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  • Enhancing bacterial cellulose production via adding mesoporous halloysite nanotubes in the culture medium
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Dong Tian, Fei Shen, Jinguang Hu, Scott Renneckar, Jack N. Saddler
    更新日期:2018-06-15
  • Modification of ulvans via periodate-chlorite oxidation: chemical characterization and anticoagulant activity
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Mariana M. de Carvalho, Rilton A. de Freitas, Diogo R.B. Ducatti, Luciana G. Ferreira, Alan G. Gonçalves, Franciely G. Colodi, Ester Mazepa, Estela M. Aranha, Miguel D. Noseda, Maria Eugênia R. Duarte

    Native (F2) and carboxyl-reduced (R) ulvans from Ulva fasciata were sequentially oxidized with periodate-chlorite affording the polycarboxyl ulvans C1, C2 and C3 (1.20, 1.41 and 1.81 mmol g-1 of COOH, respectively; 19.7, 21.3 and 21.0% of NaSO3, respectively) and R-C3 (1.86 mmol g-1 of COOH; NaSO3 = 22.7%), respectively. APTT assay (polysaccharide fractions at 150 µg mL-1) showed clotting time of 45.6 s for F2 fraction. For polycarboxyl ulvans C1, C2, C3 and R-C3 the clotting times were 101.0, 122.2, 222.0 and 227.0 s, respectively. Comparison of the APTT assay results using ulvans chemically modified by carboxyl-reduction, desulfation, periodate oxidation and/or chlorite oxidation showed the anticoagulant activity of polycarboxyl ulvans is dependent of the sulfate groups present in the native polymer. In addition, the increase of the anticoagulant activity was accompanied by the increasing of the carboxyl groups and the content of this acidic substituent seems to be more important than its positioning.

    更新日期:2018-06-15
  • Interaction of polyelectrolyte complex between sodium alginate and chitosan dimers with a single glyphosate molecule: A DFT and NBO study
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Marcia P.M. Costa, Letícia M. Prates, Leonardo Baptista, Maurício T.M. Cruz, Ivana L.M. Ferreira
    更新日期:2018-06-15
  • Folate-modified carboxymethyl-chitosan/polyethylenimine/bovine serum albumin based complexes for tumor site-specific drug delivery
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-14
    Yan Zhang, Xinyi Tan, Tianyang Ren, Chao Jia, Zaixing Yang, Hong Sun
    更新日期:2018-06-14
  • Fabrication of mechanically tough and self-recoverable nanocomposite hydrogels from polyacrylamide grafted cellulose nanocrystal and poly(acrylic acid)
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-13
    Bengang Li, Yandan Zhang, Chao Wu, Bin Guo, Zhenyang Luo

    We present a facile strategy for the fabrication of mechanically tough and self-recoverable nanocomposite hydrogels reinforced by surface-modified cellulose nanocrystals. Polyacrylamide grafted cellulose nanocrystal (CNC-g-PAM) was first synthesized by ceric salt initiated surface graft polymerization of acrylamide onto CNC, then incorporated into chemically crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) networks to obtain dual-crosslinked CNC-g-PAM/PAA nanocomposite hydrogels. CNC-g-PAM acted as both interfacial compatible nanofillers and physical crosslinkers through reversible hydrogen bonds between PAA and PAM on the surface of CNC. FTIR analysis confirmed the formation of above hydrogen bonds. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed good interfacial compatibility between CNC and PAA matrix. The nanocomposite hydrogels exhibited decreasing swelling ratio with increasing CNC-g-PAM content. Uniaxial tensile tests and tensile loading-unloading tests showed that elastic modulus, breaking strength and elongation at break of the nanocomposite hydrogels were significantly increased compared to PAA hydrogel, and that the nanocomposite hydrogels exhibited good self-recovery ability after large deformation.

    更新日期:2018-06-14
  • 更新日期:2018-06-14
  • 更新日期:2018-06-14
  • Electrospun composite cellulose acetate/iron oxide nanoparticles non-woven membranes for magnetic hyperthermia applications
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-13
    Ricardo J.R. Matos, Catarina I.P. Chaparro, Jorge C. Silva, Manuel Almeida Valente, João Paulo Borges, Paula I.P. Soares

    In the present work composite membranes were produced by combining magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) with cellulose acetate (CA) membranes for magnetic hyperthermia applications. The non-woven CA membranes were produced by electrospinning technique, and magnetic NPs were incorporated by adsorption at fibers surface or by addition to the electrospinning solution. Therefore, different designs of composite membranes were obtained. Superparamagnetic NPs synthesized by chemical precipitation were stabilized either with oleic acid (OA) or dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) to obtain stable suspensions at physiological pH. The incorporation of magnetic NP into CA matrix was confirmed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that adsorption of magnetic NPs at fibers’ surface originates composite membranes with higher heating ability than those produced by incorporation of magnetic NPs inside the fibers. However, adsorption of magnetic NPs at fibers’ surface can cause cytotoxicity depending on the NPs concentration. Tensile tests demonstrated a reinforcement effect caused by the incorporation of magnetic NPs in the non-woven membrane.

    更新日期:2018-06-14
  • Soybean straw nanocellulose produced by enzymatic or acid treatment as a reinforcing filler in soy protein isolate films
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-13
    Milena Martelli-Tosi, Maraiane M. Masson, Natália C. Silva, Bruno S. Esposto, Taís T. Barros, Odílio B.G. Assis, Delia R. Tapia-Blácido

    This work is a comparative study of the application of mercerized soybean straw (MSS) and nanocellulose produced by acid (CNCs) or enzymatic hydrolysis (CNFs) as reinforcing fillers in soy protein isolate (SPI) films. CNCs presented average dimensions of about 10 nm-thick and 300 nm-long with a crystallinity index of 57%, whereas CNFs have similar diameters, though with greater lengths (>1 µm), lower crystallinity index (50%) and greater thermal stability. Incorporation of 5% of CNCs and CNFs (g/100 g of SPI) improved the SPI film tensile strength by 38 and 48% respectively, and decreased the SPI film elongation at break when compared to control films. The SPI-CNC films showed the lowest values for solubility, probably due to their higher crystallinity (63%). On the other hand, the water vapor permeability was solely reduced with CNF addition, which can be attributed to their higher aspect ratio (length/diameter) and a better incorporation into the protein matrix.

    更新日期:2018-06-14
  • Engineering of Chitosan-derived nanoparticles to enhance antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Alejandro Garrido-Maestu, Zhengxin Ma, Sae-Yeol-Rim Paik, Nusheng Chen, Sanghoon Ko, Zhaohui Tong, KwangCheol Casey Jeong

    Chitosan is an abundant and natural polymer derived from chitin, which presents a wide variety of properties, including antimicrobial activity. The raising of antibiotic resistant bacteria has increased the interest in finding alternatives to traditional antibiotics. Many studies have assessed the antimicrobial activity of chitosan itself, but a few have performed comparisons among different chitosan nanoparticle synthesis, which will be of particular interest for further applications. In this study, the effects of two types of cross-linking agents, sodium sulfate vs. tripolyphosphate, along with molecular weight (Mw) of chitosan, low vs. high Mw, and different sonication treatments, time and power, were assessed to determine the optimal conditions to enhance antimicrobial activity against bacterial pathogens. Physiochemical characteristics of the engineered chitosan nanoparticles were determined. It was observed that 20 min sonication time, low Mw of chitosan, Sodium sulfate as cross-linker, and particle size smaller than <300 nm, showed the greatest antimicrobial activity. Chitosan nanoparticles generated at this condition completely killed pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 without raising resistant bacteria, providing great insights into potential use as alternative antimicrobial agents.

    更新日期:2018-06-12
  • Recrystallization Kinetics of Starch Microspheres Prepared by Temperature Cycling in Aqueous Two-phase System
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-11
    Huiping Xia, Tingting Kou, Ke Liu, Qunyu Gao, Guihong Fang
    更新日期:2018-06-12
  • THERMAL STABILIZATION OF PROBIOTICS BY ADSORPTION ONTO POROUS STARCHES
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-11
    Yaiza Benavent-Gil, Dolores Rodrigo, Cristina M. Rosell

    Industrial processing factors, such as temperature, compromise the viability of probiotic cells. Objective was to develop a system to thermally stabilize probiotic bacteria based on porous starches and using biopolymers as coating materials (gelatinized starch, guar gum and xanthan gum). Porous starches from corn and rice starches, having controlled number and size of porous were used as supporting material. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the adsorption of the microorganism, leading microcapsules with corn starch but aggregates with rice starch. Surface pores of rice starch increased the encapsulation yield of rice starch around 10%, but that effect was not observed in porous corn starch. The highest encapsulation yield was obtained with porous starches coated with gelatinized starch, which ranged from 92-100%. Microencapsulates made with porous starches with small pores, like the ones obtained with α-amylase, and coated with gelatinized starch resulted in the highest thermal resistance at 55 °C.

    更新日期:2018-06-12
  • Effects of Bush Sophora Root polysaccharide and its sulfate on DHAV-1 replication
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-09
    Yun Chen, Yuhui Yang, Wenjuan Yuan, Zhaohui Wang, Ke Ming, Ling Zeng, Jiaguo Liu

    Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is a mortal virus to ducklings under three weeks old. Bush sophora root polysaccharide (BSRPS) and its sulfate, sulfated BSRPS (sBSRPS), inhibited the replication of DHAV-1. However the detailed mechanisms were still unknown. The protein translation and RNA synthesis are two most important steps of the replication. Additionally, DHAV-1 3D protein, cellular Hsp70 protein, and DHAV-1 IRES were the important regulatory factors. Therefore, the influence of BSRPS and sBSRPS on DHAV-1 protein translation and RNA synthesis were studied. RT-qPCR, western blot, and dual-luciferase reporter system were used to study the inhibition mechanisms of BSRPS and sBSRPS on DHAV-1. The results showed both BSRPS and sBSRPS significantly inhibited the DHAV-1 protein translation and RNA synthesis, and the effect of sBSRPS was stronger. Furthermore, they dropped the protein translation via suppressing DHAV-1 IRES activity and dropped the DHAV-1 synthesis via suppressing cellular Hsp70 expression.

    更新日期:2018-06-10
  • Chemical structure and anti-inflammatory effect of Polysaccharide extracted from Morinda citrifolia Linn (Noni)
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-09
    Stefany Guimarães Sousa, Lorena Almeida Oliveira, Diva de Aguiar Magalhães, Tarcisio Vieira de Brito, Jalles Arruda Batista, Cynthia Maria Carvalho Pereira, Mariana de Souza Costa, José Carlos Rapouso Mazulo Neto, Marcelo de Carvalho Filgueiras, Daniel Fernando Pereira Vasconselos, Durcilene Alves da Silva, Francisco Clark Nogueira Barros, Venícios G. Sombra, Ana Lúcia Ponte Freitas, Regina Célia Monteiro de Paula, Judith Pessoa de Andrade Feitosa, André Luiz dos Reis Barbosa

    Polysaccharides extracted from plants are very promising molecules in the field of pharmacotherapy. Knowing this, the aim of this study was to extract, characterize and evaluate the action of the polysaccharide of Morinda citrifolia Linn (Noni-PLS) in biological models of inflammatory processes. The characterization tests shown that sample refers to a heteropolysaccharide composed mainly of homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan. This polysaccharide at dose of 10 mg/kg, when tested in our models of inflammation, showed significant activity in reducing carrageenan-induced paw oedema as well as all mediators edemas. This polysaccharide was able to inhibit the migration of leukocytes to the site of inflammation, and still reduced inflammatory nociception tests. This results, allows us to conclude that the polysaccharide extracted from Morinda citrifolia linn has anti-inflammatory potential since it reversed inflammatory parameters such as edema, leukocyte migration and nociception.

    更新日期:2018-06-10
  • Isolation, Purification and Structural Characterestics of Chondroitin Sulfate from Smooth hound Cartilage: In vitro Anticoagulant and Antiproliferative Properties
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-08
    Fatma Krichen, Hajer Bougatef, Nadhem Sayari, Federica Capitani, Ikram Ben Amor, Imed Koubaa, Francesca Maccari, Veronica Mantovani, Fabio Galeotti, Nicola Volpi, Ali Bougatef

    Chondroitin sulfate was extracted from the cartilage of smooth hound (CSSH) and then purified by anion exchange chromatography. The structual characteristic of CSSH was evaluated by acetate cellulose electrophoresis, FTIR, 13C NMR and SAX-HPLC. Molecular weight of CSSH was average 68.78 KDa. Disaccharide analysis indicated that CSSH was predominately composed of monosulfated disaccharides in position 6 and 4 of the N-acetylgalactosamine (45.34% and 32.49%, respectively). CSSH was tested for in vitro anticoagulant activity using the three classical coagulation assays (activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombine time (TT) and thrombin time (PT) tests). The finding showed that CSSH prolonged significatively (p < 0.05), aPTT, TT and PT about 1.4, 3.44 and 1.21 fold, respectively, greater than that of the negative control at a concentration of 100 µg/ml. The CSSH caused a significant antiproliferative activity against HCT116 cell, which was 79% of cell proliferation inhibition at the concentration of 1000 µg/ml. Further, CSSH presented no toxicity against the normal cells and no hemolysis towards bovine erythrocytes for all concentrations tested. CSSH demonstrated hopeful antiproliferative and anticoagulant potential, which may be used as a novel and effective drug.

    更新日期:2018-06-08
  • Water vapor sorption properties of TEMPO oxidized and sulfuric acid treated cellulose nanocrystal films
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-07
    Xin Guo, Liu Liu, Yunchu Hu, Yiqiang Wu

    For cellulose nanocrystal film, water adsorption is extremely important for its product performance. For gaining a deeper understanding of hygroscopic behavior, two cellulose nanocrystal films, such as TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanocrystal film (TOCNF) and sulfuric acid treated cellulose nanocrystal film (SACNF) were investigated using dynamic water vapor sorption apparatus. During the water vapor sorption process, the running time, real-time sample mass, target relative humidity (RH), actual RH and real-time temperature were all collected. Through the comparison of these collected data, significant differences in the equilibrium moisture content, sorption hysteresis and sorption kinetics were confirmed. It was important to note that TOCNF and SACNF had equilibrium moisture contents of 28.2% and 22.8, respectively, at a RH of 95%. Then, using parallel exponential kinetics (PEK) model, sorption kinetics data were accurately fitted. Furthermore, two Kelvin-Voigt elements were introduced to interpret the fitting results and calculate the modulus of TOCNF and SACNF.

    更新日期:2018-06-07
  • Polyurethane elastomer composites reinforced with waste natural cellulosic fibers from office paper in thermal properties
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-07
    Wanqing Lei, Changqing Fang, Xing Zhou, Yaguang Li, Mengyuan Pu
    更新日期:2018-06-07
  • Thermodynamic analysis for assessing the physical stability of core materials microencapsulated in taro starch spherical aggregates
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-07
    Javier D. Hoyos-Leyva, Luis A. Bello-Pérez, Edith Agama-Acevedo, J. Alvarez-Ramirez

    Taro starch has the ability of producing spherical aggregates under spray-drying without the addition of binding agents. This property makes taro starch suitable for microencapsulation of dietary compounds. This study addressed the physical stability of hydrophilic and hydrophobic core materials microencapsulated by spray-drying into taro starch spherical aggregates determined from a thermodynamic standpoint via vapor adsorption isotherms. Ascorbic acid and almond oil were used as compound models. Encapsulation efficiency, GAB sorption parameters, differential and integral thermodynamic properties, Gibb’s free energy, entropy-enthalpy compensation, spreading pressure, effective diffusion rate, activation energy and critical water activity were determined. The encapsulation efficiency of ascorbic acid and almond oil was 99% and 56%, respectively. Monolayer moisture content was relatively low for ascorbic acid microcapsules. The adsorption process was driven by entropic mechanisms. The physical stability of taro starch spherical aggregates microcapsules with different core material was guaranteed for a range of water activities and temperatures.

    更新日期:2018-06-07
  • Injectable hyaluronic acid hydrogels with the capacity for Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-07
    Daniel Bermejo-Velasco, Weiqiang Dou, Arend Heerschap, Dmitri Ossipov, Jöns Hilborn
    更新日期:2018-06-07
  • Genipin-crosslinked carboxymethyl chitosan nanogel for lung-targeted delivery of isoniazid and rifampin
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-07
    Ting Wu, Weiping Liao, Wei Wang, Jie Zhou, Weiguo Tan, Weibing Xiang, Jinglin Zhang, Lina Guo, Tao Chen, Dong Ma, Weiye Yu, Xiang Cai
    更新日期:2018-06-07
  • Injectable chitosan-hydroxyapatite hydrogels promote the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-06
    Antonia Ressler, Joaquín Ródenas-Rochina, Marica Ivanković, Hrvoje Ivanković, Anamarija Rogina, Gloria Gallego Ferrer

    Injectable hydrogels have emerged as promising biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential of a pH-responsive chitosan-hydroxyapatite hydrogel to be used as a three-dimensional support for encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) osteogenic differentiation. In vitro enzymatic degradation of the hydrogel, during 28 days of incubation, in simulated physiological condiditons, was characterized by swelling measurements, molecular weight determination and SEM analysis of hydrogel microstructure. Osteogenic differentiation of encapsulated MSCs was confirmed by osteogenic Runx2, collagen type I and osteocalcin immunostaining and alkaline phosphatase quantification. The deposition of late osteogenic markers (calcium phosphates) detected by Alizarin red and von Kossa staining indicated an extracellular matrix mineralization.

    更新日期:2018-06-07
  • Revealing the Importance of Non-thermal Effect to Strengthen Hydrolysis of Cellulose by Synchronous Cooling Assisted Microwave Driving
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-06
    Chengkai Zhai, Na Teng, Baohai Pan, Jing Chen, Fei Liu, Jin Zhu, Haining Na

    Non-thermal effect of microwave is precisely revealed as an important factor to strengthen the hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar by a new method of synchronous cooling assisted microwave driving. Using this particular method, the thermal effect is mandatorily removed from the hydrolysis of cellulose. After systematic analysis of the hydrolysis of low crystalline regenerated cellulose (RC), the non-thermal effect of microwave is proved to strengthen hydrolysis. The enhancement of non-thermal effect effectively weaken the interaction between the hydroxyl groups of -O(2)H and -O(6)H, as well as strengthen interaction between the hydroxyl groups of -O(3)H and -O(5)H within one single molecular chain. It leads to the reduction of regularity of molecular chain and thus inhibits the recrystallization of RC. As a result, the efficiency of hydrolysis is greatly improved. This research provides an important theoretical support and technical guidance to construct new microwave driven hydrolysis with high efficiency in the future.

    更新日期:2018-06-07
  • Evaluation of the super disintegrant functionnalities of alginic acid and calcium alginate for the design of orodispersible mini tablets
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-06
    Ian SOULAIROL, Noelia M. SANCHEZ-BALLESTER, Adrien AUBERT, Nicolas TARLIER, Bernard BATAILLE, Françoise QUIGNARD, Tahmer SHARKAWI

    This study explores the influence of different synthesis methods and drying conditions in the preparation of sodium alginate-derivate xerogels presenting interesting disintegrant functionalities. Xerogels containing alginic acid (AA) or calcium alginate (CaA) and a mixture of both, AA/CaA, were isolated using two different drying methods oven and rotary evaporation. AA showed the best wettability behavior, in contrast to the rigid crosslinked CaA structure which showed a limited rate of water penetration. Interestingly, xerogel containing AA dried in the oven showed an enhanced maximum water uptake. Oven drying seems to favor the isolation of materials presenting good tabletability. Compression parameters of the formulations (tensile strength, elastic energy and porosity) were not affected by their presence (5%) in the design of OroDispersible Mini Tablets. In vitro disintegration results highlighted the water wicking as the key factor leading the disintegration mechanism of these materials. These results show promise of potential properties for the development of super disintegrant excipients.

    更新日期:2018-06-07
  • Characterization of cell wall polysaccharides from Sicana odorifera fruit and structural analysis of a galactan-rich fraction​ pectins as side chains
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-06
    Samantha Sharol Kienteka, Marília Locatelli Corrêa-Ferreira, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira Petkowicz

    Sicana odorifera is a Brazilian native fruit. In this work, cell wall polysaccharides from S. odorifera pulp were isolated by sequential extraction with water, citric acid, and sodium hydroxide solutions. The monosaccharide composition of crude polysaccharide fractions was determined. The aqueous fractions displayed the highest yields and they were constituted by pectins, having mainly galactans as side chains. The citric acid fraction (SCA) had galactose as the main component. The hemicellulosic fractions consisted mainly of xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose, suggesting the presence of xyloglucans, xylans and mannans. The SCA fraction was further purified, resulting in a linear galactan (SCAI2). NMR and methylation analysis showed that SCAI2 was a β-(1→4) D-galactan with molar mass of 17,560 g/mol, determined by light scattering. The presence of a linear galactan in free form fruits is unusual because these polymers usually occur as side chains of type I rhamnogalacturonans.

    更新日期:2018-06-07
  • Optimizing electric corona treatment for hydroxypropylated starch-based coatings
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-06
    Johanna Lyytikäinen, Sami-Seppo Ovaska, Ekaterina Soboleva, Ringaudas Rinkunas, Tadeus Lozovski, Robertas Maldzius, Jonas Sidaravicius, Leena-Sisko Johansson, Kaj Backfolk

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the role of negative direct current and alternating current (plasma) corona treatments in modification of bio-based dispersion barrier coatings and the response of replacing fossil-based binder with a thermoplastic bio-based binder (starch). The study emphasizes the importance of understanding and optimizing electric corona discharge in order to obtain high oxidation level without harming the substrate and causing unintentional treatment of the reverse side. The coatings were exposed to different corona treatment conditions using a novel developed sheet-fed laboratory-scale device. Corona-induced topographical, mechanical and surface chemical changes were observed from atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle and surface energy measurements. XPS results indicated further that partial starch decomposition occurred after plasma treatment. Coated surfaces became substantially smoother after both treatments suggesting that nanoparticle migration and re-orientation effects occurred. Additionally, reverse side effects and strike through were also discussed.

    更新日期:2018-06-07
  • Ultra sensitive detection of Cd (II) using Reduced graphene oxide/Carboxymethyl cellulose/Glutathione modified electrode
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-06
    T. Priya, N. Dhanalakshmi, S. Thennarasu, N. Thinakaran
    更新日期:2018-06-07
  • 更新日期:2018-06-07
  • Effect of deacetylation degree on controlled pilocarpine release from injectable chitosan-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) carriers
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-06
    Li-Jyuan Luo, Chih-Ching Huang, Hung-Chi Chen, Jui-Yang Lai, Michiya Matsusaki

    Development of biodegradable thermogels as intracameral injectable carriers for ocular delivery of antiglaucoma medications can provide a better treatment modality with low dosing frequency than eye drop formulations. For the first time, this study investigates the effect of deacetylation degree (DD) of the polysaccharide component in chitosan-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (CN) carriers on controlled release of pilocarpine in the management of glaucoma. Our results showed that increasing the chitosan DD from 60.7% to 98.5% leads to enhanced biodegradation resistance of carrier and prolonged release profile of the drug. Significant DNA damage and caspase-3 activation could be detected in lens epithelial cell cultures exposed to CN made from highly deacetylated polysaccharides, indicating apoptosis-related cytotoxicity due to relatively high positive charge density of the graft copolymers. Postoperative outcomes demonstrated that long-term therapeutic efficacy in glaucomatous rabbits is governed by intraocular pressure changes in response to intracamerally administered pilocarpine-loaded CN, strongly suggesting the usefulness of deacetylation in this injectable drug delivery carrier.

    更新日期:2018-06-07
  • Thermoplastic starch foamed composites reinforced with cellulose nanofibers; Thermal and mechanical properties
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-06
    Abbas Ghanbari, Taghi Tabarsa, Alireza Ashori, Alireza Shakeri, Mahdi Mashkour

    The present work reports the effect of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) on the thermal, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), density and water uptake of thermoplastic starch (TPS) foamed composites. The obtained thermal and DMA results illustrate that thermal stability, storage modulus (E′), loss modulus (E″) and damping factor (tan δ) increase for all TPS/CNF samples compared to the pure TPS foamed composite. The results showed that the incorporation of CNFs caused an increase in the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the TPS foamed composites. Additionally, thermal results revealed that 1.5 wt% CNF offers superior resistance or stability towards heat compared to its counterparts. Addition of the CNF filler into the TPS matrix decreased the apparent density and water absorption. Interestingly, SEM images illustrate that when a small content of rigid nano particles (1.0 or 1.5 wt%) was added in the foamed composites, the cell size decreased while the cell density increased.

    更新日期:2018-06-07
  • Flexible starch-polyurethane films: Effect of mixed macrodiol polyurethane ionomers on physicochemical characteristics and hydrophobicity
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-05
    N.L. Tai, Raju Adhikari, Robert Shanks, Peter Halley, Benu Adhikari

    One of the most critical limitations in synthesizing starch-polyurethane (PU) hybrid materials is their microphase separation caused by physical incompatibility. This paper reports that the physical incompatibility and microphase separation between starch and PU can be overcome by using specifically designed anionic poly(ether-ester) polyurethane (AEEPU). The AEEPU was synthesised by preparing isocyanate (NCO)-terminated prepolymer using Isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid (BMPA), poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and polycaprolactone (PCL). This AEEPU was physically mixed with glycerol plasticized high amylose starch (HAGS) at HAGS to AEEPU mass ratios of 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40, 50/50. Higher AEEPU content in HAGS-AEEPU increased surface hydrophobicity and elasticity while the Young’s modulus remained unaffected. HAGS-AEEPU film at 50:50 ratio was comparable to LDPE film in terms of elongation at break (187%), Young’s modulus (383 MPa), and contact angle (112°) and good transparency. These starch-PU films are expected to find increased application as biodegradable packaging materials.

    更新日期:2018-06-06
  • Molecular weight impact on the mechanical forces between hyaluronan and its receptor
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-05
    Lei Jiang, Guihua Liu, Hanyun Liu, Juan Han, Zhibin Liu, Hongchao Ma
    更新日期:2018-06-06
  • Hyaluronate-alginate hybrid hydrogels modified with biomimetic peptides for controlling the chondrocyte phenotype
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-05
    Hyoseok An, Jae Won Lee, Hyun Ji Lee, Yerang Seo, Honghyun Park, Kuen Yong Lee

    Hyaluronate-based hydrogels have been widely exploited as synthetic extracellular matrices in many tissue engineering applications, including cartilage tissue engineering. Hyaluronate-based hydrogels are typically prepared by chemical cross-linking reactions, in which chemical reagents may induce side effects, unless they are completely removed after the cross-linking reaction. We thus suggest the utilization of hybrid materials composed of hyaluronate as a main chain and alginate for physical cross-linking to simply form hydrogels in the presence of calcium ions under physiological conditions. In this study, we hypothesized that the introduction of biomimetic peptides to hyaluronate-alginate hybrid (HAH) hydrogels could be useful to regulate the chondrocyte phenotype, including chondrogenic differentiation. HAH was modified with the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) peptide as a cell–matrix interaction motif and/or histidine-alanine-valine (HAV) as a cell–cell interaction motif. The HAV peptide is known to bind to cadherin, which is a key factor involved in homophilic cell–cell interactions as well as chondrogenesis. The viability and growth of mouse chondrocytes (ATDC5 cells) increased significantly when cultured on RGD-modified HAH hydrogels. Cell aggregates formed on HAV-modified HAH hydrogels, resulting in enhanced chondrogenic differentiation via enhanced cell–cell interactions by HAV modification. Interestingly, a synergistic effect of HAV and RGD peptides within HAH hydrogels on chondrogenesis was found in 3-D experiments in vitro. This approach to utilizing physically cross-linkable hyaluronate-based hydrogels presenting biomimetic peptides has potential applications in tissue engineering, including cartilage regeneration.

    更新日期:2018-06-06
  • Development of Ag/AgX (X = Cl, I) nanoparticles toward antimicrobial, UV-protected and self-cleanable viscose fibers
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-04
    Mohamed Rehan, Tawfik A. Khattab, Ahmed Barohum, Linda Gätjen, Ralph Wilken
    更新日期:2018-06-05
  • Thermal conductivity, structure and mechanical properties of konjac glucomannan/starch based aerogel strengthened by wheat straw
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-04
    Yixin Wang, Kao Wu, Man Xiao, Saffa B. Riffat, Yuehong Su, Fatang Jiang

    This study presents the preparation and property characterization of a konjac glucomannan (KGM)/starch based aerogel as a thermal insulation material. Wheat straw powders (a kind of agricultural waste) and starch are used to enhance aerogel physical properties such as mechanical strength and pore size distribution. Aerogel samples were made using environmentally friendly sol–gel and freeze drying methods. Results show that starch addition could strengthen the mechanical strength of aerogel significantly, and wheat straw addition could decrease aerogel pore size due to its special micron-cavity structure, with appropriate gelatin addition as the stabilizer. The aerogel formula was optimized to achieve lowest thermal conductivity and good thermal stability. Within the experimental range, aerogel with the optimized formula had a thermal conductivity 0.04641 Wm−1 K−1, a compression modulus 67.5 kPa and an elasticity 0.27. The results demonstrate the high potential of KGM/starch based aerogels enhanced with wheat straw and starch for application in thermal insulation.

    更新日期:2018-06-05
  • Green and facile surface modification of cellulose nanocrystal as the route to produce poly(lactic acid) nanocomposites with improved properties
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-04
    Hao Wu, Selvaraj Nagarajan, Jie Shu, Tongping Zhang, Lijuan Zhou, Yongxin Duan, Jianming Zhang
    更新日期:2018-06-05
  • Characterisation of pectin-xylan complexes in tomato primary plant cell walls
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-04
    Suzanne E. Broxterman, Henk A. Schols

    The primary plant cell wall is composed of a complex network of pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Potential interactions between these polysaccharides were studied for carrot, tomato and strawberry, with a focus on the role of pectin. The Chelating agent Unextractable Solids (ChUS), the residue after water- and EDTA extraction, was ball milled and subsequently water extracted. For tomato and strawberry, pectin and substantial amounts of hemicellulose were solubilised. Anion exchange chromatography (AEC) showed co-elution of pectin and acetylated glucuronoxylan in tomato, representing 18% of solubilised uronic acid and 48% of solubilised xylose by ball milling from ChUS. The existence of a covalently linked pectin-xylan complex was proposed since xylan co-precipitated with pectin under mild alkali conditions. It was proposed that pectin links with xylan through the RG-I region since degradation of HG did not alter AEC elution patterns for RG-I and xylan, suggesting RG-I − xylan interactions.

    更新日期:2018-06-05
  • High-strength and morphology-controlled aerogel based on carboxymethyl cellulose and graphene oxide
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-04
    Xuesong Ge, Youna Shan, Lin Wu, Xindong Mu, Hui Peng, Yijun Jiang

    Composite aerogels with excellent mechanical properties were prepared by using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as raw materials, 2D graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets as reinforcement, boric acid (BA) as cross-linker. By controlling the heat transfer rate, composite aerogels with isotropy and anisotropy structure were prepared, the mechanical and heat insulation properties were studied. The isotropy composite aerogel had compression strength of 110 kPa at 60% compression, which was 5 times of the axial and 14 times of the radial of anisotropy structure composite aerogels, and thermal conductivity was also lower than those of two directions of anisotropy composite aerogel. Besides, the mechanical properties of isotropy composite aerogels increased with the increase of GO content. When GO content was up to 5 wt%, the compressive strength and Young’s modulus of composite aerogels reached 349 kPa and 1029 kPa, which were 1.6 and 4.5 times that of CMC aerogels, respectively.

    更新日期:2018-06-05
  • 更新日期:2018-06-05
  • Obtention of 74:26 polyester/cellulose fabric blend​ with Super-hydrophobic and Super​-​hydrophilic ​properties by air corona discharge treatment and their characterization
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-04
    Zahra Moridi Mahdieh, Shahla Shekarriz, Faramarz Afshar Taromi, Majid Montazer

    A facile method was used to create both of the super-hydrophilic and super-hydrophobic properties on polyester/cellulose fabric blend. The fabric was exposed to air corona discharge treatment without any extra chemical modification. The static contact angle of 0∘ and 167∘ was indicated for super-hydrophilic and super-hydrophobic samples, respectively. The decrease of intensity of active functional groups and the increase of roughness with a nano-scale pattern presented a super-hydrophobic surface that confirmed by ATR-FTIR, AFM and FESEM analysis. This is while the increase of intensity of the active functional groups and the surface roughness with a micro-scale pattern was shown for the super-hydrophilic sample. The wettability tests show the enhancement of hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties for 300 W–10 min and 800 W–10 min corona discharge treated samples, respectively. Therefore, there is a critical point of the corona discharge process that enables it to create hydrophobic and/or hydrophilic properties on the substrates.

    更新日期:2018-06-05
  • 更新日期:2018-06-05
  • Silver Nanoparticles Incorporated Konjac Glucomannan-Montmorillonite Nacre-like Composite Films for Antibacterial Applications
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-04
    Wenkun Zhu, Jiwei Li, Jia Lei, Yi Li, Tao Chen, Tao Duan, Weitang Yao, Jian Zhou, Yang Yu, Yan Liu

    Artificial nacre-like konjac glucomannan-Montmorillonite (KGM-MTM) composite films with ‘brick and mortar’ microstructures have been fabricated based on using KGM-MTM hybrid nanosheets as building blocks. In the designed fabrication procedure, we assembled hybrid building blocks with a thin layer of KGM coating on the MTM nanosheets to form KGM-MTM composite film via vacuum filtration. The nacre-like microstructures enhanced the light transmission performance and mechanical properties (Tensile strength: 116 MPa) of KGM-MTM composite films. Additionally, Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) can be incorporated into the layered structures of KGM-MTM composite films via an in situ reduced method. It was found that KGM-MTM-Ag composite films significantly suppress bacterial growth, which makes them potentially applicable as antimicrobial films in the biomedical field.

    更新日期:2018-06-04
  • 更新日期:2018-06-04
  • Rheological and morphological characterization of the culture broth during exopolysaccharide production by Enterobacter sp.
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2009-09-15
    Vítor D. Alves, Filomena Freitas, Cristiana A.V. Torres, Madalena Cruz, Rodolfo Marques, Christian Grandfils, M.P. Gonçalves, Rui Oliveira, Maria A.M. Reis

    Enterobacter sp. was grown on glycerol byproduct from the biodiesel industry for the production of a value-added exopolysaccharide (EPS). The culture broth was characterized in terms of its morphological and rheological properties throughout the cultivation run. Microscopic observations revealed the formation of cell aggregates surrounded by the EPS at the beginning of the cultivation run, while, at the end, aggregates were reduced and an EPS matrix with the cells embedded in it was observed. The apparent viscosity of the culture broth increased over time, which was attributed to the increase of the EPS concentration in the first period of the cultivation run. However, in the final stage, the creation of new polymer interactions within the complex culture broth was likely the reason for the viscosity increase observed, since there was not a significant variation of the EPS concentration, average molecular weight or chemical composition. The broth presented a Newtonian behavior at the beginning of the run, changing to pseudoplastic as the EPS concentration increased, and revealed to follow the Cox–Merz rule.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Physicochemical characterization of several types of naturally colored cotton fibers from Peru
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-02
    R.H. Blas-Sevillano, T. Veramendi, B. La Torre, C.E. Velezmoro-Sánchez, A.I. Oliva, M.E. Mena-Martínez, W.A. Herrera-Kao, J. Uribe-Calderon, J.M. Cervantes-Uc

    Elemental composition, physical dimensions (length and apparent diameter), and crystallinity of different types of naturally colored cotton (NCCs) fibers from Peru were investigated using a CHNS organic elemental analyzer, optical microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Spectroscopic studies involving Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were conducted; and the thermal stability of cotton samples were also investigated. Results from organic elemental analyzer and XPS showed that cotton samples contain mainly carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, but darker color samples also presented nitrogen. It was also found that the white cotton sample exhibited the longest fibers whereas the darker color samples showed the shortest values in length. Interestingly, the crystallinity seems also decrease with color intensity of NCCs. Finally, the thermal stability of white cotton fibers was similar to those obtained for the NCCs.

    更新日期:2018-06-02
  • Fabrication of acetylated carboxymethylcellulose coated hollow mesoporous silica hybrid nanoparticles for nucleolin targeted delivery to colon adenocarcinoma
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-01
    Mojgan Nejabat, Marzieh Mohammadi, Khalil Abnous, Seyed Mohammad Taghdisi, Mohammad Ramezani, Mona Alibolandi

    To efficiently deliver the chemotherapeutics to the tumor tissue and minimize the associated adverse effects, nucleolin targeted hybrid nanostructure based on hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) were fabricated. To provide the controlled, sustained drug release and enhance blood circulation, the surface of doxorubicin-encapsulated HMSNs were coated with acetylated carboxymethyl cellulose (Ac-CMC) and then covalently conjugated to AS1411 aptamer for guided drug delivery to nucleolin overexpressed cancerous cells. In vitro cellular uptake and cytotoxicity studies confirmed that AS1411 aptamer specifically targets nucleolin overexpressing MCF-7 and C26 cells. Moreover, the in vivo tumor inhibitory effect of AS1411 aptamer conjugated formulation demonstrated a superior therapeutic efficiency over non-targeted formulation and free doxorubicin. The current study might open a new insight to the development of targeted intelligent hybrid materials based on AcCMC-coated HMSNs with high loading capacity, smart characteristics and desirable anticancer potential.

    更新日期:2018-06-01
  • Investigating dehydration-induced physical strains of cellulose microfibrils in plant cell walls
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-06-01
    Shixin Huang, Mohamadamin Makarem, Sarah N. Kiemle, Yunzhen Zheng, Xin He, Dan Ye, Esther W. Gomez, Enrique D. Gomez, Daniel J. Cosgrove, Seong H. Kim
    更新日期:2018-06-01
  • Eucalyptus xylan: An in-house-produced substrate for xylanase evaluation to substitute birchwood xylan
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-05-31
    Felipe A.S. Corradini, Thais O. Baldez, Thais S.S. Milessi, Paulo W. Tardioli, Antonio G. Ferreira, Roberto de Campos Giordano, Raquel de L.C. Giordano
    更新日期:2018-05-31
  • Molecular interactions between 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol and pectin and antioxidant capacity of this complex in vitro.
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-05-31
    Alejandra Bermúdez-Oria, Guillermo Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Elisa Rodríguez-Juan, Alejandro González-Benjumea, Juan Fernández-Bolaños

    This study explored the interaction of pectin with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), a potent phenolic antioxidant naturally found in olive fruit, via encapsulation into pectinate beads. MALDI TOF-TOF analysis supported the formation of complexes between DHPG and pectin. A combination of covalent bonds (ester bonds) and non-covalent interactions, mostly hydrogen bonding, were suggested as the cause of DHPG-pectin complex formation. Free radical scavenging assays confirmed that DHPG maintained its antioxidant activity after complexation and after a digestion simulated in vitro with gastric and intestinal fluids. Therefore, DHPG-pectin beads could reach the large intestine and contribute to a healthy antioxidant environment.

    更新日期:2018-05-31
  • 更新日期:2018-05-31
  • Fabrication of novel bioactive hydroxyapatite-chitosan-silica hybrid scaffolds: combined the sol-gel method with 3D plotting technique
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Yifan Dong, Jinning Liang, Yihang Cui, Shan Xu, Naru Zhao

    Sol-gel derived organic/inorganic hybrids, in which organic and inorganic components form co-networks at the molecular level, have demonstrated great potential for providing improved mechanical properties and biological functions in tissue engineering applications. Here, a novel bioactive hydroxyapatite-chitosan-silica hybrid (HA-CSH) scaffold was successfully fabricated by combining the sol-gel method and 3D plotting technique. Physiochemical characterization confirmed that chitosan was hybridized homogeneously with the inorganic phase on nanoscale. The obtained scaffolds possessed precisely controllable and interconnected porous structures. The nano-sized HA formed in situ and dispersed uniformly in the hybrid network, which reduced the water absorption and increased the mechanical strength of the hybrid scaffold under humidity condition as compared to chitosan-silica hybrid (CSH) scaffold. Compression tests showed that the 3D plotted hybrid scaffolds under wet conditions had compressive strengths of 10–13 MPa and elastic moduli of 21–27 MPa and thus met the mechanical requirements of human trabecular bone. Studies on the mineralization process under simulated body fluid (SBF) conditions confirmed that the introduction of HA obviously increased the biological activity of hybrid scaffolds. In vitro cell results indicated that the HA-CSH scaffold not only supported adhesion and proliferation of mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells (mBMSCs), but also improved the osteoinductivity. The alkaline phosphatase activity and mineral deposition on the HA-CSH scaffold were higher than those on the CSH scaffold. These results suggested that the 3D plotted HA-CSH scaffold may be a promising bioactive material for bone tissues regeneration.

    更新日期:2018-05-31
  • 更新日期:2018-05-29
  • Preparation and properties of gum arabic cross-link binding nisin microparticles
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-05-29
    Feng Gong, Junqing Qian, Yan Chen, Shen Yao, Jun Tong, Hui Guo

    Nisin is a small cationic peptide composed of 34 amino acid residues, it exhibits a wide spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, but nisin has the disadvantages of poor stability and short duration of antibacterial activity. In order to improve the stability of nisin during food processing and storage period, the gum arabic (GA) is used to get GA-nisin microparticles. The analysis of zeta potential, SEM and FT-IR were used to characterize the combination of GA and nisin, test the antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, the bactericidal effect of GA-nisin microparticles decreased within 24 hours compare to free nisin, however, GA-nisin microparticles after 121 °C treatment for 10 minutes, the activity loss rate is less than free nisin and has better sustained antibacterial effect at 25 °C. The results shown GA-nisin microparticles have better high-temperature stability and sustained bactericidal ability than the free nisin.

    更新日期:2018-05-29
  • Folic Acid-Conjugated Chitosan Oligosaccharide-Magnetic Halloysite Nanotubes as a Delivery System for Camptothecin
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-05-28
    Pierre Dramou, Meriem Fizir, Abdoh Taleb, Asma Itatahine, Nasiru Sintali Dahiru, Yamina Ait Mehdi, Liu Wei, Jingyi Zhang, Hua He
    更新日期:2018-05-29
  • Nonabsorbable Polysaccharide-functionalized Polyethylenimine for Inhibiting Lipid Absorption
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-05-28
    Yenan Yue, Shreebodh Kumar Yadav, Caijuan Wang, Yu Zhao, Xinge Zhang, Zhongming Wu
    更新日期:2018-05-29
  • Isothermal titration calorimetry to study the influence of citrus pectin degree and pattern of methylesterification on Zn2+ interaction
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-05-28
    Miete Celus, Salvatore Lombardo, Clare Kyomugasho, Wim Thielemans, Marc E. Hendrickx

    This work explored the influence of the citrus pectin degree and pattern of methylesterification on its interaction with Zn2+ using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Pectin samples with a comparable degree of methylesterification (DM) but distinct distribution patterns of non-methylesterified carboxylic groups (absolute degree of blockiness, DBabs) were produced through enzymatic (blockwise pattern) or alkaline (random pattern) demethylesterification. The pectin-Zn2+ interaction was found to be endothermic, in which a positive entropy change compensated for the unfavorable endothermic enthalpy change, driving the interaction between pectin and Zn2+. Decreasing pectin DM or increasing DBabs promoted Zn2+ binding, with the estimated binding capacity (mol Zn2+/mol GalA) and binding constant (mM−1) being mainly determined by pectin DBabs, rather than DM. ITC was found to be a useful technique to study the pectin-cation interaction, however, low DM pectin samples are sensitive to gelling and therefore more difficult to study.

    更新日期:2018-05-29
  • Structural characteristics and bioactive properties of a novel polysaccharide from Flammulina velutipes
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-05-25
    Tiantian Zhang, Jufeng Ye, Changhu Xue, Yuming Wang, Wenzhen Liao, Limei Mao, Miaomiao Yuan, Sen Lian

    A new water-soluble polysaccharide (FVP1) was extracted from Flammulina velutipes by traditional method “water extraction and alcohol precipitation” and purified by column chromatography. Physicochemical characterization showed that FVP1 was a homogeneous polysaccharide with a relative molecular weight of 54.78 kDa. It is composed of mannose (7.74%), glucose (70.41%), and galactose (16.38%). FVP1 (1000 mg/ml) possessed significant immune activity by increasing the secretion of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (3183 ± 133.84 pg/mL), interleukin (IL)-6 (1133.21 ± 39.05 pg/mL), and IL-12 (579.96 ± 74.53 pg/mL) in macrophages. Furthermore, FVP1 showed significant hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBV) activity through reducing the expression of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA replication. These results suggest a novel role for FVP1 to be applied as an immunomodulators in dietary supplements to prevent HBV infection.

    更新日期:2018-05-27
  • Preparation of low molecular weight heparins from bovine and ovine heparins using nitrous acid degradation
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-05-25
    Shaoshuai Xie, Yudong Guan, Peipei Zhu, Fei Li, Mengqi Yu, Robert J. Linhardt, Lianli Chi, Lan Jin

    Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are important anticoagulant drugs. Nitrous acid degradation is a major approach to produce LMWHs, such as dalteparin. Due to the foreseeable shortage of porcine intestinal mucosa heparin and other potential risks, expansion of other animal tissues for heparin preparation is necessary. Heparins from different tissues differ in structure and bioactivity potency, and these variations may be carried over to the LMWH products. Sophisticated analytical techniques have been applied to compare various versions of dalteparins produced from porcine intestinal, bovine lung and ovine intestinal heparins to elucidate the effects of different animal tissues starting materials and processing conditions on the properties of final dalteparin products. With adjusted depolymerization conditions, versions of dalteparins that qualify under the European Pharmacopeia (EP) specifications were manufactured using non-porcine heparins. Dissimilarities among the three interspecies animal tissue heparin-derived dalteparins regarding fine structures are also disclosed, and their origins are discussed.

    更新日期:2018-05-27
  • Preparation and properties of chitosan/guar gum/nanocrystalline cellulose nanocomposite films
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-05-26
    Yanjun Tang, Xinqi Zhang, Ruonan Zhao, Daliang Guo, Junhua Zhang

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) has shown great potential for reinforcing nanocomposite systems, particularly in biopolymer-based nanocomposites. In the present work, transparent and biodegradable chitosan (CH)/guar gum (GG)/NCC nanocomposite films were designed and prepared. The effect of NCC loadings on the rheological behavior of the as-prepared nanocomposite suspensions was investigated, the overall properties of the resultant nanocomposite films as a function of various amounts of NCC were determined, and the surface morphology of various nanocomposite films was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that the increased NCC loadings increased the shear viscosity of the nanocomposite suspensions. Moreover, as expected, the obtained CH/GG/NCC nanocomposite films were found to exhibit improved tensile strength and reduced air permeability in comparison to pure CH/GG films. This work supported the conclusion that NCC was effective in reinforcing the CH/GG composite films, which may be a promising material for food packaging applications.

    更新日期:2018-05-27
  • A Green Approach of Improving Interface and Performance of Plant Fibre Composites using Microcrystalline Cellulose
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-05-26
    Subramani Pichandi, Sohel Rana, Shama Parveen, Raul Fangueiro
    更新日期:2018-05-27
  • Fenton-like Nanocatalyst for Photodegradation of Methylene Blue under Visible Light Activated by Hybrid Green DNSA@Chitosan@MnFe2O4
    Carbohydr. Polym. (IF 4.811) Pub Date : 2018-05-26
    Kamel Shoueir, Hamdy El-sheshtawy, Mohammed Misbah, Hamza El-hosainy, Ibrahim El-mehasseb, Maged El-kemary
    更新日期:2018-05-27
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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