, greater flexibility and better functionality with a wide range of potential applications. In this review, we provide insights into the rapidly emerging 2D materials and their biosensing and bioimaging applications in recent three years, including 2D transition metal nanomaterials, graphitic nitride materials, black phosphorus, and emerging 2D organic polymers. We first briefly highlight their unique 2D morphology and physicochemical properties and then focus on their recent applications in electrochemical biosensing, optical biosensing and bioimaging. The challenges and some thoughts on future perspectives in this field are also addressed.

  • ZnO tetrapod materials for functional applications
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-12-06
    Yogendra Kumar Mishra, Rainer Adelung

    In the last 15 years, more than 50,000 papers with zinc oxide (ZnO) in the title are listed within ISI database. The outstanding popularity of ZnO has many reasons; the most important one appears to be its multi-functionality, resulting in applications in physics, chemistry, electrical engineering, material science, energy, textile, rubber, additive manufacturing, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical or medicine, as well as the ease to grow all kinds of nano- and microstructures. A key structure is the tetrapod-shaped ZnO (T-ZnO), which we want to focus on in this mini-review to demonstrate the remarkable properties and multifunctionality of ZnO and motivate why even much more research and applications are likely to come in near future. As T-ZnO came into focus again mainly during the last 10 years, the big data problem in T-ZnO is not as severe as in ZnO; nevertheless, a complete overview is impossible. However, this brief T-ZnO overview attempts to cover the scopes toward advanced technologies; nanoelectronics/optoelectronics sensing devices; multifunctional composites/coatings; novel biomedical engineering materials; versatile energy harvesting candidates; and unique structures for applications in chemistry, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, food, agriculture, engineering technologies, and many others. The 3D nanotechnology is a current mainstream in materials science/nanotechnology research, and T-ZnO contributes to this field by its simple synthesis of porous networks as sacrificial templates for any desired new cellular materials.

  • Quantitative and time-resolved detection of lithium plating on graphite anodes in lithium ion batteries
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-12-01
    Johannes Wandt, Peter Jakes, Josef Granwehr, Rüdiger-A. Eichel, Hubert A. Gasteiger

    The ability of fast and safe charging is critical for the further success of lithium ion batteries in automotive applications. In state-of-the-art lithium ion batteries, the charging rate is limited by the onset of lithium plating on the graphite anode. Despite its high importance, so far no analytical technique has been available for directly measuring lithium plating during battery charge. Herein, we introduce operando electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy as the first technique capable of time-resolved and quantitative detection of lithium metal plating in lithium ion batteries. In an exemplary study, the C-rate dependence of lithium metal plating during low-temperature charging at −20 °C is investigated. It is possible to quantify the amount of ‘dead lithium’ and observe the chemical reintercalation of plated lithium metal. In this way, it is possible to deconvolute the coulombic inefficiency of the lithium plating/stripping process and quantify the contributions of both dead lithium and active lithium loss due to solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation. The time-resolved and quantitative information accessible with operando EPR spectroscopy will be very useful for the optimization of fast charging procedures, testing of electrolyte additives, and model validation.

  • Metallic glass-based chiral nanolattice: Light weight, auxeticity, and superior mechanical properties
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-11-26
    Z.D. Sha, C.M. She, G.K. Xu, Q.X. Pei, Z.S. Liu, T.J. Wang, H.J. Gao

    Metallic glasses (MGs) possess large elastic limit and high strength, but unfortunately they are of limited commercial utility due to their macroscopic brittle nature. Here, we report that a chiral nanolattice can be used to design large-scale MGs with negative Poisson’s ratio, large elastic deformation capability, extensive hardening, and large ductility. Furthermore, the mechanical behaviors of the metallic glass chiral nanolattice (MGCN) can be significantly altered through changing the thickness and length of the ligaments in the nanolattice. An exceptional combination of high strength and ductility is observed for MGCN with thin and long ligaments, wherein the sample density is only twice that of water. The deformation mechanism that characterizes the chiral topology is a combination of rotation of the nodes with bending and extension of the ligaments, leading to the extraordinary mechanical behaviors. The present study not only offers a potential solution to mitigating the brittleness of MGs, but also provides some guidelines in designing large-scale MG meta-materials for prospective applications in the fields of acoustics and energy absorption.

  • Recent advances in gas storage and separation using metal–organic frameworks
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-11-22
    Hao Li, Kecheng Wang, Yujia Sun, Christina T. Lollar, Jialuo Li, Hong-Cai Zhou

    Gas storage and separation are closely associated with the alleviation of greenhouse effect, the widespread use of clean energy, the control of toxic gases, and various other aspects in human society. In this review, we highlight the recent advances in gas storage and separation using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). In addition to summarizing the gas uptakes of some benchmark MOFs, we emphasize on the desired chemical properties of MOFs for different gas storage/separation scenarios. Greenhouse gases (CO2), energy-related gases (H2 and CH4), and toxic gases (CO and NH3) are covered in the review.

  • Water wave energy harvesting and self-powered liquid-surface fluctuation sensing based on bionic-jellyfish triboelectric nanogenerator
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-11-22
    Bao Dong Chen, Wei Tang, Chuan He, Chao Ran Deng, Lei Jing Yang, Lai Pan Zhu, Jian Chen, Jia Jia Shao, Long Liu, Zhong Lin Wang

    Due to the natural working mechanism of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs), potential energy stored by elastic materials may not be effectively converted into electric power, post mechanical triggering. Here, we report a practical bionic-jellyfish triboelectric nanogenerator (bjTENG) with polymeric thin film as the triboelectric material, which is shape-adaptive, with a hermetic package and a unique elastic resilience structure, similar to the behavior of a jellyfish. The charge separation in the elastic resilience of this bionic-structure is based on the liquid pressure-induced contact-separation of the triboelectric layers. On the basis of the conjunction of the triboelectrification and the electrostatic induction, a sustainable and enhanced output performance of 143 V, 11.8 mA/m2 and 22.1 μC/m2 under a low frequency of 0.75 Hz and at a water depth of 60 cm is produced, which can be used to supply power for dozens of green LEDs or a temperature sensor directly. More significantly, bjTENG is believed to be a priority technology which is attributable to its highly sensitivity, portability, and suitability for continuous detection of water level and fluctuation. Furthermore, a wireless self-powered fluctuation sensor early-warning system, which provides exact and wireless monitoring of fluctuation of a liquid surface, is also successfully developed.

  • Reduced graphene oxide film with record-high conductivity and mobility
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    Yilin Wang, Yanan Chen, Steven D. Lacey, Lisha Xu, Hua Xie, Tian Li, Valencia A. Danner, Liangbing Hu

    Graphene has attracted significant attention in both scientific and industrial fields. The scalable and high-yield chemical functionalization methods have been widely used to produce graphene, such as reduced graphene oxide (RGO). However, previously reported conductivity (<1500 S cm−1) and mobility (<5 cm2 V−1 s−1) values for RGO film are relatively low, which limits its application in many fields. In this work, we report a RGO film with a record-high conductivity of 6300 S cm−1 and a record-high mobility of 320 cm2 V−1 s−1, which was reduced by Joule heating at an extremely high temperature of 3000 K. Thermal reduction process challenges of Joule heating were overcome by employing a two-step reduction and a curved RGO film. An investigation into how charge transport properties of RGO film are influenced by the reduction temperature was pursued. As the reduction temperature increases, the oxygen-containing functional groups, acting as dopant sources and scattering centers, are gradually removed, such that the carrier density gradually decreases, and the mobility and conductivity gradually increases. The localization length, corresponding to the size of graphitic sp2 domains, is 8.7 nm for the 3000-K-reduced RGO film, which exceeds previously reported values. The unique features of the reported 3000-K-reduced RGO film, such as less defects/impurities and large graphitic sp2 domains within a dense structure, enable both record-high conductivity and mobility.

  • Metallic glass nanotube arrays: Preparation and surface characterizations
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    Jem-Kun Chen, Wei-Ting Chen, Chih-Chia Cheng, Chia-Chi Yu, Jinn P. Chu

    In this study, we fabricated first-ever metallic glass nanotubes (MGNTs) in a distinct pattern on a Si substrate, by sputter-depositing a coating of metallic glass (Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5) over a contact-hole array template created in photoresist. The resulting nanotubes were 500 or 750 nm in height with a diameter of 500 or 750 nm and wall thickness ranging from 44 nm to 103 nm. The structure of the nanotubes was preserved by the high strength and ductility of the metallic glass during the removal of the photoresist template under ultrasonic vibration. We observed an increase in the hydrophobicity of the MGNT with an increase in the thickness of the walls, with the thickest walls presenting an apparent contact angle of 139°. The hydrophobicity is due to air trapped within the tubes, which prevents the intrusion of water into the nanostructures. We also observed thermal-response behavior on the surface of the MGNT array. Surface cooling produced negative pressure within the nanochambers, which created a sucking force against the water droplets. Surface heating produced positive pressure within the nanochambers, which actually lifted the droplets. This thermal-response behavior was shown to be reversible for at least five cycles between 25 and 55 °C. The MGNT created adhesion forces reaching 14.2 N cm−2, which was sufficient to secure the water droplets even when the surface was tilted or completely inverted. The MGNT array in this study represents a biomimetic analog with switchable contact interface, the behavior of which can be controlled simply by altering the surface temperature.

  • Highly enhanced and stable activity of defect-induced titania nanoparticles for solar light-driven CO2 reduction into CH4
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    Saurav Sorcar, Yunju Hwang, Craig A. Grimes, Su-Il In

    Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to fuel offers an exciting opportunity for helping to solve current energy and global warming problems. Although a number of solar active catalysts have been reported, most of them suffer from low product yield, instability, and low quantum efficiency. Therefore, the design and fabrication of highly active photocatalysts remains an unmet challenge. In the current work we utilize hydrogen-doped, blue-colored reduced titania for photocatalytic conversion of CO2 into methane (CH4). The photocatalyst is obtained by exposure of TiO2 to NaBH4 at 350 °C for 0.5 h. Sensitized with Pt nanoparticles, the material promotes solar spectrum photoconversion of CO2 to CH4 with an apparent quantum yield of 12.40% and a time normalized CH4 generation rate of 80.35 μmol g−1 h−1, which to the best of our knowledge is a record for photocatalytic-based CO2 reduction. The material appears intrinsically stable, with no loss in sample performance over five 6 h cycles, with the sample heated in vacuum after each cycle.

  • From flat sheets to curved geometries: Origami and kirigami approaches
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-11-16
    Sebastien J.P. Callens, Amir A. Zadpoor

    Transforming flat sheets into three-dimensional structures has emerged as an exciting manufacturing paradigm on a broad range of length scales. Among other advantages, this technique permits the use of functionality-inducing planar processes on flat starting materials, which after shape-shifting, result in a unique combination of macro-scale geometry and surface topography. Fabricating arbitrarily complex three-dimensional geometries requires the ability to change the intrinsic curvature of initially flat structures, while simultaneously limiting material distortion to not disturb the surface features. The centuries-old art forms of origami and kirigami could offer elegant solutions, involving only folding and cutting to transform flat papers into complex geometries. Although such techniques are limited by an inherent developability constraint, the rational design of the crease and cut patterns enables the shape-shifting of (nearly) inextensible sheets into geometries with apparent intrinsic curvature. Here, we review recent origami and kirigami techniques that can be used for this purpose, discuss their underlying mechanisms, and create physical models to demonstrate and compare their feasibility. Moreover, we highlight practical aspects that are relevant in the development of advanced materials with these techniques. Finally, we provide an outlook on future applications that could benefit from origami and kirigami to create intrinsically curved surfaces.

  • Liquid marble interaction gate for collision-based computing
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-11-14
    Thomas C. Draper, Claire Fullarton, Neil Phillips, Ben P.J. de Lacy Costello, Andrew Adamatzky

    Liquid marbles are microliter droplets of liquid, encapsulated by self-organized hydrophobic particles at the liquid/air interface. They offer an efficient approach for manipulating liquid droplets and compartmentalizing reactions in droplets. Digital fluidic devices employing liquid marbles might benefit from having embedded computing circuits without electronics and moving mechanical parts (apart from the marbles). We present an experimental implementation of a collision gate with liquid marbles. Mechanics of the gate follows principles of Margolus’ soft-sphere collision gate. Boolean values of the inputs are given by the absence (FALSE) or presence (TRUE) of a liquid marble. There are three outputs: two outputs are trajectories of undisturbed marbles (they only report TRUE when just one marble is present at one of the inputs), one output is represented by trajectories of colliding marbles (when two marbles collide they lose their horizontal momentum and fall), this output reports TRUE only when two marbles are present at inputs. Thus the gate implements AND and AND-NOT logical functions. We speculate that by merging trajectories representing AND-NOT output into a single channel one can produce a one-bit half-adder. Potential design of a one-bit full-adder is discussed, and the synthesis of both a pure nickel metal and a hybrid nickel/polymer liquid marble is reported.

  • Phase engineering and supercompatibility of shape memory alloys
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Hanlin Gu, Lars Bumke, Christoph Chluba, Eckhard Quandt, Richard D. James

    In recent years examples of unprecedented functional and structural fatigue resistance and lowered hysteresis in shape memory alloys have been achieved by combining conditions of supercompatibility between phases with suitable grain size and a favorable array of fine precipitates. We collect, review and compare these examples to elucidate the relative roles of these factors, especially in the case of the more demanding stress-induced phase transformations, and we pose key open questions. The control of these factors lends itself to systematic alloy development. Taken together, these results point to significant opportunities to discover improved shape memory alloys as well has new reversible transforming multiferroics.

  • Engineering vascularized and innervated bone biomaterials for improved skeletal tissue regeneration
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-11-04
    Alessandra Marrella, Tae Yong Lee, Dong Hoon Lee, Sobha Karuthedom, Denata Syla, Aditya Chawla, Ali Khademhosseini, Hae Lin Jang
  • Programming the shape-shifting of flat soft matter
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-10-21
    Teunis van Manen, Shahram Janbaz, Amir A. Zadpoor
  • The rich photonic world of plasmonic nanoparticle arrays
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-10-20
    Weijia Wang, Mohammad Ramezani, Aaro I. Väkeväinen, Päivi Törmä, Jaime Gómez Rivas, Teri W. Odom
  • Recent advances in iron-based superconductors toward applications
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-10-18
    Hideo Hosono, Akiyasu Yamamoto, Hidenori Hiramatsu, Yanwei Ma
  • A myeloperoxidase-responsive and biodegradable luminescent material for real-time imaging of inflammatory diseases
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Jiawei Guo, Hui Tao, Yin Dou, Lanlan Li, Xiaoqiu Xu, Qixiong Zhang, Juan Cheng, Songling Han, Jun Huang, Xiaodong Li, Xiaohui Li, Jianxiang Zhang
  • Fluid eddy induced piezo-promoted photodegradation of organic dye pollutants in wastewater on ZnO nanorod arrays/3D Ni foam
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-10-07
    Xiangyu Chen, Longfei Liu, Yawei Feng, Longfei Wang, Zhenfeng Bian, Hexing Li, Zhong Lin Wang
  • Spintronics based random access memory: a review
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-09-15
    Sabpreet Bhatti, Rachid Sbiaa, Atsufumi Hirohata, Hideo Ohno, Shunsuke Fukami, S.N. Piramanayagam
  • Nanoplumbers: biomaterials to fight cardiovascular diseases
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-08-17
    Flavio Dormont, Mariana Varna, Patrick Couvreur
  • Organic materials for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Yang Xu, Min Zhou, Yong Lei
  • Regulation of cell fate by near infrared-responsive telomerase activity
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-08-09
    Jiasi Wang, Peng Shi, Kai Dong, Zhengqing Yan, Jinsong Ren, Xiaogang Qu

    As a key regulator, telomerase plays important roles in aging and tissue renewal and lifespan. It has been demonstrated that telomerase reactivation in adult or old mice can lead to tissue regeneration, delayed aging and significant lifespan extension. Therefore, modulation of telomerase activity in a precise manner has been received much attention. Here we develop a strategy using near infrared (NIR) modulation of telomerase activity based on gold nanocage@smart polymer system. By using this biocompatible design, cell migration, differentiation, cell senescence and cell cycle have been regulated. NIR-induced upregulation of telomerase can even protect cells from neurotoxic amyloid β induced cell death. This system has been used in vivo by taking advantages of NIR, such as good biocompatibility and tissues penetration. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example for optical modulation of telomerase activity in living cells and tissues. In consideration of the important roles of telomerase in aging, cancer and hereditary disease, our work may inspire further application of multiple NIR-responsive control system for treatment of aging and related diseases.

  • Functional polymer surfaces for controlling cell behaviors
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-08-09
    Lina Chen, Casey Yan, Zijian Zheng
  • Two-photon polymerization for biological applications
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-08-08
    Alexander K. Nguyen, Roger J. Narayan

    Two-photon polymerization (2PP) leverages the two-photon absorption (TPA) of near-infrared (NIR) radiation for additive manufacturing with sub-diffraction limit resolution within the bulk of a photosensitive material. This technology draws heavily on photosensitive polymers from the microelectronics industry, which were not optimized for TPA or for biocompatibility. 2PP with sub 100 nm resolution has been repeatedly demonstrated; however, this level of fabrication resolution comes at the expense of long fabrication times. Manufacturing of medical devices beyond surface texturing would be prohibitively slow using the current state of the art 2PP technology. Current research into TPA-sensitive photopolymers with good biocompatibility and holographic projections using spatial light modulators address current technological limitations by providing materials specifically formulated for biological applications and by making better use of available laser power for applications in which nanoscale resolution is not required.

  • Bioinspired yeast microcapsules loaded with self-assembled nanotherapies for targeted treatment of cardiovascular disease
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    Xiangjun Zhang, Xiaoqiu Xu, Yidan Chen, Yin Dou, Xing Zhou, Lanlan Li, Chenwen Li, Huijie An, Hui Tao, Houyuan Hu, Xiaohui Li, Jianxiang Zhang
  • Pathogen-mimicking nanocomplexes: self-stimulating oxidative stress in tumor microenvironment for chemo-immunotherapy
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-08-02
    Kai Dong, Zhenhua Li, Hanjun Sun, Enguo Ju, Jinsong Ren, Xiaogang Qu

    A novel drug-loaded pathogen-mimicking nanocomplex has been constructed for synergistic chemo-immunotherapy using detoxified lipopolysaccharide coated mesoporous silica nanoparticle. Detoxified lipopolysaccharide behaves as a dual-purpose entity that not only effectively mimics the function of the natural pathogen for triggering immune responses but also acts as a lid for inhibiting premature chemical drug release. In this approach, a knock-on effect would be observed at site of tumor: firstly, pathogen-mimicries elicited the elevated production of ROS; secondly, excessive production of ROS in turn oxidized the arylboronic ester to realize controlled chemotherapy; thirdly, in addition to inducing ROS generation, the nanocomplex would self-stimulate macrophages activation which subsequently activated cytotoxic T cells. Importantly, chemotherapy and immunotherapy were acting in a synergistic manner to inhibit solid tumor growth. Moreover, chemotherapeutic agents could be effectively released upon exposure to self-stimulating oxidative stress in which external addition of ROS was avoided. This proof of concept might open the door to a new generation of carrier materials in the field of cancer therapy.

  • Additive manufacturing: scientific and technological challenges, market uptake and opportunities
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-07-29
    Syed A.M. Tofail, Elias P. Koumoulos, Amit Bandyopadhyay, Susmita Bose, Lisa O’Donoghue, Costas Charitidis
  • Nonlinear metasurfaces: a paradigm shift in nonlinear optics
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-07-19
    Alexander Krasnok, Mykhailo Tymchenko, Andrea Alù
  • Design and preparation of porous carbons from conjugated polymer precursors
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-07-19
    Fei Xu, Dingcai Wu, Ruowen Fu, Bingqing Wei

    Porous nanostructured carbon materials exhibit unique structural features such as high surface area and excellent physicochemical stability and have been of significantly scientific and technological interest because of their vital importance in many energy related applications. Synthetic polymers represent a major class of precursors for developing cutting-edge porous carbons, among which conjugated polymers have emerged as an attractive family of carbon precursors. Distinct from those typical polymer precursors, the robust conjugated structure ensures sufficient framework carbonizability and nanoarchitecture-conserving stability during carbonization process, which is crucial to the successful transformation of designed polymer architectures to finally desired carbon nanostructures. Moreover, heteroatom doping (e.g., N, S, B, and metals) or codoping can be naturally integrated into carbon framework directly by using the heteroatom-containing monomers. Especially, using the newly emerged structurally defined carbon-rich conjugated porous networks as precursors, precise control of compositions and structures of carbon materials becomes possible even at the molecular level. In this review, we will highlight recent strategies to the preparation of porous carbon materials with well-defined porous nanostructures using conjugated polymers as versatile precursors. Beginning with a brief introduction to these precursors, including linear-type conjugated polymers and conjugated porous networks, the synthetic techniques for the fabrication of porous nanostructured carbons by direct templating, self-assembly, template-free, chemical activation, and microwave irritation approaches, will be reviewed. Meanwhile, the sophisticated nanomorphologies, precisely controlled porous structures, and custom-designed functionalities of these conjugated-structure-derived carbons, together made them amenable to diverse task-specific applications, such as electrocatalysis, Li-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and adsorption. Finally, a perspective of the research directions in this field will be presented.

  • Butyrate-inserted Ni–Ti layered double hydroxide film for H2O2-mediated tumor and bacteria killing
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-07-13
    Donghui Wang, Feng Peng, Jinhua Li, Yuqin Qiao, Qianwen Li, Xuanyong Liu
  • 4D printing of polymeric materials for tissue and organ regeneration
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-07-08
    Shida Miao, Nathan Castro, Margaret Nowicki, Lang Xia, Haitao Cui, Xuan Zhou, Wei Zhu, Se-jun Lee, Kausik Sarkar, Giovanni Vozzi, Yasuhiko Tabata, John Fisher, Lijie Grace Zhang

    Four dimensional (4D) printing is an emerging technology with great capacity for fabricating complex, stimuli-responsive 3D structures, providing great potential for tissue and organ engineering applications. Although the 4D concept was first highlighted in 2013, extensive research has rapidly developed, along with more-in-depth understanding and assertions regarding the definition of 4D. In this review, we begin by establishing the criteria of 4D printing, followed by an extensive summary of state-of-the-art technological advances in the field. Both transformation-preprogrammed 4D printing and 4D printing of shape memory polymers are intensively surveyed. Afterwards we will explore and discuss the applications of 4D printing in tissue and organ regeneration, such as developing synthetic tissues and implantable scaffolds, as well as future perspectives and conclusions.

  • High thermoelectric performance in (Bi0.25Sb0.75)2Te3 due to band convergence and improved by carrier concentration control
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-06-28
    Hyun-Sik Kim, Nicholas A. Heinz, Zachary M. Gibbs, Yinglu Tang, Stephen D. Kang, G. Jeffrey Snyder

    Bi2Te3 has been recognized as an important cooling material for thermoelectric applications. Yet its thermoelectric performance could still be improved. Here we propose a band engineering strategy by optimizing the converging valence bands of Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 in the (Bi1−xSbx)2Te3 system when x = 0.75. Band convergence successfully explains the sharp increase in density-of-states effective mass yet relatively constant mobility and optical band gap measurement. This band convergence picture guides the carrier concentration tuning for optimum thermoelectric performance. To synthesize homogeneous textured and optimally doped (Bi0.25Sb0.75)2Te3, excess Te was chosen as the dopant. Uniform control of the optimized thermoelectric composition was achieved by zone-melting which utilizes separate solidus and liquidus compositions to obtain zT = 1.05 (at 300 K) without nanostructuring.

  • Events
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-06-26

  • Sustainable seaweed for supercapacitors
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-06-27
    David Bradley

  • Fast in situ 3D nanoimaging: a new tool for dynamic characterization in materials science
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-06-27
    Julie Villanova, Rémi Daudin, Pierre Lhuissier, David Jauffrès, Siyu Lou, Christophe L. Martin, Sylvain Labouré, Rémi Tucoulou, Gema Martínez-Criado, Luc Salvo
  • Recent advancements of high efficient donor–acceptor type blue small molecule applied for OLEDs
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-01-07
    Yunchuan Li, Ji-Yan Liu, Yuan-Di Zhao, Yuan-Cheng Cao

    Although the organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) encompassing TVs, smartphones, and wearable devices, etc. already have been commercialized, there is still room to pursue material improvements in efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Organic light-emitting materials have experienced the development of the three generation system, it is timely to summary the recent advances and the remaining challenges of the materials as well as their corresponding devices. Special attention is mainly concentrated on describing the blue material structures and related electroluminescence (EL) device performances (the maximum EQE data, Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) coordinates, and efficiency roll-off). This short review will show the current governing hotspots concerning OLEDs in academic fields, which may pave the way for next step of industrial application.

  • Use of organic materials in dye-sensitized solar cells
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-01-18
    Chuan-Pei Lee, Chun-Ting Li, Kuo-Chuan Ho

    In the last two decades, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted more attention as an efficient alternative to economical photovoltaic devices, and the highest efficiency record has increased from ∼7% to ∼14%. To be more competitive in the solar cell markets, various organic materials are investigated and used in DSSCs to improve the cell efficiency, enhance the cell durability, and reduce the cost of production. In this review article, we provide a short review on the organic materials used for the preparation of photoanodes (including metal element-free organic dye sensitizers), quasi/all-solid-state electrolytes, and metal element-free electrocatalytic films in DSSCs with the cell efficiencies of >5%. Finally, the future perspectives for DSSCs are also briefly discussed.

  • Towards strength–ductility synergy through the design of heterogeneous nanostructures in metals
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    Evan Ma, Ting Zhu

    Metals can be processed to reach ultra-high strength, but usually at a drastic loss of ductility. Here, we review recent advances in overcoming this tradeoff, by purposely deploying heterogeneous nanostructures in an otherwise single-phase metal. Several structural designs are being explored, including bimodal, harmonic, lamellar, gradient, domain-dispersed, and hierarchical nanostructures. These seemingly distinct tactics share a unifying design principle in that the intentional structural heterogeneities induce non-homogeneous plastic deformation, and the nanometer-scale features dictate steep strain gradients, thereby enhancing strain hardening and consequently uniform tensile ductility at high flow stresses. Moreover, these heterogeneous nanostructures in metals play a role similar to multiple phases in complex alloys, functionally graded materials and composites, sharing common material design and mechanics principles. Our review advocates this broad vision to help guide future innovations towards a synergy between high strength and high ductility, through highlighting several recent designs as well as identifying outstanding challenges and opportunities.

  • Surface ligands engineering of semiconductor quantum dots for chemosensory and biological applications
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-03-24
    Jie Zhou, Yun Liu, Jian Tang, Weihua Tang

    Featuring size-tunable electrical and optical properties, semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are appealing intensive interests in developing ingenious luminescent materials for chemosensory and biological applications. The surface modification of QDs with functional ligands not only fine-tunes the physiochemical properties and fluorescence emission behaviors, but also induces the designated interplay between analytes and probes for special determination. In this review, the fundamental principles guiding the rational design of high-efficiency luminescent sensors with surface engineering are overviewed. The state-of-the-art applications of QDs-based probes are highlighted for the sensing of molecular substrates and ionic species as well as various biological applications, with the inherent recognition mechanisms elaborated for representative cases. The challenge and future research direction in this emerging and promising research field are also discussed.

  • Extreme lightweight structures: avian feathers and bones
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-04-17
    Tarah N. Sullivan, Bin Wang, Horacio D. Espinosa, Marc A. Meyers

    Flight is not the exclusive domain of birds; mammals (bats), insects, and some fish have independently developed this ability by the process of convergent evolution. Birds, however, greatly outperform other flying animals in efficiency and duration; for example the common swift (Apus apus) has recently been reported to regularly fly for periods of 10 months during migration. Birds owe this extraordinary capability to feathers and bones, which are extreme lightweight biological materials. They achieve this crucial function through their efficient design spanning multiple length scales. Both feathers and bones have unusual combinations of structural features organized hierarchically from nano- to macroscale and enable a balance between lightweight and bending/torsional stiffness and strength. The complementary features between the avian bone and feather are reviewed here, for the first time, and provide insights into nature's approach at creating structures optimized for flight. We reveal a novel aspect of the feather vane, showing that its barbule spacing is consistently within the range 8–16 μm for birds of hugely different masses such as Anna's Hummingbird (Calypte anna) (4 g) and the Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) (11,000 g). Features of the feather and bone are examined using the structure-property relationships that define Materials Science. We elucidate the role of aerodynamic loading on observed reinforced macrostructural features and efficiently tailored shapes adapted for specialized applications, as well as composite material utilization. These unique features will inspire synthetic structures with maximized performance/weight for potential use in future transportation systems.

  • Fullerene: biomedical engineers get to revisit an old friend
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-04-24
    Saba Goodarzi, Tatiana Da Ros, João Conde, Farshid Sefat, Masoud Mozafari
  • Updates on the development of nanostructured transition metal nitrides for electrochemical energy storage and water splitting
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-05-09
    Muhammad-Sadeeq Balogun, Yongchao Huang, Weitao Qiu, Hao Yang, Hongbing Ji, Yexiang Tong
  • Stimuli-directed self-organized chiral superstructures for adaptive windows enabled by mesogen-functionalized graphene
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-05-18
    Ling Wang, Hari Krishna Bisoyi, Zhigang Zheng, Karla G. Gutierrez-Cuevas, Gautam Singh, Satyendra Kumar, Timothy J. Bunning, Quan Li
  • Few-atomic-layered hexagonal boron nitride: CVD growth, characterization, and applications
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-05-25
    Majharul Haque Khan, Hua Kun Liu, Xudong Sun, Yusuke Yamauchi, Yoshio Bando, Dmitri Golberg, Zhenguo Huang
  • The current status of biodegradable stent to treat benign luminal disease
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-05-29
    Yueqi Zhu, Kai Yang, Ruoyu Cheng, Yi Xiang, Tianwen Yuan, Bruno Sarmento, Yingsheng Cheng, Wenguo Cui
  • Broadly tunable metal halide perovskites for solid-state light-emission applications
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-05-29
    Sampson Adjokatse, Hong-Hua Fang, Maria Antonietta Loi

    The past two years have witnessed heightened interest in metal-halide perovskites as promising optoelectronic materials for solid-state light emitting applications beyond photovoltaics. Metal-halide perovskites are low-cost solution-processable materials with excellent intrinsic properties such as broad tunability of bandgap, defect tolerance, high photoluminescence quantum efficiency and high emission color purity (narrow full-width at half maximum). In this review, the photophysical properties of hybrid perovskites, which relates with light-emission, such as broad tunability, nature of the recombination processes and quantum efficiency are examined. The prospects of hybrid perovskite light-emitting diodes and lasers, and their key challenges are also discussed.

  • Universal secondary relaxation and unusual brittle-to-ductile transition in metallic glasses
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-06-23
    Q. Wang, J.J. Liu, Y.F. Ye, T.T. Liu, S. Wang, C.T. Liu, J. Lu, Y. Yang
  • Toward a molecular design of porous carbon materials
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-06-24
    Lars Borchardt, Qi-Long Zhu, Mirian E. Casco, Reinhard Berger, Xiaodong Zhuang, Stefan Kaskel, Xinliang Feng, Qiang Xu
  • Tuned graphene nanoribbons
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-06-24
    David Bradley

  • Chemistry behind bars
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-06-24
    David Bradley

  • Could dye-sensitised solar cells work in the dark?
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-06-24
    Laurie Winkless

  • Air conditioning without the AC
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-06-24
    David Bradley

  • Radical approach gets polymerization just right
    Mater. Today (IF 21.695) Pub Date : 2017-06-24
    Cordelia Sealy

Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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