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  • Reflux pretreatment-mediated sonication: A new universal route to obtain 2D quantum dots
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-07-17
    Yang Liu, Chenglu Liang, Jingjie Wu, Sreekanth J. Varma, Yusuke Nakanishi, Amir Aliyan, Angel A. Martí, Yan Wang, Banghu Xie, Jitesh Kumar, Katherine Layne, Nitin Chopra, Ihab Odeh, Robert Vajtai, Jayan Thomas, Xiangfang Peng, Wei Yang, Pulickel M. Ajayan

    Although quantum dots (QDs) based on two dimensional (2D) materials have manifested fascinating properties and promising applications in a wide range of fields, a low cost and non-tedious approach for the preparation of atomically thick 2D QDs with high yield remains elusive. Herein, for the first time, we demonstrate a reflux pretreatment-mediated sonication approach to produce a series of ultrathin 2D QDs (e.g., graphene, TiS2, MoS2, MoSe2, WSe2, NbS2, SnS2, and h-BN QDs) from their bulk counterparts. The solvent molecules, confined in the channels of layered materials during reflux, assist the delamination and fracture of 2D sheets in the process of bath sonication. The resulting 2D QDs exhibited uniform lateral size distribution of 2–7 nm and a mean thickness of 0.8–1 nm, almost identical to the monolayer thickness of layered materials. To demonstrate the unique property of these 2D QDs, the optical limiting activity was studied using open aperture z-scan technique. TiS2 QDs exhibited appreciable nonlinear optical limiting, reaching 50% by a tapered and sharp absorption at input laser fluence of 4.24 GW/cm2.

    更新日期:2018-07-18
  • Synthetic biology-inspired design of signal-amplifying materials systems
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-07-17
    Hanna J. Wagner, Raphael Engesser, Kathrin Ermes, Christian Geraths, Jens Timmer, Wilfried Weber

    Synthetic biology applies engineering concepts to build cells that perceive and process information. Examples include cells engineered to perform basic digital or analog computation. These circuits serve as basis for the construction of complex integrated cellular networks that offer manifold applications in fundamental and applied research. Here, we introduce the concept of using design approaches and molecular tools applied in synthetic biology for the construction of interconnected biohybrid materials systems with information processing functionality. We validate this concept by modularly assembling protein and polymer building blocks to generate stimulus-responsive materials. Guided by a quantitative mathematical model, we next interconnect these materials into a materials system that acts as both a signal detector and as an amplifier based on a built-in positive feedback loop. The functionality and versatility of this materials system is demonstrated by the detection of enzymatic activities and drugs. The modular design concept presented here thus represents a blueprint for integrating synthetic biology-inspired information-processing circuits into polymer materials. As integrated sensors and actuators, the resulting smart materials systems could provide novel solutions with broad perspectives in research and development.

    更新日期:2018-07-18
  • Proximitized materials
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-07-14
    Igor Žutić, Alex Matos-Abiague, Benedikt Scharf, Hanan Dery, Kirill Belashchenko

    Advances in scaling down heterostructures and having an improved interface quality together with atomically thin two-dimensional materials suggest a novel approach to systematically design materials. A given material can be transformed through proximity effects whereby it acquires properties of its neighbors, for example, becoming superconducting, magnetic, topologically nontrivial, or with an enhanced spin–orbit coupling. Such proximity effects not only complement the conventional methods of designing materials by doping or functionalization but also can overcome their various limitations. In proximitized materials, it is possible to realize properties that are not present in any constituent region of the considered heterostructure. While the focus is on magnetic and spin–orbit proximity effects with their applications in spintronics, the outlined principles also provide a broader framework for employing other proximity effects to tailor materials and realize novel phenomena.

    更新日期:2018-07-15
  • Multi-electron reaction materials for sodium-based batteries
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-04-02
    Feixiang Wu, Chenglong Zhao, Shuangqiang Chen, Yaxiang Lu, Yanglong Hou, Yong-Sheng Hu, Joachim Maier, Yan Yu

    Sodium-based rechargeable batteries are very promising energy storage and conversion systems owing to their wide availability and the low cost of Na resources, which is beneficial to large-scale electric energy storage applications in future. In the context of attempting to achieve high-energy densities and low cost, multi-electron reaction materials for both cathodes and anodes are attracting significant attention due to high specific capacities involved. Here, we present a brief review on recently reported multi-electron reaction materials for sodium-based batteries. We mostly concentrate on true multi-electron reactions that involve individually valence changes greater than one per redox center, but in addition include materials in the discussion, which undergo multi-electron processes per formula unit. The theoretical gravimetric and volumetric (expanded state) capacities are studied for a broad range of examples. Then, the practically achievable volumetric energy density and specific energy of Na cells with hard carbon, sodium (Na), and phosphorus (P) anodes are compared. For this purpose, various data are recalculated and referred to the same basis cell. The results show the potential superiority of the cells using multi-electron reaction materials and provide an intuitive understanding of the practically achievable energy densities in future Na-based rechargeable batteries. However, these multi-electron reaction materials are facing several key challenges, which are preventing their high-performance in current cells. In order to overcome them, general strategies from particle design to electrolyte modification are reviewed and several examples in both cathode and anode materials using such strategies are studied. Finally, future trends and perspectives for achieving promising Na-based batteries with better performance are discussed.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Manipulation of matter by electric and magnetic fields: Toward novel synthesis and processing routes of inorganic materials
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-04-03
    Olivier Guillon, Christian Elsässer, Oliver Gutfleisch, Jürgen Janek, Sandra Korte-Kerzel, Dierk Raabe, Cynthia A. Volkert

    The use of external electric and magnetic fields for the synthesis and processing of inorganic materials such as metals and ceramics has seen renewed interest in recent years. Electromagnetic energy can be utilized in different ways to improve or accelerate phase formation and stabilization, chemical ordering, densification and coarsening of particle-based materials (pore elimination and grain growth), and mechanical deformation (plasticity and creep). In these new synthesis and processing routes, the resulting microstructures and macroscopic material behavior are determined by the interaction of the applied fields with defects such as single or clustered point defects, dislocation networks, and interfaces. Multiscale experimental investigations and modeling are necessary to unveil the mechanisms underlying this field-assisted manipulation of matter.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Piezoelectric properties in two-dimensional materials: Simulations and experiments
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-04-04
    Ronan Hinchet, Usman Khan, Christian Falconi, Sang-Woo Kim

    The piezoelectric effect, discovered in 1880 by Jacques and Pierre Curie, effectively allows to transduce signals from the mechanical domain to the electrical domain and vice versa. For this reason, piezoelectric devices are already ubiquitous, including, for instance, quartz oscillators, mechanical actuators with sub-atomic resolution and microbalances. However, the ability to synthesize two-dimensional (2D) materials may enable the fabrication of innovative devices with unprecedented performance. For instance, many materials which are not piezoelectric in their bulk form become piezoelectric when reduced to a single atomic layer; moreover, since all the atoms belong to the surface, piezoelectricity can be effectively engineered by proper surface modifications. As additional advantages, 2D materials are strong, flexible, easy to be co-integrated with conventional integrated circuits or micro-electromechanical systems and, in comparison with bulk or quasi-1D materials, easier to be simulated at the atomistic level. Here, we review the state of the art on 2D piezoelectricity, with reference to both computational predictions and experimental characterization. Because of their unique advantages, we believe 2D piezoelectric materials will substantially expand the applications of piezoelectricity.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Routes for high-performance thermoelectric materials
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-04-07
    Xiaoyuan Zhou, Yanci Yan, Xu Lu, Hangtian Zhu, Xiaodong Han, Gang Chen, Zhifeng Ren

    Thermoelectric materials can be used in direct conversion of heat to electricity and vice versa. The past decade has witnessed the rapid growth of thermoelectric research, targeting high thermoelectric performance either via reduction in the lattice thermal conductivity or via enhancement of the power factor. In this review, we firstly summarize the recent advances in bulk thermoelectric materials with reduced lattice thermal conductivity by nano-microstructure control and also newly discovered materials with intrinsically low lattice thermal conductivity. We then discuss ways to enhance the electron transport abilities for achieving higher power factor by both novel and traditional methods. Finally, we highlight the recent development in single-crystal thermoelectric materials. These strategies are successful in synergistically manipulating the thermal conductivity and electron transport properties, which have significantly advanced thermoelectric performance on materials. For device applications on these high-performance materials, new opportunities may arise though stability, electrode contacts, mechanical properties, and other problems need to be solved in the near future.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Pyroprotein-based electronic textiles with high thermal durability
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-04-07
    Jun Woo Jeon, Joo Young Oh, Se Youn Cho, Sungho Lee, Hyun-Seok Jang, Won Taek Jung, Jeong-Gyun Kim, Hyeonbeom Kim, Hyuk Jin Kim, SeongYeon Kim, Songlee Han, JunHo Kim, Young Jun Chang, Dongseok Suh, Hyoung-Joon Jin, Byung Hoon Kim

    Electronic textiles (e-textiles) need to have high heat durability for various applications. However, current e-textiles are usually damaged by high-temperature processes. We report silk-based e-textiles fabricated by simple pyrolysis with axial stretching that demonstrate high electrical conductivity and thermal durability. The electrical conductivity of the proposed e-textiles was on the order of 103S/cm and the electrical characteristics were maintained even after heating and bending. Furthermore, we prepared e-textiles with various electronic properties, such as semiconducting, superconducting, and light-emitting properties, by depositing ZnO, MoSe2, and NbN onto the commercial silk-based e-textiles using sputtering and evaporation. We introduced a simple method for fabricating silk-based e-textiles with various electronic properties, which are compatible with the current textile industry.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Recent progresses on physics and applications of vanadium dioxide
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-04-16
    Kai Liu, Sangwook Lee, Shan Yang, Olivier Delaire, Junqiao Wu

    As a strongly correlated electron material, vanadium dioxide (VO2) has been a focus of research since its discovery in 1959, owing to its well-known metal–insulator transition coupled with a structural phase transition. Recent years have witnessed both exciting discoveries in our understanding of the physics of VO2 and developments in new applications of VO2-related materials. In this article, we review some of these recent progresses on the phase transition mechanism and dynamics, phase diagrams, and imperfection effects, as well as growth and applications of VO2. Our review not only offers a summary of the properties and applications of VO2, but also provides insights into future research of this material by highlighting some of the challenges and opportunities.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Composite bending-dominated hollow nanolattices: A stiff, cyclable mechanical metamaterial
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-04-16
    Biwei Deng, Rong Xu, Kejie Zhao, Yongfeng Lu, Sabyasachi Ganguli, Gary J. Cheng

    Manufacturing ultralight and mechanical reliable materials has been a long-time challenge. Ceramic-based mechanical metamaterials provide significant opportunities to reverse their brittle nature and unstable mechanical properties and have great potential as strong, ultralight, and ultrastiff materials. However, the failure of ceramics nanolattice and degradation of strength/modulus with decreasing density are caused by buckling of the struts and failure of the nodes within the nanolattices, especially during cyclic loading. Here, we explore a new class of 3D ceramic-based metamaterials with a high strength–density ratio, stiffness, recoverability, cyclability, and optimal scaling factor. Deformation mode of the fabricated nanolattices has been engineered through the unique material design and architecture tailoring. Bending-dominated hollow nanolattice (B-H-Lattice) structure is employed to take advantages of its flexibility, while a few nanometers of carbonized mussel-inspired bio-polymer (C-PDA) is coherently deposited on ceramics’ nanolayer to enable non-buckling struts and bendable nodes during deformation, resulting in reliable mechanical properties and outperforming the current bending-dominated lattices (B-Lattices) and carbon-based cellulose materials. Meanwhile, the structure has comparable stiffness to stretching-dominated lattices (S-Lattices) while with better cyclability and reliability. The B-H-Lattices exhibit high specific stiffness (>106 Pa·kg−1·m−3), low-density (∼30 kg/m3), buckling-free recovery at 55% strain, and stable cyclic loading behavior under up to 15% strain. As one of the B-Lattices, the modulus scaling factor reaches 1.27, which is lowest among current B-Lattices. This study suggests that non-buckling behavior and reliable nodes are the key factors that contribute to the outstanding mechanical performance of nanolattice materials. A new concept of engineering the internal deformation behavior of mechanical metamaterial is provided to optimize their mechanical properties in real service conditions.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Microfluidic generation of transient cell volume exchange for convectively driven intracellular delivery of large macromolecules
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-04-17
    Anna Liu, Muhymin Islam, Nicholas Stone, Vikram Varadarajan, Jenny Jeong, Samuel Bowie, Peng Qiu, Edmund K. Waller, Alexander Alexeev, Todd Sulchek

    Efficient intracellular delivery of target macromolecules remains a major obstacle in cell engineering and other biomedical applications. We discovered a unique cell biophysical phenomenon of transient cell volume exchange using microfluidics to rapidly and repeatedly compress cells. This behavior consists of brief, mechanically induced cell volume loss followed by rapid volume recovery. We harness this behavior for high-throughput, convective intracellular delivery of large polysaccharides (2000 kDa), particles (100 nm), and plasmids while maintaining high cell viability. Successful proof of concept experiments in transfection and intracellular labeling demonstrated potential to overcome the most prohibitive challenges in intracellular delivery for cell engineering.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Singlet oxygen evolution from layered transition metal oxide cathode materials and its implications for lithium-ion batteries
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-04-17
    Johannes Wandt, Anna T.S. Freiberg, Alexander Ogrodnik, Hubert A. Gasteiger

    For achieving higher energy density lithium-ion batteries, the improvement of cathode active materials is crucial. The most promising cathode materials are nickel-rich layered oxides LiNixCoyMnzO2 (NCM) and over lithiated NCM (often called HE-NCM). Unfortunately, the full capacity of NCM cannot be utilized due to its limited cycle-life at high state-of-charge (SOC), while HE-NCM requires high voltages. By operando emission spectroscopy, we show for the first time that highly reactive singlet oxygen is released when charging NCM and HE-NCM to an SOC beyond ≈80%. In addition, on-line mass-spectrometry reveals the evolution of CO and CO2 once singlet oxygen is detected, providing significant evidence for the reaction between singlet oxygen and electrolyte to be a chemical reaction. It is controlled by the SOC rather than by potential, as would be the case for a purely electrochemical electrolyte oxidation. Singlet oxygen formation therefore imposes a severe challenge to the development of high-energy batteries based on layered oxide cathodes, shifting the focus of research from electrochemically stable 5 V-electrolytes to chemical stability toward singlet oxygen.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Nanocellulose as a natural source for groundbreaking applications in materials science: Today’s state
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-04-26
    Dieter Klemm, Emily D. Cranston, Dagmar Fischer, Miguel Gama, Stephanie A. Kedzior, Dana Kralisch, Friederike Kramer, Tetsuo Kondo, Tom Lindström, Sandor Nietzsche, Katrin Petzold-Welcke, Falk Rauchfuß

    Nanocelluloses are natural materials with at least one dimension in the nano-scale. They combine important cellulose properties with the features of nanomaterials and open new horizons for materials science and its applications. The field of nanocellulose materials is subdivided into three domains: biotechnologically produced bacterial nanocellulose hydrogels, mechanically delaminated cellulose nanofibers, and hydrolytically extracted cellulose nanocrystals. This review article describes today’s state regarding the production, structural details, physicochemical properties, and innovative applications of these nanocelluloses. Promising technical applications including gels/foams, thickeners/stabilizers as well as reinforcing agents have been proposed and research from last five years indicates new potential for groundbreaking innovations in the areas of cosmetic products, wound dressings, drug carriers, medical implants, tissue engineering, food and composites. The current state of worldwide commercialization and the challenge of reducing nanocellulose production costs are also discussed.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Interface affected zone for optimal strength and ductility in heterogeneous laminate
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-04-26
    C.X. Huang, Y.F. Wang, X.L. Ma, S. Yin, H.W. Höppel, M. Göken, X.L. Wu, H.J. Gao, Y.T. Zhu

    Interfaces have been reported to significantly strengthen and toughen metallic materials. However, there has been a long-standing question on whether interface-affected-zone (IAZ) exists, and how it might behave. Here we report in situ high-resolution strain mapping near interfaces in a copper–bronze heterogeneous laminate, which revealed the existence of IAZs. Defined as the zone with strain gradient, the IAZ was found to form by the dislocations emitted from the interface. The IAZ width remained largely constant with a magnitude of a few micrometers with increasing applied strain. Interfaces produced both back stress strengthening and work hardening, which led to both higher strength and higher ductility with decreasing interface spacing until adjacent IAZs started to overlap, after which a tradeoff between strength and ductility occurred, indicating the existence of an optimum interface spacing for the best mechanical properties. These findings are expected to help with designing laminates and other heterogeneous metals and alloys for superior mechanical properties.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Rapid continuous 3D printing of customizable peripheral nerve guidance conduits
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-04-27
    Wei Zhu, Kathryn R. Tringale, Sarah A. Woller, Shangting You, Susie Johnson, Haixu Shen, Jacob Schimelman, Michael Whitney, Joanne Steinauer, Weizhe Xu, Tony L. Yaksh, Quyen T. Nguyen, Shaochen Chen

    Engineered nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) have been demonstrated for repairing peripheral nerve injuries. However, there remains a need for an advanced biofabrication system to build NGCs with complex architectures, tunable material properties, and customizable geometrical control. Here, a rapid continuous 3D-printing platform was developed to print customizable NGCs with unprecedented resolution, speed, flexibility, and scalability. A variety of NGC designs varying in complexity and size were created including a life-size biomimetic branched human facial NGC. In vivo implantation of NGCs with microchannels into complete sciatic nerve transections of mouse models demonstrated the effective directional guidance of regenerating sciatic nerves via branching into the microchannels and extending toward the distal end of the injury site. Histological staining and immunostaining further confirmed the progressive directional nerve regeneration and branching behavior across the entire NGC length. Observational and functional tests, including the von Frey threshold test and thermal test, showed promising recovery of motor function and sensation in the ipsilateral limbs grafted with the 3D-printed NGCs.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Chirality-controlled synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes—From mechanistic studies toward experimental realization
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-07-11
    Xiao Wang, Maoshuai He, Feng Ding

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the recorded mechanical strength, exceptionally high thermal stability close to that of diamond, and an extremely high carrier mobility, which is two orders of magnitude higher than that of silicon. A CNT can be conducting, medium or small band gap semiconducting, depending on the exact atomic configuration and the tube diameter. To realize its applications in high-end electronics and even replacing silicon in semiconductor industry, the synthesis of high-purity single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) with unique structure (chirality) at a relatively low price, is essential. Direct synthesis of SWCNTs with the desired chirality has been one of the great challenges for more than 20 years and it is only very recently that direct synthesis of SWCNTs with purity >90% was achieved. In this review, we have summarized previous researches and state-of-the-art chirality-selective SWCNT synthesis, including experimental and theoretical studies dealing with the mechanism of SWCNT growth, potential routes toward chirality-selection during growth, and recent experimental techniques targeted toward the selective growth of high-purity SWCNTs.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Ultrathin Fresnel lens based on plasmene nanosheets
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-07-07
    Kae Jye Si, Dashen Dong, Qianqian Shi, Weiren Zhu, Malin Premaratne, Wenlong Cheng

    Ultrathin Fresnel lens may revolutionize current optical imaging system, leading to thinner and lighter optoelectronic devices with a myriad of technical applications. To date, evaporated bulk metal films and top-down grown graphene represent viable material choices toward the design of ultrathin Fresnel lenses. Despite recent advances, it is still lack of a scalable fabrication strategy to achieve ultrathin lens with high focusing efficiency. Here, we report a new self-assembled metamaterials-based strategy to design ultrathin Fresnel lens using our recently reported plasmene nanosheets. With comparable thickness, our plasmene-based Fresnel lens offers a much better focusing efficiency than that based on continuous metallic films. This may be attributed to the dual Huygens’ effects from both slits and plasmene-constituent nanoparticle building blocks. Importantly, internal structural features of plasmene can be precisely tuned simply by adjusting sizes and shapes of its constituent building blocks, allowing for maximizing the focusing efficiency at a desired operating wavelength – a capability impossible to achieve with continuous metal films or graphene. Our plasmene-based strategy opens a new route to design tailor-made flat lens with finely tunable internal and overall structural properties, which offers new dimensionalities in controlling light-matter interactions for a myriad of technological applications.

    更新日期:2018-07-08
  • Photoresponsive polymeric carbon nitride-based materials: Design and application
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-06-19
    Hui Wang, Xiaodong Zhang, Yi Xie
    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Current status and outlook on the clinical translation of biodegradable metals
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-06-18
    Hyung-Seop Han, Sergio Loffredo, Indong Jun, James Edwards, Yu-Chan Kim, Hyun-Kwang Seok, Frank Witte, Diego Mantovani, Sion Glyn-Jones
    更新日期:2018-06-19
  • Recent advances in visible light-driven water oxidation and reduction in suspension systems
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-06-14
    Dan Kong, Yun Zheng, Marcin Kobielusz, Yiou Wang, Zhiming Bai, Wojciech Macyk, Xincheng Wang, Junwang Tang
    更新日期:2018-06-14
  • High-rate lithium cycling in a scalable trilayer Li-garnet-electrolyte architecture
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-06-07
    Gregory T. Hitz, Dennis W. McOwen, Lei Zhang, Zhaohui Ma, Zhezhen Fu, Yang Wen, Yunhui Gong, Jiaqi Dai, Tanner R. Hamann, Liangbing Hu, Eric D. Wachsman
    更新日期:2018-06-07
  • ZnO tetrapod materials for functional applications
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2017-12-06
    Yogendra Kumar Mishra, Rainer Adelung

    In the last 15 years, more than 50,000 papers with zinc oxide (ZnO) in the title are listed within ISI database. The outstanding popularity of ZnO has many reasons; the most important one appears to be its multi-functionality, resulting in applications in physics, chemistry, electrical engineering, material science, energy, textile, rubber, additive manufacturing, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical or medicine, as well as the ease to grow all kinds of nano- and microstructures. A key structure is the tetrapod-shaped ZnO (T-ZnO), which we want to focus on in this mini-review to demonstrate the remarkable properties and multifunctionality of ZnO and motivate why even much more research and applications are likely to come in near future. As T-ZnO came into focus again mainly during the last 10 years, the big data problem in T-ZnO is not as severe as in ZnO; nevertheless, a complete overview is impossible. However, this brief T-ZnO overview attempts to cover the scopes toward advanced technologies; nanoelectronics/optoelectronics sensing devices; multifunctional composites/coatings; novel biomedical engineering materials; versatile energy harvesting candidates; and unique structures for applications in chemistry, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, food, agriculture, engineering technologies, and many others. The 3D nanotechnology is a current mainstream in materials science/nanotechnology research, and T-ZnO contributes to this field by its simple synthesis of porous networks as sacrificial templates for any desired new cellular materials.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Metallic nanoparticles for cancer immunotherapy
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2017-12-14
    Emily Reiser Evans, Pallavi Bugga, Vishwaratn Asthana, Rebekah Drezek
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Ultra-high average figure of merit in synergistic band engineered SnxNa1−xSe0.9S0.1 single crystals
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2017-12-15
    Kunling Peng, Bin Zhang, Hong Wu, Xianlong Cao, Ang Li, Dingfeng Yang, Xu Lu, Guoyu Wang, Xiaodong Han, Ctirad Uher, Xiaoyuan Zhou
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Scoping the polymer genome: A roadmap for rational polymer dielectrics design and beyond
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2017-12-19
    Arun Mannodi-Kanakkithodi, Anand Chandrasekaran, Chiho Kim, Tran Doan Huan, Ghanshyam Pilania, Venkatesh Botu, Rampi Ramprasad
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • High stiffness polymer composite with tunable transparency
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Peter Samora Owuor, Varun Chaudhary, Cristiano F. Woellner, V Sharma, R.V. Ramanujan, Anthony S. Stender, Matias Soto, Sehmus Ozden, Enrique V. Barrera, Robert Vajtai, Douglas S. Galvão, Jun Lou, Chandra Sekhar Tiwary, Pulickel M. Ajayan
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • 更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Deformable conductors for human–machine interface
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-02-01
    Jiangxin Wang, Meng-Fang Lin, Sangbaek Park, Pooi See Lee
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • From biomaterial-based data storage to bio-inspired artificial synapse
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-02-01
    Ziyu Lv, Ye Zhou, Su-Ting Han, V.A.L. Roy
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Lithium-ion conductive ceramic textile: A new architecture for flexible solid-state lithium metal batteries
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-02-02
    Yunhui Gong, Kun Fu, Shaomao Xu, Jiaqi Dai, Tanner R. Hamann, Lei Zhang, Gregory T. Hitz, Zhezhen Fu, Zhaohui Ma, Dennis W. McOwen, Xiaogang Han, Liangbing Hu, Eric D. Wachsman
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Nanoporous p-type NiOx electrode for p-i-n inverted perovskite solar cell toward air stability
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-02-10
    Sawanta S. Mali, Hyungjin Kim, Hyun Hoon Kim, Sang Eun Shim, Chang Kook Hong
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Controllable and reversible tuning of material rigidity for robot applications
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Liyu Wang, Yang Yang, Yonghua Chen, Carmel Majidi, Fumiya Iida, Erin Askounis, Qibing Pei
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Ternary interfacial superstructure enabling extraordinary hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-02-17
    Hongliang Jiang, Yunxiang Lin, Bingxu Chen, Youkui Zhang, Hengjie Liu, Xuezhi Duan, De Chen, Li Song
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Ultrathin two-dimensional materials for photo- and electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-02-21
    Jun Di, Cheng Yan, Albertus D. Handoko, Zhi Wei Seh, Huaming Li, Zheng Liu
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Energy transduction ferroic materials
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-02-23
    Wenxiu Gao, Raymond Brennan, Yong Hu, Manfred Wuttig, Guoliang Yuan, Eckhard Quandt, Shenqiang Ren
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Three-dimensional printing of multilayered tissue engineering scaffolds
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-03-20
    Sean M. Bittner, Jason L. Guo, Anthony Melchiorri, Antonios G. Mikos
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Light-induced ultrafast proton-coupled electron transfer responsible for H2 evolution on silver plasmonics
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-05-25
    Yocefu Hattori, Mohamed Abdellah, Igor Rocha, Mariia V. Pavliuk, Daniel L.A. Fernandes, Jacinto Sá
    更新日期:2018-05-25
  • Direct Z-scheme photocatalysts: Principles, synthesis, and applications
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-05-19
    Quanlong Xu, Liuyang Zhang, Jiaguo Yu, Swelm Wageh, Ahmed A. Al-Ghamdi, Mietek Jaroniec
    更新日期:2018-05-19
  • Decahedral nanocrystals of noble metals: Synthesis, characterization, and applications
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-05-09
    Shan Zhou, Ming Zhao, Tung-Han Yang, Younan Xia
    更新日期:2018-05-09
  • Advances in neutron imaging
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-05-03
    Nikolay Kardjilov, Ingo Manke, Robin Woracek, André Hilger, John Banhart

    Imaging techniques based on neutron beams are rapidly developing and have become versatile non-destructive analyzing tools in many research fields. Due to their intrinsic properties, neutrons differ strongly from electrons, protons or X-rays in terms of their interaction with matter: they penetrate deeply into most common metallic materials while they have a high sensitivity to light elements such as hydrogen, hydrogenous substances, or lithium. This makes neutrons perfectly suited probes for research on materials that are used for energy storage and conversion, e.g., batteries, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, etc. Moreover, their wave properties can be exploited to perform diffraction, phase-contrast and dark-field imaging experiments. Their magnetic moment allows for resolving magnetic properties in bulk samples. This review will focus on recent applications of neutron imaging techniques in both materials research and fundamental science illustrated by examples selected from different areas.

    更新日期:2018-05-03
  • Rapid continuous 3D printing of customizable peripheral nerve guidance conduits
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-04-27
    Wei Zhu, Kathryn R. Tringale, Sarah A. Woller, Shangting You, Susie Johnson, Haixu Shen, Jacob Schimelman, Michael Whitney, Joanne Steinauer, Weizhe Xu, Tony L. Yaksh, Quyen T. Nguyen, Shaochen Chen

    Engineered nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) have been demonstrated for repairing peripheral nerve injuries. However, there remains a need for an advanced biofabrication system to build NGCs with complex architectures, tunable material properties, and customizable geometrical control. Here, a rapid continuous 3D-printing platform was developed to print customizable NGCs with unprecedented resolution, speed, flexibility, and scalability. A variety of NGC designs varying in complexity and size were created including a life-size biomimetic branched human facial NGC. In vivo implantation of NGCs with microchannels into complete sciatic nerve transections of mouse models demonstrated the effective directional guidance of regenerating sciatic nerves via branching into the microchannels and extending toward the distal end of the injury site. Histological staining and immunostaining further confirmed the progressive directional nerve regeneration and branching behavior across the entire NGC length. Observational and functional tests, including the von Frey threshold test and thermal test, showed promising recovery of motor function and sensation in the ipsilateral limbs grafted with the 3D-printed NGCs.

    更新日期:2018-04-28
  • Singlet oxygen evolution from layered transition metal oxide cathode materials and its implications for lithium-ion batteries
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-04-17
    Johannes Wandt, Anna T.S. Freiberg, Alexander Ogrodnik, Hubert A. Gasteiger

    For achieving higher energy density lithium-ion batteries, the improvement of cathode active materials is crucial. The most promising cathode materials are nickel-rich layered oxides LiNixCoyMnzO2 (NCM) and over lithiated NCM (often called HE-NCM). Unfortunately, the full capacity of NCM cannot be utilized due to its limited cycle-life at high state-of-charge (SOC), while HE-NCM requires high voltages. By operando emission spectroscopy, we show for the first time that highly reactive singlet oxygen is released when charging NCM and HE-NCM to an SOC beyond ≈80%. In addition, on-line mass-spectrometry reveals the evolution of CO and CO2 once singlet oxygen is detected, providing significant evidence for the reaction between singlet oxygen and electrolyte to be a chemical reaction. It is controlled by the SOC rather than by potential, as would be the case for a purely electrochemical electrolyte oxidation. Singlet oxygen formation therefore imposes a severe challenge to the development of high-energy batteries based on layered oxide cathodes, shifting the focus of research from electrochemically stable 5 V-electrolytes to chemical stability toward singlet oxygen.

    更新日期:2018-04-25
  • Microfluidic generation of transient cell volume exchange for convectively driven intracellular delivery of large macromolecules
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-04-17
    Anna Liu, Muhymin Islam, Nicholas Stone, Vikram Varadarajan, Jenny Jeong, Samuel Bowie, Peng Qiu, Edmund K. Waller, Alexander Alexeev, Todd Sulchek

    Efficient intracellular delivery of target macromolecules remains a major obstacle in cell engineering and other biomedical applications. We discovered a unique cell biophysical phenomenon of transient cell volume exchange using microfluidics to rapidly and repeatedly compress cells. This behavior consists of brief, mechanically induced cell volume loss followed by rapid volume recovery. We harness this behavior for high-throughput, convective intracellular delivery of large polysaccharides (2000 kDa), particles (100 nm), and plasmids while maintaining high cell viability. Successful proof of concept experiments in transfection and intracellular labeling demonstrated potential to overcome the most prohibitive challenges in intracellular delivery for cell engineering.

    更新日期:2018-04-25
  • A carbonate-free, sulfone-based electrolyte for high-voltage Li-ion batteries
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-04-16
    Judith Alvarado, Marshall A. Schroeder, Minghao Zhang, Oleg Borodin, Eric Gobrogge, Marco Olguin, Michael S. Ding, Mallory Gobet, Steve Greenbaum, Ying Shirley Meng, Kang Xu

    Practical implementation of next-generation Li-ion battery chemistries is to a large extent obstructed by the absence of an electrolyte that is capable of simultaneously supporting reversible electrochemical reactions at two extreme electrochemical potentials—above 4.5 V at the positive electrode and near 0 V vs. Li at the negative electrode. Electrolytes based on carbonate esters have been reliable in satisfying state-of-the-art Li-ion battery (LIB) chemistries below <4.2 V; however, it is the intrinsic thermodynamic tendency of these carbonates to decompose at potentials well below the thermodynamic threshold required for reversible reactions of high-voltage systems (>4.4 V), releasing CO2. In this work, we explore a carbonate-free electrolyte system based on a single sulfone solvent, in which a newly discovered synergy between solvent and salt simultaneously addresses the interfacial requirements of both graphitic anode and high-voltage cathode (LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO)). Experimental measurements, quantum chemistry (QC) calculations, and molecular dynamics simulations reveal the system’s fast ion conduction, stability over a wide temperature range, and non-flammability. At the anode, a LiF-rich interphase generated by early-onset reduction of the salt anion effectively suppresses solvent co-intercalation and subsequent graphite exfoliation, enabling unprecedented and highly reversible graphite cycling in a pure sulfone system. Under oxidative conditions, QC calculations predict that high salt concentration promotes complex/aggregate formation which slow the decomposition of sulfolane and leads to polymerizable rather than gaseous products—a fundamental improvement over carbonate solvents. These predictions are corroborated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) experiments, which revealed the presence of a thin, conformal, sulfur-based cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI). Together, the functional interphases (SEI/CEI) generated by this electrolyte system supported long term operation of a high-voltage (4.85 V) LNMO/graphite full cell, which retained ∼70% of its original first-cycle discharge capacity after the 1000th cycle. Based on these results, this new carbonate-free electrolyte system, supported by the mechanistic understanding of its behavior, presents a promising new direction toward unlocking the potential of next generation Li-ion battery electrodes.

    更新日期:2018-04-25
  • Pyroprotein-based electronic textiles with high thermal durability
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-04-07
    Jun Woo Jeon, Joo Young Oh, Se Youn Cho, Sungho Lee, Hyun-Seok Jang, Won Taek Jung, Jeong-Gyun Kim, Hyeonbeom Kim, Hyuk Jin Kim, SeongYeon Kim, Songlee Han, JunHo Kim, Young Jun Chang, Dongseok Suh, Hyoung-Joon Jin, Byung Hoon Kim

    Electronic textiles (e-textiles) need to have high heat durability for various applications. However, current e-textiles are usually damaged by high-temperature processes. We report silk-based e-textiles fabricated by simple pyrolysis with axial stretching that demonstrate high electrical conductivity and thermal durability. The electrical conductivity of the proposed e-textiles was on the order of 103S/cm and the electrical characteristics were maintained even after heating and bending. Furthermore, we prepared e-textiles with various electronic properties, such as semiconducting, superconducting, and light-emitting properties, by depositing ZnO, MoSe2, and NbN onto the commercial silk-based e-textiles using sputtering and evaporation. We introduced a simple method for fabricating silk-based e-textiles with various electronic properties, which are compatible with the current textile industry.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Sustainable materials for electrochemical capacitors
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-03-31
    Krzysztof Fic, Anetta Platek, Justyna Piwek, Elzbieta Frackowiak

    Highly tunable properties of materials used for the construction of electrochemical capacitors make them a perfect choice for a broad scope of applications with high power demand. The ability to design the system according to the expected power/energy profile allows them being considered as powerful alternatives to conventional capacitors and batteries. Carbon materials with the developed specific surface area are the most common electrode components of electrochemical capacitors because of their cost, versatile form, availability, easiness of processing, and eco-friendly character. Biomass is frequently used for carbon production, however, among many natural organic materials, only some of them should be regarded as a useful precursor. Ongoing research brings many novel concepts of using bio-derived materials in high-performance electrochemical capacitors. This review article summarizes the progress on the applications of abundant biomaterials and materials derived from biomass in the field. Various ‘green’ resources have been used as precursors for activated carbons, as binders, or as gel (gelating) agents for solid-state electrolytes. The authors attempt to critically evaluate a commercial potential of these materials upon ongoing trends in research & development of electrochemical capacitors. Pros and cons of utilizing the selected biomass materials are provided and perspectives for their advanced processing are discussed.

    更新日期:2018-03-31
  • Naphthalenediimide (NDI) polymers for all-polymer photovoltaics
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-03-30
    Nanjia Zhou, Antonio Facchetti
    更新日期:2018-03-30
  • Computational design and property predictions for two-dimensional nanostructures
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-03-27
    Runzhang Xu, Xiaolong Zou, Bilu Liu, Hui-Ming Cheng
    更新日期:2018-03-27
  • Materials for supercapacitors: When Li-ion battery power is not enough
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-02-19
    Z. Lin, E. Goikolea, A. Balducci, K. Naoi, P.L. Taberna, M. Salanne, G. Yushin, P. Simon
    更新日期:2018-02-21
  • Application of graphene-based flexible antennas in consumer electronic devices
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-02-15
    A. Scidà, S. Haque, E. Treossi, A. Robinson, S. Smerzi, S. Ravesi, S. Borini, V. Palermo
    更新日期:2018-02-15
  • Metal microparticle – Polymer composites as printable, bio/ecoresorbable conductive inks
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Seungae Lee, Jahyun Koo, Seung-Kyun Kang, Gayoung Park, Yung Jong Lee, Yu-Yu Chen, Seon Ah Lim, Kyung-Mi Lee, John A. Rogers
    更新日期:2018-02-14
  • Keystroke dynamics enabled authentication and identification using triboelectric nanogenerator array
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2018-02-12
    Changsheng Wu, Wenbo Ding, Ruiyuan Liu, Jiyu Wang, Aurelia C. Wang, Jie Wang, Shengming Li, Yunlong Zi, Zhong Lin Wang
    更新日期:2018-02-12
  • Nonlinear metasurfaces: a paradigm shift in nonlinear optics
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2017-07-19
    Alexander Krasnok, Mykhailo Tymchenko, Andrea Alù
    更新日期:2018-02-02
  • Additive manufacturing: scientific and technological challenges, market uptake and opportunities
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2017-07-29
    Syed A.M. Tofail, Elias P. Koumoulos, Amit Bandyopadhyay, Susmita Bose, Lisa O’Donoghue, Costas Charitidis
    更新日期:2018-02-02
  • Functional polymer surfaces for controlling cell behaviors
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2017-08-09
    Lina Chen, Casey Yan, Zijian Zheng
    更新日期:2018-02-02
  • Organic materials for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Yang Xu, Min Zhou, Yong Lei
    更新日期:2018-02-02
  • Nanoplumbers: biomaterials to fight cardiovascular diseases
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2017-08-17
    Flavio Dormont, Mariana Varna, Patrick Couvreur
    更新日期:2018-02-02
  • Recent advances in iron-based superconductors toward applications
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2017-10-18
    Hideo Hosono, Akiyasu Yamamoto, Hidenori Hiramatsu, Yanwei Ma
    更新日期:2018-02-02
  • The rich photonic world of plasmonic nanoparticle arrays
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2017-10-20
    Weijia Wang, Mohammad Ramezani, Aaro I. Väkeväinen, Päivi Törmä, Jaime Gómez Rivas, Teri W. Odom
    更新日期:2018-02-02
  • Programming the shape-shifting of flat soft matter
    Mater. Today (IF 24.537) Pub Date : 2017-10-21
    Teunis van Manen, Shahram Janbaz, Amir A. Zadpoor
    更新日期:2018-02-02
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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