The Evolution and Metamorphosis of Arthropod Proteomics and Genomics Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Judith H. Willis
This article presents an overview of the development of techniques for analyzing cuticular proteins (CPs), their transcripts, and their genes over the past 50 years based primarily on experience in the laboratory of J.H. Willis. It emphasizes changes in the kind of data that can be gathered and how such data provided insights into the molecular underpinnings of insect metamorphosis and cuticle structure. It describes the techniques that allowed visualization of the location of CPs at both the anatomical and intracuticular levels and measurement of the appearance and deployment of transcripts from CP genes as well as what was learned from genomic and transcriptomic data. Most of the early work was done with the cecropia silkmoth, Hyalophora cecropia, and later work was with Anopheles gambiae.
Gustatory Processing in Drosophila melanogaster Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Kristin Scott
The ability to identify nutrient-rich food and avoid toxic substances is essential for an animal's survival. Although olfaction and vision contribute to food detection, the gustatory system acts as a final checkpoint control for food acceptance or rejection. The vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster tastes many of the same stimuli as mammals and provides an excellent model system for comparative studies of taste detection. The relative simplicity of the fly brain and behaviors, along with the molecular genetic and functional approaches available in this system, allow the examination of gustatory neural circuits from sensory input to motor output. This review discusses the molecules and cells that detect taste compounds in the periphery and the circuits that process taste information in the brain. These studies are providing insight into how the detection of taste compounds regulates feeding decisions.
How Many Species of Insects and Other Terrestrial Arthropods Are There on Earth? Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Nigel E. Stork
In the last decade, new methods of estimating global species richness have been developed and existing ones improved through the use of more appropriate statistical tools and new data. Taking the mean of most of these new estimates indicates that globally there are approximately 1.5 million, 5.5 million, and 7 million species of beetles, insects, and terrestrial arthropods, respectively. Previous estimates of 30 million species or more based on the host specificity of insects to plants now seem extremely unlikely. With 1 million insect species named, this suggests that 80% remain to be discovered and that a greater focus should be placed on less-studied taxa such as many families of Coleoptera, Diptera, and Hymenoptera and on poorly sampled parts of the world. DNA tools have revealed many new species in taxonomically intractable groups, but unbiased studies of previously well-researched insect faunas indicate that 1–2% of species may be truly cryptic.
Pseudacteon Phorid Flies: Host Specificity and Impacts on Solenopsis Fire Ants Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Li Chen, Henry Y. Fadamiro
Human commerce has resulted in the spread of the imported fire ants, Solenopsis species, worldwide. Six species of parasitic Pseudacteon phorid flies that are highly host specific to the Solenopsis saevissima complex of Solenopsis fire ants have been successfully released in the southern United States. The presence of Pseudacteon phorid flies, in addition to having direct mortality effects on their host ants, modifies foraging behavior and disrupts interspecific competition between host species and other ant species in the community. Fire ant workers have evolved effective methods to cope with parasitism pressure, which may relieve population-level impacts of introduced phorid flies. This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying host location, host preference, and host-size selection of Pseudacteon phorid flies and highlights their direct and indirect effects on fire ant populations. Knowledge gained from parasitoid–ant interactions will enhance use of natural enemies as biological control agents for invasive social insects.
Sleep in Insects Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Sleep is essential for proper brain function in mammals and insects. During sleep, animals are disconnected from the external world; they show high arousal thresholds and changed brain activity. Sleep deprivation results in a sleep rebound. Research using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has helped us understand the genetic and neuronal control of sleep. Genes involved in sleep control code for ion channels, factors influencing neurotransmission and neuromodulation, and proteins involved in the circadian clock. The neurotransmitters/neuromodulators involved in sleep control are GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin, and several neuropeptides. Sleep is controlled by the interplay between sleep homeostasis and the circadian clock. Putative sleep-wake centers are located in higher-order brain centers that are indirectly connected to the circadian clock network. The primary function of sleep appears to be the downscaling of synapses that have been built up during wakefulness. Thus, brain homeostasis is maintained and learning and memory are assured.
The Discovery of Arthropod-Specific Viruses in Hematophagous Arthropods: An Open Door to Understanding the Mechanisms of Arbovirus and Arthropod Evolution? Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Charles H. Calisher, Stephen Higgs
The discovery of an odd virus from hematophagous arthropods 40 years ago by Stollar and Thomas described cell fusing agent virus in cells derived from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Then came the report of Kamiti River virus from Ae. macintoshi in 1999, followed by worldwide reports of the discovery of other viruses of mosquitoes, ticks, and midges that replicate only in arthropods and not in vertebrates or in vertebrate cells. These viruses (now totaling at least 64 published) have genomes analogous to viruses in various families that include arboviruses and nonarboviruses. It is likely that some of these viruses have been insufficiently studied and may yet be shown to infect vertebrates. However, there is no doubt that the vast majority are restricted to arthropods alone and that they represent a recently recognized clade. Their biology, modes of transmission, worldwide distribution (some have been detected in wild-caught mosquitoes in both Asia and the United States, for example), molecular characteristics of their genomes, and potential for becoming vertebrate pathogens, or at least serving as virus reservoirs, are fascinating and may provide evidence useful in understanding virus evolution. Because metagenomics studies of arthropods have shown that arthropod genomes are the sources of arthropod virus genomes, further studies may also provide insights into the evolution of arthropods. More recently, others have published excellent papers that briefly review discoveries of arthropod viruses and that characterize certain genomic peculiarities, but, to now, there have been no reviews that encompass all these facets. We therefore anticipate that this review is published at a time and in a manner that is helpful for both virologists and entomologists to make more sense and understanding of this recently recognized and obviously important virus group. This review focuses specifically on arthropod viruses in hematophagous arthropods.
Social Immunity: Emergence and Evolution of Colony-Level Disease Protection Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Sylvia Cremer, Christopher D. Pull, Matthias A. Fürst
Social insect colonies have evolved many collectively performed adaptations that reduce the impact of infectious disease and that are expected to maximize their fitness. This colony-level protection is termed social immunity, and it enhances the health and survival of the colony. In this review, we address how social immunity emerges from its mechanistic components to produce colony-level disease avoidance, resistance, and tolerance. To understand the evolutionary causes and consequences of social immunity, we highlight the need for studies that evaluate the effects of social immunity on colony fitness. We discuss the roles that host life history and ecology have on predicted eco-evolutionary dynamics, which differ among the social insect lineages. Throughout the review, we highlight current gaps in our knowledge and promising avenues for future research, which we hope will bring us closer to an integrated understanding of socio-eco-evo-immunology.
Neonicotinoids and Other Insect Nicotinic Receptor Competitive Modulators: Progress and Prospects Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 John E. Casida
Neonicotinoids (neonics) are remarkably effective as plant systemics to control sucking insects and for flea control on dogs and cats. The nitroimines imidacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran are the leaders among the seven commercial neonics that also include the nitromethylene nitenpyram, the nitromethylene-derived cycloxaprid, and the cyanoimines acetamiprid and thiacloprid. Honey bees are highly sensitive to the nitroimines and nitromethylenes, but the cyanoimines are less toxic. All neonics are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists with a common mode of action, target-site cross-resistance, and much higher potency on insect than mammalian nAChRs at defined binding sites. The structurally related sulfoximine sulfoxaflor and butenolide flupyradifurone are also nAChR agonists, and the mesoionic triflumezopyrim is a nAChR competitive modulator with little or no target-site cross-resistance. Some neonics induce stress tolerance in plants via salicylate-associated systems. The neonics in general are readily metabolized and, except for pollinators, have favorable toxicological profiles.
Mosquito Immunobiology: The Intersection of Vector Health and Vector Competence Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Lyric C. Bartholomay, Kristin Michel
As holometabolous insects that occupy distinct aquatic and terrestrial environments in larval and adult stages and utilize hematophagy for nutrient acquisition, mosquitoes are subjected to a wide variety of symbiotic interactions. Indeed, mosquitoes play host to endosymbiotic, entomopathogenic, and mosquito-borne organisms, including protozoa, viruses, bacteria, fungi, fungal-like organisms, and metazoans, all of which trigger and shape innate infection-response capacity. Depending on the infection or interaction, the mosquito may employ, for example, cellular and humoral immune effectors for septic infections in the hemocoel, humoral infection responses in the midgut lumen, and RNA interference and programmed cell death for intracellular pathogens. These responses often function in concert, regardless of the infection type, and provide a robust front to combat infection. Mosquito-borne pathogens and entomopathogens overcome these immune responses, employing avoidance or suppression strategies. Burgeoning methodologies are capitalizing on this concerted deployment of immune responses to control mosquito-borne disease.
Insect-Borne Plant Pathogens and Their Vectors: Ecology, Evolution, and Complex Interactions Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Sanford D. Eigenbrode, Nilsa A. Bosque-Pérez, Thomas S. Davis
The transmission of insect-borne plant pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, phytoplasmas, and fungi depends upon the abundance and behavior of their vectors. These pathogens should therefore be selected to influence their vectors to enhance their transmission, either indirectly, through the infected host plant, or directly, after acquisition of the pathogen by the vector. Accumulating evidence provides partial support for the occurrence of vector manipulation by plant pathogens, especially for plant viruses, for which a theoretical framework can explain patterns in the specific effects on vector behavior and performance depending on their modes of transmission. The variability in effects of pathogens on their vectors, however, suggests inconsistency in the occurrence of vector manipulation but also may reflect incomplete information about these systems. For example, manipulation can occur through combinations of specific effects, including direct and indirect effects on performance and behavior, and dynamics in those effects with disease progression or pathogen acquisition that together constitute syndromes that promote pathogen spread. Deciphering the prevalence and forms of vector manipulation by plant pathogens remains a compelling field of inquiry, but gaps and opportunities to advance it remain. A proposed research agenda includes examining vector manipulation syndromes comprehensively within pathosystems, expanding the taxonomic and genetic breadth of the systems studied, evaluating dynamic effects that occur during disease progression, incorporating the influence of biotic and abiotic environmental factors, evaluating the effectiveness of putative manipulation syndromes under field conditions, deciphering chemical and molecular mechanisms whereby pathogens can influence vectors, expanding the use of evolutionary and epidemiological models, and seeking opportunities to exploit these effects to improve management of insect-borne, economically important plant pathogens. We expect this field to remain vibrant and productive in its own right and as part of a wider inquiry concerning host and vector manipulation by plant and animal pathogens and parasites.
Entomological Opportunities and Challenges for Sustainable Viticulture in a Global Market Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Kent M. Daane, Charles Vincent, Rufus Isaacs, Claudio Ioriatti
Viticulture has experienced dramatic global growth in acreage and value. As the international exchange of goods has increased, so too has the market demand for sustainably produced products. Both elements redefine the entomological challenges posed to viticulture and have stimulated significant advances in arthropod pest control programs. Vineyard managers on all continents are increasingly combating invasive species, resulting in the adoption of novel insecticides, semiochemicals, and molecular tools to support sustainable viticulture. At the local level, vineyard management practices consider factors such as the surrounding natural ecosystem, risk to fish populations, and air quality. Coordinated multinational responses to pest invasion have been highly effective and have, for example, resulted in eradication of the moth Lobesia botrana from California vineyards, a pest found in 2009 and eradicated by 2016. At the global level, the shared pests and solutions for their suppression will play an increasing role in delivering internationally sensitive pest management programs that respond to invasive pests, climate change, novel vector and pathogen relationships, and pesticide restrictions.
The Management of Insect Pests in Australian Cotton: An Evolving Story Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Lewis J. Wilson, Mary E. A. Whitehouse, Grant A. Herron
The Australian cotton industry progressively embraced integrated pest management (IPM) to alleviate escalating insecticide resistance issues. A systems IPM approach was used with core principles that were built around pest ecology/biology and insecticide resistance management; together, these were integrated into a flexible, year-round approach that facilitated easy incorporation of new science, strategies, and pests. The approach emphasized both strategic and tactical elements to reduce pest abundance and rationalize decisions about pest control, with insecticides as a last resort. Industry involvement in developing the approach was vital to embedding IPM within the farming system. Adoption of IPM was facilitated by the introduction of Bt cotton, availability of selective insecticides, economic validation, and an industry-wide extension campaign. Surveys indicate IPM is now embedded in industry, confirming the effectiveness of an industry-led, backed-by-science approach. The amount of insecticide active ingredient applied per hectare against pests has also declined dramatically. Though challenges remain, pest management has transitioned from reactively attempting to eradicate pests from fields to proactively managing them year-round, considering the farm within the wider landscape.
Ecology, Worldwide Spread, and Management of the Invasive South American Tomato Pinworm, Tuta absoluta: Past, Present, and Future Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Antonio Biondi, Raul Narciso C. Guedes, Fang-Hao Wan, Nicolas Desneux
The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), is native to the western Neotropics. After invading Spain in 2006, it spread rapidly throughout Afro-Eurasia and has become a major threat to world tomato production. Integrated pest management (IPM) strategies have been developed, but widespread insecticide use has caused selection for insecticide resistance as well as undesirable effects on key beneficial arthropods. Augmentation and conservation biological control relying on omnivorous mirid predators has proved successful for management of T. absoluta, where implementation is dependent on abiotic, biotic (e.g., alternative prey), and anthropogenic factors (e.g., pesticides). Research has been carried out on larval parasitoids, showing potential for further development of sustainable control. The development of resistant tomato varieties is ongoing, but they are not commercially available yet. Knowledge gaps remain to be filled to optimize IPM packages on tomato crops and to help prevent further spread worldwide.
The Psychology of Superorganisms: Collective Decision Making by Insect Societies Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Takao Sasaki, Stephen C. Pratt
Under the superorganism concept, insect societies are so tightly integrated that they possess features analogous to those of single organisms, including collective cognition. If so, colony function might fruitfully be studied using methods developed to understand individual animals. Here, we review research that uses psychological approaches to understand decision making by colonies. The application of neural models to collective choice shows fundamental similarities between how brains and colonies balance speed/accuracy trade-offs in decision making. Experimental analyses have explored collective rationality, cognitive capacity, and perceptual discrimination at both individual and colony levels. A major theme is the emergence of improved colony-level function from interactions among relatively less capable individuals. However, colonies also encounter performance costs due to their reliance on positive feedback, which generates consensus but can also amplify errors. Collective learning is a nascent field for the further application of psychological methods to colonies. The research strategy reviewed here shows how the superorganism concept can serve as more than an illustrative analogy.
Anthropogenic Impacts on Mortality and Population Viability of the Monarch Butterfly Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Stephen B. Malcolm
Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are familiar herbivores of milkweeds of the genus Asclepias, and most monarchs migrate each year to locate these host plants across North American ecosystems now dominated by agriculture. Eastern migrants overwinter in high-elevation forests in Mexico, and western monarchs overwinter in trees on the coast of California. Both populations face three primary threats to their viability: (a) loss of milkweed resources for larvae due to genetically modified crops, pesticides, and fertilizers; (b) loss of nectar resources from flowering plants; and (c) degraded overwintering forest habitats due to commercially motivated deforestation and other economic activities. Secondary threats to population viability include (d) climate change effects on milkweed host plants and the dynamics of breeding, overwintering, and migration; (e) the influence of invasive plants and natural enemies; (f) habitat fragmentation and coalescence that promote homogeneous, species-depleted landscapes; and (g) deliberate culture and release of monarchs and invasive milkweeds.
Functional Hypoxia in Insects: Definition, Assessment, and Consequences for Physiology, Ecology, and Evolution Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Jon F. Harrison, Kendra J. Greenlee, Wilco C.E.P. Verberk
Insects can experience functional hypoxia, a situation in which O2 supply is inadequate to meet oxygen demand. Assessing when functional hypoxia occurs is complex, because responses are graded, age and tissue dependent, and compensatory. Here, we compare information gained from metabolomics and transcriptional approaches and by manipulation of the partial pressure of oxygen. Functional hypoxia produces graded damage, including damaged macromolecules and inflammation. Insects respond by compensatory physiological and morphological changes in the tracheal system, metabolic reorganization, and suppression of activity, feeding, and growth. There is evidence for functional hypoxia in eggs, near the end of juvenile instars, and during molting. Functional hypoxia is more likely in species with lower O2 availability or transport capacities and when O2 need is great. Functional hypoxia occurs normally during insect development and is a factor in mediating life-history trade-offs.
Nutritional Physiology and Ecology of Honey Bees Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Geraldine A. Wright, Susan W. Nicolson, Sharoni Shafir
Honey bees feed on floral nectar and pollen that they store in their colonies as honey and bee bread. Social division of labor enables the collection of stores of food that are consumed by within-hive bees that convert stored pollen and honey into royal jelly. Royal jelly and other glandular secretions are the primary food of growing larvae and of the queen but are also fed to other colony members. Research clearly shows that bees regulate their intake, like other animals, around specific proportions of macronutrients. This form of regulation is done as individuals and at the colony level by foragers.
Environmental Adaptations, Ecological Filtering, and Dispersal Central to Insect Invasions Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 David Renault, Mathieu Laparie, Shannon J. McCauley, Dries Bonte
Insect invasions, the establishment and spread of nonnative insects in new regions, can have extensive economic and environmental consequences. Increased global connectivity accelerates rates of introductions, while climate change may decrease the barriers to invader species’ spread. We follow an individual-level insect- and arachnid-centered perspective to assess how the process of invasion is influenced by phenotypic heterogeneity associated with dispersal and stress resistance, and their coupling, across the multiple steps of the invasion process. We also provide an overview and synthesis on the importance of environmental filters during the entire invasion process for the facilitation or inhibition of invasive insect population spread. Finally, we highlight important research gaps and the relevance and applicability of ongoing natural range expansions in the context of climate change to gain essential mechanistic insights into insect invasions.
Alien Invasion: Biology of Philornis Flies Highlighting Philornis downsi, an Introduced Parasite of Galápagos Birds Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Sabrina M. McNew, Dale H. Clayton
The muscid genus Philornis comprises approximately 50 described species of flies, nearly all of which are obligate parasites of nestling birds. Philornis species are native to the Neotropics and widely distributed from Florida to Argentina. Most research on this group has focused on P. downsi, which was introduced to the Galápagos Islands in the late twentieth century. Although Philornis parasitism kills nestlings in several native host species, nowhere do the effects seem more severe than in P. downsi in the Galápagos. Here, we review studies of native and introduced Philornis in an attempt to identify factors that may influence virulence and consider implications for the conservation of hosts in the Galápagos.
Systematics, Biology, and Evolution of Microgastrine Parasitoid Wasps Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 James B. Whitfield, Andrew D. Austin, Jose L. Fernandez-Triana
The braconid parasitoid wasp subfamily Microgastrinae is perhaps the most species-rich subfamily of animals on Earth. Despite their small size, they are familiar to agriculturalists and field ecologists alike as one of the principal groups of natural enemies of caterpillars feeding on plants. Their abundance and nearly ubiquitous terrestrial distribution, their intricate interactions with host insects, and their historical association with mutualistic polydnaviruses have all contributed to Microgastrinae becoming a key group of organisms for studying parasitism, parasitoid genomics, and mating biology. However, these rich sources of data have not yet led to a robust genus-level classification of the group, and some taxonomic confusion persists as a result. We present the current status of understanding of the general biology, taxonomic history, diversity, geographical patterns, host relationships, and phylogeny of Microgastrinae as a stimulus and foundation for further study. Current progress in elucidating the biology and taxonomy of this important group is rapid and promises a revolution in the classification of these wasps in the near future.
Management of Western North American Bark Beetles with Semiochemicals Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Steven J. Seybold, Barbara J. Bentz, Christopher J. Fettig, John E. Lundquist, Robert A. Progar, Nancy E. Gillette
We summarize the status of semiochemical-based management of the major bark beetle species in western North America. The conifer forests of this region have a long history of profound impacts by phloem-feeding bark beetles, and species such as the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and the spruce beetle (D. rufipennis) have recently undergone epic outbreaks linked to changing climate. At the same time, great strides are being made in the application of semiochemicals to the integrated pest management of bark beetles. In this review, we synthesize and interpret these recent advances in applied chemical ecology of bark beetles for scientists and land managers.
Tritrophic Interactions Mediated by Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatiles: Mechanisms, Ecological Relevance, and Application Potential Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Ted C.J. Turlings, Matthias Erb
Tritrophic interactions between plants, herbivores, and their natural enemies are an integral part of all terrestrial ecosystems. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) play a key role in these interactions, as they can attract predators and parasitoids to herbivore-attacked plants. Thirty years after this discovery, the ecological importance of the phenomena is widely recognized. However, the primary function of HIPVs is still subject to much debate, as is the possibility of using these plant-produced cues in crop protection. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of HIPVs in tritrophic interactions from an ecological as well as a mechanistic perspective. This overview focuses on the main gaps in our knowledge of tritrophic interactions, and we argue that filling these gaps will greatly facilitate efforts to exploit HIPVs for pest control.
Advances in Attract-and-Kill for Agricultural Pests: Beyond Pheromones Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Peter C. Gregg, Alice P. Del Socorro, Peter J. Landolt
Attract-and-kill has considerable potential as a tactic in integrated management of pests of agricultural crops, but the use of sex pheromones as attractants is limited by male multiple mating and immigration of mated females into treated areas. Attractants for both sexes, and particularly females, would minimize these difficulties. Volatile compounds derived from plants or fermentation of plant products can attract females and have been used in traps for monitoring and control, and in sprayable attract-and-kill formulations or bait stations. Recent advances in fundamental understanding of insect responses to plant volatiles should contribute to the development of products that can help manage a wide range of pests with few impacts on nontarget organisms, but theory must be tempered with pragmatism in the selection of volatiles and toxicants and in defining their roles in formulations. Market requirements and regulatory factors must be considered in parallel with scientific constraints if successful products are to be developed.
Neuroparasitology of Parasite–Insect Associations Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 David P. Hughes, Frederic Libersat
Insect behavior can be manipulated by parasites, and in many cases, such manipulation involves the central and peripheral nervous system. Neuroparasitology is an emerging branch of biology that deals with parasites that can control the nervous system of their host. The diversity of parasites that can manipulate insect behavior ranges from viruses to macroscopic worms and also includes other insects that have evolved to become parasites (notably, parasitic wasps). It is remarkable that the precise manipulation observed does not require direct entry into the insect brain and can even occur when the parasite is outside the body. We suggest that a spatial view of manipulation provides a holistic approach to examining such interactions. Integration across approaches from natural history to advanced imaging techniques, omics, and experiments will provide new vistas in neuroparasitology. We also suggest that for researchers interested in the proximate mechanisms of insect behaviors, studies of parasites that have evolved to control such behavior is of significant value.
Regulatory Pathways Controlling Female Insect Reproduction Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Sourav Roy, Tusar T. Saha, Zhen Zou, Alexander S. Raikhel
The synthesis of vitellogenin and its uptake by maturing oocytes during egg maturation are essential for successful female reproduction. These events are regulated by the juvenile hormones and ecdysteroids and by the nutritional signaling pathway regulated by neuropeptides. Juvenile hormones act as gonadotropins, regulating vitellogenesis in most insects, but ecdysteroids control this process in Diptera and some Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. The complex crosstalk between the juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids, and nutritional signaling pathways differs distinctly depending on the reproductive strategies adopted by various insects. Molecular studies within the past decade have revealed much about the relationships among, and the role of, these pathways with respect to regulation of insect reproduction. Here, we review the role of juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids, and nutritional signaling, along with that of microRNAs, in regulating female insect reproduction at the molecular level.
Entomological Collections in the Age of Big Data Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Andrew Edward Z. Short, Torsten Dikow, Corrie S. Moreau
With a million described species and more than half a billion preserved specimens, the large scale of insect collections is unequaled by those of any other group. Advances in genomics, collection digitization, and imaging have begun to more fully harness the power that such large data stores can provide. These new approaches and technologies have transformed how entomological collections are managed and utilized. While genomic research has fundamentally changed the way many specimens are collected and curated, advances in technology have shown promise for extracting sequence data from the vast holdings already in museums. Efforts to mainstream specimen digitization have taken root and have accelerated traditional taxonomic studies as well as distribution modeling and global change research. Emerging imaging technologies such as microcomputed tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy are changing how morphology can be investigated. This review provides an overview of how the realization of big data has transformed our field and what may lie in store.
Phylogeny and Evolution of Neuropterida: Where Have Wings of Lace Taken Us? Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Michael S. Engel, Shaun L. Winterton, Laura C.V. Breitkreuz
The last 25 years of phylogenetic investigation into the three orders constituting the superorder Neuropterida—Raphidioptera, Megaloptera, and Neuroptera—have brought about a dramatic revision in our understanding of the evolution of lacewings, snakeflies, dobsonflies, and their diverse relatives. Phylogenetic estimations based on combined analyses of diverse data sources, ranging from adult and larval morphology to full mitochondrial genomic DNA, have begun to converge on similar patterns, many times in accordance with hypotheses put forth by Cyril Withycombe nearly a century ago. These data, in combination with information from the fossil record, have given a revised perspective on the historical evolution and classification of Neuropterida, necessitating an overhaul of their organization and providing focus and insight on fruitful future efforts for neuropterology.
Health Hazards Associated with Arthropod Infestation of Stored Products Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Jan Hubert, Vaclav Stejskal, Christos G. Athanassiou, James E. Throne
Insects and mites are common inhabitants and accidental invaders of food, including durable commodities, and their presence can have both direct and indirect effects on human health. The most common direct effect is contamination of food with arthropod fragments and related contaminants, which may be allergenic or even carcinogenic. The most important indirect effect is that their presence can change the storage microenvironment, making durable products suitable for the rapid development of fungi and other microorganisms. Some of these fungi can produce toxins (e.g., aflatoxins) that endanger human health. Insects may actively or passively contribute to the spread of microorganisms, increasing product contamination, and they may host bacteria that have developed antibiotic resistance, contributing to their spread in food. Several species also may host, attract, or transmit tapeworms, predators, or parasitoids that may affect health. This review synthesizes research on these topics and suggests directions for future research.
Correlates and Consequences of Worker Polymorphism in Ants Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Bill D. Wills, Scott Powell, Michael D. Rivera, Andrew V. Suarez
Body size is a key life-history trait influencing all aspects of an organism's biology. Ants provide an interesting model for examining body-size variation because of the high degree of worker polymorphism seen in many taxa. We review worker-size variation in ants from the perspective of factors internal and external to the colony that may influence body-size distributions. We also discuss proximate and ultimate causes of size variation and how variation in worker size can promote worker efficiency and colony fitness. Our review focuses on two questions: What is our current understanding of factors influencing worker-size variation? And how does variation in body size benefit the colony? We conclude with recommendations for future work aimed at addressing current limitations and ask, How can we better understand the contribution of worker body-size variation to colony success? And, what research is needed to address gaps in our knowledge?
Impact of the Invasive Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in North America and Europe: History, Biology, Ecology, and Management Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Tracy C. Leskey, Anne L. Nielsen
The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive pentatomid introduced from Asia into the United States, Canada, multiple European countries, and Chile. In 2010, BMSB populations in the mid-Atlantic United States reached outbreak levels and subsequent feeding severely damaged tree fruit as well as other crops. Significant nuisance issues from adults overwintering inside homes were common. BMSB is a highly polyphagous species with a strong dispersal capacity and high reproductive output, potentially enabling its spread and success in invaded regions. A greater understanding of BMSB biology and ecology and its natural enemies, the identification of the male-produced aggregation pheromone, and the recognition that BMSB disperses into crops from adjacent wooded habitats have led to the development of behavior-based integrated pest management (IPM) tactics. Much is still unknown about BMSB, and continued long-term collaborative studies are necessary to refine crop-specific IPM programs and enhance biological control across invaded landscapes.
Physicochemical Property Variation in Spider Silk: Ecology, Evolution, and Synthetic Production Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 Sean J. Blamires, Todd A. Blackledge, I-Min Tso
The unique combination of great stiffness, strength, and extensibility makes spider major ampullate (MA) silk desirable for various biomimetic and synthetic applications. Intensive research on the genetics, biochemistry, and biomechanics of this material has facilitated a thorough understanding of its properties at various levels. Nevertheless, methods such as cloning, recombination, and electrospinning have not successfully produced materials with properties as impressive as those of spider silk. It is nevertheless becoming clear that silk properties are a consequence of whole-organism interactions with the environment in addition to genetic expression, gland biochemistry, and spinning processes. Here we assimilate the research done and assess the techniques used to determine distinct forms of spider silk chemical and physical property variability. We suggest that more research should focus on testing hypotheses that explain spider silk property variations in ecological and evolutionary contexts.
Molecular Evolution of Insect Sociality: An Eco-Evo-Devo Perspective Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 Amy L. Toth, Sandra M. Rehan
The evolution of eusociality is a perennial issue in evolutionary biology, and genomic advances have fueled steadily growing interest in the genetic changes underlying social evolution. Along with a recent flurry of research on comparative and evolutionary genomics in different eusocial insect groups (bees, ants, wasps, and termites), several mechanistic explanations have emerged to describe the molecular evolution of eusociality from solitary behavior. These include solitary physiological ground plans, genetic toolkits of deeply conserved genes, evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes, cis regulation, and the structure of gene networks, epigenetics, and novel genes. Despite this proliferation of ideas, there has been little synthesis, even though these ideas are not mutually exclusive and may in fact be complementary. We review available data on molecular evolution of insect sociality and highlight key biotic and abiotic factors influencing social insect genomes. We then suggest both phylogenetic and ecological evolutionary developmental biology (eco-evo-devo) perspectives for a more synthetic view of molecular evolution in insect societies.
Ecoinformatics (Big Data) for Agricultural Entomology: Pitfalls, Progress, and Promise Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 Jay A. Rosenheim, Claudio Gratton
Ecoinformatics, as defined in this review, is the use of preexisting data sets to address questions in ecology. We provide the first review of ecoinformatics methods in agricultural entomology. Ecoinformatics methods have been used to address the full range of questions studied by agricultural entomologists, enabled by the special opportunities associated with data sets, nearly all of which have been observational, that are larger and more diverse and that embrace larger spatial and temporal scales than most experimental studies do. We argue that ecoinformatics research methods and traditional, experimental research methods have strengths and weaknesses that are largely complementary. We address the important interpretational challenges associated with observational data sets, highlight common pitfalls, and propose some best practices for researchers using these methods. Ecoinformatics methods hold great promise as a vehicle for capitalizing on the explosion of data emanating from farmers, researchers, and the public, as novel sampling and sensing techniques are developed and digital data sharing becomes more widespread.
Evolution of Stored-Product Entomology: Protecting the World Food Supply Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 David W. Hagstrum, Thomas W. Phillips
Traditional methods of stored-product pest control were initially passed from generation to generation. Ancient literature and archaeology reveal hermetic sealing, burning sulfur, desiccant dusts, and toxic botanicals as early control methods. Whereas traditional nonchemical methods were subsequently replaced by synthetic chemicals, other traditional methods were improved and integrated with key modern pesticides. Modern stored-product integrated pest management (IPM) makes decisions using knowledge of population dynamics and threshold insect densities. IPM programs are now being fine-tuned to meet regulatory and market standards. Better sampling methods and insights from life histories and ecological studies have been used to optimize the timing of pest management. Over the past 100 years, research on stored-product insects has shifted from being largely concentrated within 10 countries to being distributed across 65 countries. Although the components of IPM programs have been well researched, more research is needed on how these components can be combined to improve effectiveness and assure the security of postharvest food as the human population increases.
Spatial Self-Organization of Ecosystems: Integrating Multiple Mechanisms of Regular-Pattern Formation Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 Robert M. Pringle, Corina E. Tarnita
Large-scale regular vegetation patterns are common in nature, but their causes are disputed. Whereas recent theory focuses on scale-dependent feedbacks as a potentially universal mechanism, earlier studies suggest that many regular spatial patterns result from territorial interference competition between colonies of social-insect ecosystem engineers, leading to hexagonally overdispersed nest sites and associated vegetation. Evidence for this latter mechanism is scattered throughout decades of disparate literature and lacks a unified conceptual framework, fueling skepticism about its generality in debates over the origins of patterned landscapes. We review these mechanisms and debates, finding evidence that spotted and gapped vegetation patterns generated by ants, termites, and other subterranean animals are globally widespread, locally important for ecosystem functioning, and consistent with models of intraspecific territoriality. Because these and other mechanisms of regular-pattern formation are not mutually exclusive and can coexist and interact at different scales, the prevailing theoretical outlook on spatial self-organization in ecology must expand to incorporate the dynamic interplay of multiple processes.
African Horse Sickness Virus: History, Transmission, and Current Status Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 Simon Carpenter, Philip S. Mellor, Assane G. Fall, Claire Garros, Gert J. Venter
African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is a lethal arbovirus of equids that is transmitted between hosts primarily by biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). AHSV affects draft, thoroughbred, and companion horses and donkeys in Africa, Asia, and Europe. In this review, we examine the impact of AHSV critically and discuss entomological studies that have been conducted to improve understanding of its epidemiology and control. The transmission of AHSV remains a major research focus and we critically review studies that have implicated both Culicoides and other blood-feeding arthropods in this process. We explore AHSV both as an epidemic pathogen and within its endemic range as a barrier to development, an area of interest that has been underrepresented in studies of the virus to date. By discussing AHSV transmission in the African republics of South Africa and Senegal, we provide a more balanced view of the virus as a threat to equids in a diverse range of settings, thus leading to a discussion of key areas in which our knowledge of transmission could be improved. The use of entomological data to detect, predict and control AHSV is also examined, including reference to existing studies carried out during unprecedented outbreaks of bluetongue virus in Europe, an arbovirus of wild and domestic ruminants also transmitted by Culicoides.
Processionary Moths and Associated Urtication Risk: Global Change–Driven Effects Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 Andrea Battisti, Stig Larsson, Alain Roques
Processionary moths carry urticating setae, which cause health problems in humans and other warm-blooded animals. The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa has responded to global change (climate warming and increased global trade) by extending its distribution range. The subfamily Thaumetopoeinae consists of approximately 100 species. An important question is whether other processionary moth species will similarly respond to these specific dimensions of global change and thus introduce health hazards into new areas. We describe, for the first time, how setae are distributed on different life stages (adult, larva) of major groups within the subfamily. Using the available data, we conclude that there is little evidence that processionary moths as a group will behave like T. pityocampa and expand their distributional range. The health problems caused by setae strongly relate to population density, which may, or may not, be connected to global change.
Social Life in Arid Environments: The Case Study of Cataglyphis Ants Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 Raphaël Boulay, Serge Aron, Xim Cerdá, Claudie Doums, Paul Graham, Abraham Hefetz, Thibaud Monnin
Unlike most desert-dwelling animals, Cataglyphis ants do not attempt to escape the heat; rather, they apply their impressive heat tolerance to avoid competitors and predators. This thermally defined niche has promoted a range of adaptations both at the individual and colony levels. We have also recently discovered that within the genus Cataglyphis there are incredibly diverse social systems, modes of reproduction, and dispersal, prompting the tantalizing question of whether social diversity may also be a consequence of the harsh environment within which we find these charismatic ants. Here we review recent advances regarding the physiological, behavioral, life-history, colony, and ecological characteristics of Cataglyphis and consider perspectives on future research that will build our understanding of organic adaptive responses to desertification.
The Ambrosia Symbiosis: From Evolutionary Ecology to Practical Management Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 Jiri Hulcr, Lukasz L. Stelinski
The ambrosia beetle–fungus farming symbiosis is more heterogeneous than previously thought. There is not one but many ambrosia symbioses. Beetle-fungus specificity is clade dependent and ranges from strict to promiscuous. Each new origin has evolved a new mycangium. The most common relationship with host trees is colonization of freshly dead tissues, but there are also parasites of living trees, vectors of pathogenic fungi, and beetles living in rotten trees with a wood-decay symbiont. Most of these strategies are driven by fungal metabolism whereas beetle ecology is evolutionarily more flexible. The ambrosia lifestyle facilitated a radiation of social strategies, from fungus thieves to eusocial species to communities assembled by attraction to fungal scent. Although over 95% of the symbiotic pairs are economically harmless, there are also three types of pest damage: tree pathogen inoculation, mass accumulation on susceptible hosts, and structural damage. Beetles able to colonize live tree tissues are most likely to become invasive pests.
Phylogeny and Evolution of Lepidoptera Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 Charles Mitter, Donald R. Davis, Michael P. Cummings
Until recently, deep-level phylogeny in Lepidoptera, the largest single radiation of plant-feeding insects, was very poorly understood. Over the past two decades, building on a preceding era of morphological cladistic studies, molecular data have yielded robust initial estimates of relationships both within and among the ∼43 superfamilies, with unsolved problems now yielding to much larger data sets from high-throughput sequencing. Here we summarize progress on lepidopteran phylogeny since 1975, emphasizing the superfamily level, and discuss some resulting advances in our understanding of lepidopteran evolution.
Beekeeping from Antiquity Through the Middle Ages Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 Gene Kritsky
Beekeeping had its origins in honey hunting—the opportunistic stealing of honey from wild honey bee nests. True beekeeping began when humans started providing artificial cavities within which the bees could build comb for the queen to lay her eggs and the workers could process honey. By 2450 BCE, the Egyptians had developed sophisticated apiculture, and, within two millennia, beekeeping with horizontal hives had spread throughout the Mediterranean. During Europe's Middle Ages, honey and wax became important commodities for trade, and beekeeping in skep, log, box, and tree hives flourished to meet the demand. Other species of honey bees contributed to the development and spread of beekeeping in Asia beginning around 300 BCE. Meanwhile, beekeeping evolved independently in Mesoamerica with the stingless bee Melipona beecheii, as documented by archaeological finds and written accounts that survived Spanish conquest.
Past, Present, and Future of Integrated Control of Apple Pests: The New Zealand Experience Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 James T.S. Walker, David Maxwell Suckling, C. Howard Wearing
This review describes the New Zealand apple industry's progression from 1960s integrated pest control research to today's comprehensive integrated pest management system. With the exception of integrated mite control implemented during the 1980s, pest control on apple crops was dominated by intensive organophosphate insecticide regimes to control tortricid leafrollers. Multiple pest resistances to these insecticides by the 1990s, and increasing consumer demand for lower pesticide residues on fruit, led to the implementation of integrated fruit production. This substantially eliminated organophosphate insecticide use by 2001, replacing it with pest monitoring systems, threshold-based selective insecticides, and biological control. More recently, new demands for ultralow-residue fruit have increased the adoption of mating disruption and use of biological insecticides. Widespread adoption of selective pest management has substantially reduced the status of previously important pests, including leafrollers, mealybugs, leafhoppers, and mites for improved phytosanitary performance, and contributed to major reductions in total insecticide use.
Impacts of Insect Herbivores on Plant Populations Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 Judith H. Myers, Rana M. Sarfraz
Apparent feeding damage by insects on plants is often slight. Thus, the influences of insect herbivores on plant populations are likely minor. The role of insects on host-plant populations can be elucidated via several methods: stage-structured life tables of plant populations manipulated by herbivore exclusion and seed-addition experiments, tests of the enemy release hypothesis, studies of the effects of accidentally and intentionally introduced insect herbivores, and observations of the impacts of insect species that show outbreak population dynamics. These approaches demonstrate that some, but not all, insect herbivores influence plant population densities. At times, insect-feeding damage kills plants, but more often, it reduces plant size, growth, and seed production. Plant populations for which seed germination is site limited will not respond at the population level to reduced seed production. Insect herbivores can influence rare plant species and need to be considered in conservation programs. Alterations due to climate change in the distributions of insect herbivores indicate the possibility of new influences on host plants. Long-term studies are required to show if density-related insect behavior stabilizes plant populations or if environmental variation drives most temporal fluctuations in plant densities. Finally, insects can influence plant populations and communities through changing the diversity of nonhost species, modifying nutrient fluxes, and rejuvenating over mature forests.
Diversity of Cuticular Micro- and Nanostructures on Insects: Properties, Functions, and Potential Applications Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 Gregory S. Watson, Jolanta A. Watson, Bronwen W. Cribb
Insects exhibit a fascinating and diverse range of micro- and nanoarchitectures on their cuticle. Beyond the spectacular beauty of such minute structures lie surfaces evolutionarily modified to act as multifunctional interfaces that must contend with a hostile, challenging environment, driving adaption so that these can then become favorable. Numerous cuticular structures have been discovered this century; and of equal importance are the properties, functions, and potential applications that have been a key focus in many recent studies. The vast range of insect structuring, from the most simplistic topographies to the most elegant and geometrically complex forms, affords us with an exhaustive library of natural templates and free technologies to borrow, replicate, and employ for a range of applications. Of particular importance are structures that imbue cuticle with antiwetting properties, self-cleaning abilities, antireflection, enhanced color, adhesion, and antimicrobial and specific cell-attachment properties.
Tephritid Integrative Taxonomy: Where We Are Now, with a Focus on the Resolution of Three Tropical Fruit Fly Species Complexes Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 Mark K. Schutze, Massimiliano Virgilio, Allen Norrbom, Anthony R. Clarke
Accurate species delimitation underpins good taxonomy. Formalization of integrative taxonomy in the past decade has provided a framework for using multidisciplinary data to make species delimitation hypotheses more rigorous. We address the current state of integrative taxonomy by using as a case study an international project targeted at resolving three important tephritid species complexes: Bactrocera dorsalis complex, Anastrepha fraterculus complex, and Ceratitis FAR (C. fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa) complex. The integrative taxonomic approach has helped deliver significant advances in resolving these complexes: It has been used to identify some taxa as belonging to the same biological species as well as to confirm hidden cryptic diversity under a single taxonomic name. Nevertheless, the general application of integrative taxonomy has not been without issue, revealing challenges that must be considered when undertaking an integrative taxonomy project. Scrutiny of this international case study provides a unique opportunity to document lessons learned for the benefit of not only tephritid taxonomists, but also the wider taxonomic community.
Emerging Themes in Our Understanding of Species Displacements Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 Yulin Gao, Stuart R. Reitz
The displacement of a species from a habitat by actions of another is the most severe outcome of interspecific interactions. This review focuses on recent developments in the understanding of (a) ecological mechanisms that lead to displacements, (b) how outcomes of interspecific interactions are affected by the context of where and when they occur, and (c) impacts of displacements. Displacements are likely to escalate as their primary initiating factors—the spread of non-native species and environmental change—continue at unprecedented rates. Displacements typically result from interactions of multiple mechanisms, not all of which involve direct competition. Various biotic and abiotic factors mediate these mechanisms, so variable outcomes occur when the same species interact in different environments. Though replacement of one species by another has particular relevance to pest management and conservation biology, the cascading effects that displacements have in managed and natural systems are critical to understand.
The Impact of Trap Type and Design Features on Survey and Detection of Bark and Woodboring Beetles and Their Associates: A Review and Meta-Analysis* Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 Jeremy D. Allison, Richard A. Redak
A large literature on the survey and detection of forest Coleoptera and their associates exists. Identification of patterns in the effect of trap types and design features among guilds and families of forest insects would facilitate the optimization and development of intercept traps for use in management programs. We reviewed the literature on trapping bark and woodboring beetles and their associates and conducted meta-analyses to examine patterns in effects across guilds and families; we observed the following general patterns: (a) Panel traps were superior to multiple-funnel traps, (b) bark beetles and woodborers were captured in higher numbers in traps treated with a surface treatment to make them slippery than untreated traps, (c) panel and multiple-funnel traps equipped with wet cups outperformed traps with dry cups, (d) black traps were superior to white and clear traps, and (e) purple traps were as good as or superior to green traps for Agrilus spp.
MicroRNAs and the Evolution of Insect Metamorphosis Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 Xavier Belles
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of a number of processes associated with metamorphosis, either in the less modified hemimetabolan mode or in the more modified holometabolan mode. The miR-100/let-7/miR-125 cluster has been studied extensively, especially in relation to wing morphogenesis in both hemimetabolan and holometabolan species. Other miRNAs also participate in wing morphogenesis, as well as in programmed cell and tissue death, neuromaturation, neuromuscular junction formation, and neuron cell fate determination, typically during the pupal stage of holometabolan species. A special case is the control of miR-2 over Kr-h1 transcripts, which determines adult morphogenesis in the hemimetabolan metamorphosis. This is an elegant example of how a single miRNA can control an entire process by acting on a crucial mediator; however, this is a quite exceptional mechanism that was apparently lost during the transition from hemimetaboly to holometaboly.
Habitat Management to Suppress Pest Populations: Progress and Prospects Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 Geoff M. Gurr, Steve D. Wratten, Douglas A. Landis, Minsheng You
Habitat management involving manipulation of farmland vegetation can exert direct suppressive effects on pests and promote natural enemies. Advances in theory and practical techniques have allowed habitat management to become an important subdiscipline of pest management. Improved understanding of biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships means that researchers now have a firmer theoretical foundation on which to design habitat management strategies for pest suppression in agricultural systems, including landscape-scale effects. Supporting natural enemies with shelter, nectar, alternative prey/hosts, and pollen (SNAP) has emerged as a major research topic and applied tactic with field tests and adoption often preceded by rigorous laboratory experimentation. As a result, the promise of habitat management is increasingly being realized in the form of practical worldwide implementation. Uptake is facilitated by farmer participation in research and is made more likely by the simultaneous delivery of ecosystem services other than pest suppression.
Insect Pathogenic Fungi: Genomics, Molecular Interactions, and Genetic Improvements Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 Chengshu Wang, Sibao Wang
Entomopathogenic fungi play a pivotal role in the regulation of insect populations in nature, and representative species have been developed as promising environmentally friendly mycoinsecticides. Recent advances in the genome biology of insect pathogenic fungi have revealed genomic features associated with fungal adaptation to insect hosts and different host ranges, as well as the evolutionary relationships between insect and noninsect pathogens. By using species in the Beauveria and Metarhizium genera as models, molecular biology studies have revealed the genes that function in fungus-insect interactions and thereby contribute to fungal virulence. Taken together with efforts toward genetic improvement of fungal virulence and stress resistance, knowledge of entomopathogenic fungi will potentiate cost-effective applications of mycoinsecticides for pest control in the field. Relative to our advanced insights into the mechanisms of fungal pathogenesis in plants and humans, future studies will be necessary to unravel the gene-for-gene relationships in fungus-insect interactive models.
Learning in Insect Pollinators and Herbivores Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 Patricia L. Jones, Anurag A. Agrawal
The relationship between plants and insects is influenced by insects’ behavioral decisions during foraging and oviposition. In mutualistic pollinators and antagonistic herbivores, past experience (learning) affects such decisions, which ultimately can impact plant fitness. The higher levels of dietary generalism in pollinators than in herbivores may be an explanation for the differences in learning seen between these two groups. Generalist pollinators experience a high level of environmental variation, which we suggest favors associative learning. Larval herbivores employ habituation and sensitization—strategies useful in their less variable environments. Exceptions to these patterns based on habitats, mobility, and life history provide critical tests of current theory. Relevant plant traits should be under selection to be easily learned and remembered in pollinators and difficult to learn in herbivores. Insect learning thereby has the potential to have an important, yet largely unexplored, role in plant-insect coevolution.
Neuropeptides as Regulators of Behavior in Insects Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 Liliane Schoofs, Arnold De Loof, Matthias Boris Van Hiel
Neuropeptides are by far the largest and most diverse group of signaling molecules in multicellular organisms. They are ancient molecules important in regulating a multitude of processes. Their small proteinaceous character allowed them to evolve and radiate quickly into numerous different molecules. On average, hundreds of distinct neuropeptides are present in animals, sometimes with unique classes that do not occur in distantly related species. Acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, hormones, or growth factors, they are extremely diverse and are involved in controlling growth, development, ecdysis, digestion, diuresis, and many more physiological processes. Neuropeptides are also crucial in regulating myriad behavioral actions associated with feeding, courtship, sleep, learning and memory, stress, addiction, and social interactions. In general, behavior ensures that an organism can survive in its environment and is defined as any action that can change an organism's relationship to its surroundings. Even though the mode of action of neuropeptides in insects has been vigorously studied, relatively little is known about most neuropeptides and only a few model insects have been investigated. Here, we provide an overview of the roles neuropeptides play in insect behavior. We conclude that multiple neuropeptides need to work in concert to coordinate certain behaviors. Additionally, most neuropeptides studied to date have more than a single function.
Behavioral Sabotage of Plant Defenses by Insect Folivores Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 David E. Dussourd
Plant susceptibility to herbivore attack is determined not just by the suite of defenses present in different tissues of the plant, but also by the capabilities of the herbivore for tolerating, circumventing, or disarming the defenses. This article reviews the elaborate behaviors exhibited by leaf-chewing insects that appear to function specifically to deactivate hostplant defenses. Shortcomings in our understanding and promising areas for future research are highlighted. Behaviors covered include vein cutting, trenching, girdling, leaf clipping, and application of fluids from exocrine glands. Many of these behaviors have a widespread distribution, having evolved independently in multiple insect lineages. Insects utilizing the behaviors include significant agricultural, horticultural, and forestry pests, as well as numerous species important in natural ecosystems. Behavioral, ecological, and phylogenetic studies have documented the importance of the behaviors and their ancient history, but the molecular analysis of how the behaviors affect plant physiology has scarcely begun.
Following the Yellow Brick Road Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 12.867) Pub Date : 2017-01-31 Charles H. Calisher
Charles Calisher was fascinated by microorganisms from the time he was in high school. He attended Stuyvesant High School in New York City, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science (now University of the Sciences) (BS), then University of Notre Dame in South Bend, Indiana (MS), and finally Georgetown University, in Washington, DC (PhD), the latter while employed at a commercial biological house. He was hired by the US Communicable Disease Center (now the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) in Atlanta, Georgia, was transferred to its Fort Collins laboratories in 1973, and retired from there in 1992. After traveling the world a bit, Calisher joined the faculty of Colorado State University in 1993, then semiretired as professor emeritus in 2010. During all those years, he developed from a would-be virologist to an arbovirologist-epidemiologist, identifying scores of newly recognized viruses from throughout the world and helping to investigate disease outbreaks and epidemics. His interests (always primarily arboviruses but now also rodent-borne viruses and bat-borne viruses) continue to expand, and he continues to be involved in various aspects of virology and to assist and annoy journal editors and others in regard to viral taxonomy.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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