Dendrite-free Li metal deposition in all-solid-state lithium sulfur batteries with polymer-in-salt polysiloxane electrolyte Energy Storage Mater. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Long Chen, Li–Zhen Fan
Effects of steam dilution on laminar flame speeds of H2/air/H2O mixtures at atmospheric and elevated pressures Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 3.582) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Yajin Lyu, Penghua Qiu, Li Liu, Chenchen Yang, Shaozeng Sun
The laminar flame speeds of H2/air with steam dilution (up to 33 vol%) were measured over a wide range of equivalence ratio (0.9–3.0) at atmospheric and elevated pressures (up to 5 atm) by an improved Bunsen burner method. Burke, Sun, HP (High Pressure H2/O2 mechanism), and Davis mechanisms were employed to calculate the laminar flame speeds and analyze different effects of steam addition. Four studied mechanisms all underestimated the laminar flame speeds of H2/air/H2O mixtures at medium equivalence ratios while the Burke mechanism provided the best estimates. When the steam concentration was lower than 12%, increasing pressure first increased and then decreased the laminar flame speed, the inflection point appeared at 2.5 atm. When the steam concentration was greater than 12%, increasing the pressure monotonously decrease the laminar flame speed. The chemical effect was amplified by elevated pressure and it played an important role for the inhibiting effect of the pressure on laminar flame speed. The fluctuations of the chemical effect at 1 atm were mainly caused by three-body reactions, while the turn at 5 atm was mainly caused by the direct reaction effect. Elevated pressure and steam addition amplified the influences of uncertainties in the rate constants for elementary reactions, which might leaded to the disagreement between experimental and simulation results.
Preparation of carbon nanotube and graphene doped polyphenylene sulfide flexible film electrodes and the electrodeposition of Cu2O nanocrystals for hydrogen-generation Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 3.582) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Yaxin Zhou, Lingpu Jia, Tingxia Wang, Yongling Du, Chunming Wang
Through annealing and electrochemical reduction methods, we successfully fabricates reduced graphene oxide layer (RGOL) modified carbon nanotube and reduced graphene oxide (CNT + RGO) doped polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) flexible thin film electrodes. These composite structure films can not only overcome the brittle nature of PPS, but also make good use of the thermal stability of PPS. Furthermore, carbon nanotube and reduced graphene oxide enhance the electrical conductivity of the composite films. Truncated octahedral and cuboctahedral Cu2O nanocrystals are synthesized on RGOL modified CNT + RGO doped PPS (RGOL@PPS/CNT + RGO) composite film by a facile electrodeposition method without using any surfactants or external heating. RGOL on the PPS/CNT + RGO substrate facilitates the formation of Cu2O morphology. The obtained Cu2O composite film shows a superior ability for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) compared with other Cu2O electrocatalysts. The Cu2O with a smaller loading less than 0.04 mg cm−2 on the composite film exhibits excellent HER activities with a low onset potential of 0.05 V and large current densities. The results of the HER performance indicates that the RGOL@PPS/CNT + RGO composite film has a potential application in flexible hydrogen-producing devices.
Mg-based composites for enhanced hydrogen storage performance Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 3.582) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Mi Tian, Congxiao Shang
Hydrogen storage in solids of hydrides is advantageous in comparison to gaseous or liquid storage. Magnesium based materials are being studies for solid-state hydrogen storage due to their advantages of high volumetric and gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity. However, unfavorable thermodynamic and kinetic barriers hinder its practical application. In this work, we presented that kinetics of Mg-based composites were significantly improved during high energy ball milling in presence of various types of carbon, including plasma carbon produced by plasma-reforming of hydrocarbons, activated carbon, and carbon nanotubes. The improvement of the kinetics and de-/re-hydrogenation performance of MgH2 and TiC-catalysed MgH2 by introduction of carbon are strongly dependent on the milling time, amount of carbon and carbon structure. The lowest dehydrogenation temperature was observed at 180 °C by the plasma carbon–modified MgH2/TiC. We found that nanoconfinement of carbon structures stabilised Mg-based nanocomposites and hinders the nanoparticles growth and agglomeration. Plasma carbon was found to show better effects than the other two carbon structures because the plasma carbon contained both few layer graphene sheets that served as an active dispersion matrix and amorphous activated carbons that promoted the spill-over effect of TiC catalysed MgH2. The strategy in enhancing the kinetics and thermodynamics of Mg-based composites is leading to a better design of metal hydride composites for hydrogen storage.
Sodium borohydride and propylene glycol, an effective combination for the generation of 2.3 wt% of hydrogen Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 3.582) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Hanane Ould-Amara, Damien Alligier, Eddy Petit, Pascal G. Yot, Umit B. Demirci
Sodium borohydride NaBH4 (SB) readily and completely reacts with four equivalents of propylene glycol HOCH2CH(OH)CH3 (PG), resulting in the liberation of four equivalents of H2 at temperatures starting from 25 °C. Alcoholysis (or glycolysis) takes place. The system SB-4PG is then an attractive H2 generator thanks to an effective gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity of 2.3 wt%. It offers several other advantages: there is no need of catalyst; there is no precipitation of by-product; PG is among the safest alcohols (much safer than e.g. methanol). The potential of SB-4PG as H2 generator is thus illustrated and discussed herein.
Prospective energy security scenarios in Spain: the future role of renewable power generation technologies and climate change implications Renew. Energy (IF 4.357) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Diego García-Gusano, Diego Iribarren
Photonic surface waves enabled perfect infrared absorption by monolayer graphene Nano Energy (IF 12.343) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Qianru Yang, Cheng Zhang, Shaolong Wu, Shaojuan Li, Qiaoliang Bao, Vincenzo Giannini, Stefan A. Maier, Xiaofeng Li
Achieving Ordered and Stable Binary Metal Perovskite via Strain Engineering Nano Energy (IF 12.343) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Xuxia Shai, Jinsong Wang, Pengyu Sun, Wenchao Huang, Peizhe Liao, Feng Cheng, Bowen Zhu, Sheng-Yung Chang, En-Ping Yao, Yan Shen, Ling Miao, Yang Yang, Mingkui Wang
Implications of net energy-return-on-investment for a low-carbon energy transition Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Lewis C. King, Jeroen C. J. M. van den Bergh
Low-carbon energy transitions aim to stay within a carbon budget that limits potential climate change to 2 °C—or well below—through a substantial growth in renewable energy sources alongside improved energy efficiency and carbon capture and storage. Current scenarios tend to overlook their low net energy returns compared to the existing fossil fuel infrastructure. Correcting from gross to net energy, we show that a low-carbon transition would probably lead to a 24–31% decline in net energy per capita by 2050, which implies a strong reversal of the recent rising trends of 0.5% per annum. Unless vast end-use efficiency savings can be achieved in the coming decades, current lifestyles might be impaired. To maintain the present net energy returns, solar and wind renewable power sources should grow two to three times faster than in other proposals. We suggest a new indicator, ‘energy return on carbon’, to assist in maximizing the net energy from the remaining carbon budget.
Molecular Layer Deposition for Energy Conversion and Storage ACS Energy Lett. Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Yang Zhao, Xueliang Sun
Phosphorus and Aluminum Codoped Porous NiO Nanosheets as Highly Efficient Electrocatalysts for Overall Water Splitting ACS Energy Lett. Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Zhao Li, Wenhan Niu, Le Zhou, Yang Yang
Ultrafast Charge Separation for Full Solar Spectrum Activated Photocatalytic H2 Generation in BP-Au-CdS Heterostructure ACS Energy Lett. Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Xiaoyan Cai, Liang Mao, Songqiu Yang, Keli Han, Junying Zhang
Two-dimensional layered black phosphorus (BP) with tunable bandgap of 0.3-2.0 eV has received great interests in broad-spectrum-active photocatalysis, but the rapid charge recombination limits its potential applications. Herein, we report that BP quantum dots (QDs) works as active photosensitizer in a ternary heterostructure consisting of BP QDs, Au nanorods (NRs) and CdS nanowires (NWs), which performs efficiently to photocatalytically generate H2 at full solar spectrum especially near-infrared (NIR) region. The superior performance of BP-Au-CdS heterostructure arises from the overall photoabsorption contribution, the dual role (electron relay and plasmonic electron donor) of Au NRs, as well as the appropriate band alignment and strong coupling between the three components. Tracking the electrons and holes transfer via femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy shows a unidirectional electrons flow from BP to Au and then to CdS, which has been achieved by the high conduction band (CB) level of BP, the well-harnessed work function match in BP-Au and the well-established Schottky barrier in Au-CdS heterojunction.
Bifunctional 2D Superlattice Electrocatalysts of Layered Double Hydroxide-Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Active for Overall Water Splitting ACS Energy Lett. Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Md. Shahinul Islam, Minho Kim, Xiaoyan Jin, Seung Mi Oh, Nam-Suk Lee, Hyungjun Kim, Seong-Ju Hwang
Bifunctional 2D superlattice electrocatalysts of alternating layered double hydroxide (LDH)-transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterolayers were synthesized by interstratification of the exfoliated nanosheets. Density functional theory calculations predict an increased interfacial charge transfer between interstratified LDH and TMD nanosheets, which would lead to enhanced electrocatalytic activity. The electrostatically-driven self-assembly of oppositely-charged 2D building blocks, i.e. exfoliated Ni-Al-LDH/Ni-Fe-LDH and MoS2 nanosheets, yields mesoporous heterolayered Ni-Al-LDH-MoS2/Ni-Fe-LDH-MoS2 superlattices. The synthesized superlattices show improved electrocatalytic activity with enhanced durability for oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions, and water splitting. The interstratification improves the chemical stability of LDH in acidic media, thus expanding its possible applications. The high electrocatalytic activity of the superlattices may be attributed to an enhanced affinity for OH-/H+, improved electrical conduction and charge transfer, and the increase of active sites. This study indicates that the formation of superlattices via self-assembly of 2D nanosheets provides a useful methodology to explore high-performance electrocatalysts with improved stability.
Identifying Active Site of N-Doped Graphene for Oxygen Reduction by Selective Chemical Modification ACS Energy Lett. Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Tao Wang, Zhixin Chen, Yu-Gang Chen, Lijun Yang, Xiaodong Yang, Jinyu Ye, Haiping Xia, Zhi-You Zhou, Shi-Gang Sun
N-doped carbon materials are promising electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, the lack of knowledge in the nature of active sites limits the rational design of this-type catalysts. Although pyridinic N species are proposed to be active for ORR, little experimental evidence is provided to reveal the reactive sites. Herein, we developed a surface-modification method to identify the ortho carbon atom of pyridinic ring as the reactive site for ORR on N-doped graphene. The pyridinic ring of N-doped graphene was selectively grafted by acetyl group at pyridinic N and ortho C atoms by electrophilic and radical substitution, respectively. The former remained most of ORR catalytic activity, while the latter lost its activity completely. DFT calculations confirm that O2 can get adsorbed and reduced favorably on the ortho C atom of pyridinic ring. This study provides new insight into the nature of active sites and ORR mechanism for N-doped carbon materials.
Effects of In-Process Hydrogenation on Mesophase Development during the Thermal Condensation of Petroleum Aromatic-Rich Fraction Energy Fuels (IF 3.091) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Ming Li, Yadong Zhang, Shitao Yu, Junwei Ding, Bing Bian, Dong Liu
In this work, the mesophase pitch was generated from the thermal condensation of the petroleum aromatic-rich fraction. Tetrahydronaphthalene as a hydrogen donor was selected to treat the condensation intermediate using the in-process hydrogenation method. The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of in-process hydrogenation on the formation and development of mesophase structures. Results showed that the intermediate after in-process hydrogenation possessed a more-uniform molecular structure and narrower molecular-weight distribution, compared to the blank intermediate without in-process hydrogenation, which was attributed to the increasing content of naphthenic structures in the intermediate. From the characterization analysis of carbonized products, it can be found that the in-process hydrogenation of the condensation intermediate was conducive to the generation of mesophase pitch with a large domain structure, narrow molecular-weight distribution, low softening point, and carbon residue.
Predicted Effects of Heavy Feeds on the Deactivation of a Commercial Atmospheric Residue Desulfurization Catalyst System Energy Fuels (IF 3.091) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Dduha Chehadeh, Hamza Albazzaz, Dawoud Bahzad
The effect of three atmospheric residual oils on the deactivation of a commercial atmospheric residue desulfurization (ARDS) catalyst system was assessed using a commercial catalyst system consisting of five catalysts loaded inside a two-reactor pilot plant. The hydrodemetalation (HDM) and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reactions of the three residues over the catalyst system were studied. A deactivation model considering metals and carbon deposition was used to fit the life test data. Experimental and simulated data were compared. The effect of the residual oils on each of the catalysts was evaluated, and the catalyst contribution was calculated highlighting the importance of predicting different catalyst activities during the design of a composite catalyst bed.
Effect of compression ratio on combustion performance and emission characteristic of a DI diesel engine fueled with upgraded biogas-KME-DEE port injection Energy Fuels (IF 3.091) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Debabrata Barik, Asit Kumar, S. Murugan
This work is an attempt to divulge the influence of compression ratio (CR) on the behavior of a 4.4 kW, single cylinder, air-cooled, diesel engine operated on up-graded biogas-Karanja methyl ester (UBG-KME) dual fuel. Earlier, experiment was conducted by the authors to examine the use of UBG-KME-DEE (diethyl ether) in a dual fuel engine, and the results indicate that, UBG-KME-DEE port injection functioned well and provided improved performance and lower emissions in comparison to that of the raw biogas (RBG) RBG-KME-DEE mode. Nevertheless, the engine produced a lower brake thermal efficiency (BTE) compared to that of diesel operation. Hence, to increase the BTE, experiments were conducted with varied CRs (16.5, 17.5, and 18.5) of the engine, and the KME was injected at a fixed timing of 24.5 oCA bTDC, DEE supply to engine was limited at 6%, and the upgraded biogas supply was made constant at 0.9 kg/h. The test results indicated that UBG-KME-DEE operation with CR 18.5 gave optimum results than those of other CRs. An increase in heat release rate of 60 J/o CA, and shorter ignition delay of 7.8 oCA was observed for UBG-KME-DEE operation with CR 18.5, at full operating load. BTE was increased, and BSEC was decreased by about 7% and 6.8%, respectively, for UBG-KME-DEE operation with CR 18.5 in comparison with KME. About 44, 42, and 42.8% decrease in the emissions of CO, HC, and smoke were observed for UBG-KME-DEE at CR 18.5. However, the emission of NO for UBG-KME-DEE operation with CR 18.5 was 7.6% higher than diesel but, 1.2% lower than KME, at full operating load. The novel findings of this study make possibilities of lowering the NO-smoke emission trade-off, which is a prime challenge in diesel engines. In addition, the upgraded biogas-KME-DEE operated diesel engines (renewable nature) can substitute the use of diesel and CNG.
Roles of cation and anion of amino acid anion-functionalized ionic liquids immobilized into a porous support for CO2 capture Energy Fuels (IF 3.091) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Yusuke Uehara, Davood Karami, Nader Mahinpey
The impact of cation and anion of amino acid (AA) anion-functionalized ionic liquids (ILs) immobilized into a porous support on the CO2 capture performance was investigated in dry or humidified gas flow condition. 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([EMIM]) cation and tetrabutylphosphonium ([P4444]) cation were used as a cation for synthesizing AAILs and compared, since they have different molecular structures and hydrophilicities with each other affecting gas sorption behaviors. The experimental results showed that supported [P4444][AAs] had higher CO2 capture capacities than the corresponding supported [EMIM][AAs] in units of mol/mol-AAIL under dry gas inlet, exhibiting the effect of cation on the CO2 adsorption performance. Under humidified gas flow, supported [P4444][AAs] adsorbed much less amounts of water vapor than supported [EMIM][AAs]. On the other hand, CO2 capture capacities of both supported [EMIM][AAs] and [P4444][AAs] slightly reduced in the presence of water vapor, due to much more rapid sorption of H2O than CO2.
Fractionating Wheat Straw via PHP (Phosphoric Acid plus Hydrogen Peroxide) Pretreatment and Structural Elucidation of the Derived Lignin Energy Fuels (IF 3.091) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Xue Wan, Dong Tian, Fei Shen, Jinguang Hu, Gang Yang, Yanzong Zhang, Shihuai Deng, Jing Zhang, Yongmei Zeng
As a new-developed method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass, PHP (phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide) was employed as a pretreatment solvent to fractionate wheat straw. The structural properties of the derived lignin were elucidated in particular. Results indicated 100.0 g wheat straw (dry basis) yielded 39.7 g cellulose-rich fraction, 4.7 g oligosaccharides and 4.5 g lignin at mild conditions of 50 °C within 1.0 h. The resultant cellulose-rich fraction was highly accessible to hydrolytic enzymes with 88-96% cellulose-glucose conversion in 24 h, suggesting a great potential for producing biofuels. The derived lignin was characterized by high purity (≤1.0% residual carbohydrates), relatively low molecular weight (Mw < 1436 g mol-1), and abundant in carboxylic acid functional groups. According to the 31P, 13C and 2D-HSQC NMR results on the derived lignin, the degree of condensation was quite limited during PHP pretreatment, the oxidants, produced HO+ or HO· in pretreatment, were substantially responsible for the extensive ring-opening on the aromatic substructure. The obtained results offered the technical feasibility of fractionating lignocellulosic biomass using PHP, and a better understanding of the delignification mechanisms for PHP pretreatment.
A novel mesoporous SiO2 material with MCM-41 structure from coal gangue: preparation, ethylenediamine-modification, and adsorption properties for CO2 capture Energy Fuels (IF 3.091) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Hong Du, Liang Ma, Xiaoyao Liu, Fei Zhang, Xinyu Yang, Yu Wu, Jianbin Zhang
A novel mesoporous SiO2 material (M-SiO2) with MCM-41 structure was readily fabricated from the inexpensive coal gangue via hydrothermal reaction in the presence of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) for CO2 capture. Based on orthogonal experimental results, the optimum conditions for the preparation of M-SiO2 were identified as follows: the SiO32- leaching of 21 g/L from coal gangue, the CTAB concentration of 0.25 mol/L, the HCl concentration of 2.5 mol/L, the hydrothermal temperature of 393.15 K, and the hydrothermal time of 20 h. Under the optimum condition, the M-SiO2 exhibited an adsorption capability of 9.61 mg/g to 8 % CO2 at 298.15 K. To further improve the CO2 adsorption performance, the M-SiO2 was chemically modified using ethylenediamine (EDA), and the optimum conditions for the modification of M-SiO2 were identified as follows: the impregnation time of 10 h, the drying temperature of 343.15 K, and the ratio of EDA: M-SiO2 = 2: 1. Under the optimum conditions, the adsorption capability of EDA-modified M-SiO2 (EDA-M-SiO2) was increased by 83.5 mg/g. The obtained M-SiO2 and EDA-M-SiO2 were systemically characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements techniques. The analytical results indicated that the M-SiO2 was mainly composed of O and Si in the form of SiO2 with a specific surface area of 156 m2/g, and part of M-SiO2 exhibited a similar structure to MCM-41. Moreover, the mechanisms of EDA-modification and CO2 adsorption were investigated and discussed in detail.
CO2 Uptake Potential of Ca-based Air Pollution Control (APC) Residues over Repeated Carbonation/Calcination Cycles Energy Fuels (IF 3.091) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Alessandro Dal Pozzo, Andac Armutlulu, Margarita Rekhtina, Christoph R. Müller, Valerio Cozzani
Operation of dry processes for acid gas removal from flue gas in waste-to-energy plants based on the use of calcium hydroxide as a solid sorbent generates a solid waste stream containing fly ash, unreacted calcium hydroxide and the products of its reaction with acid pollutants in the flue gas (HCl and SO2). To date, the fate of the solid waste stream is to be landfilled, in the absence of commercially viable recycling approaches. The present study investigates the potential of these residues as CO2 sorbents in the calcium looping process. Samples collected in different waste-to-energy plants were tested over multiple carbonation/calcination cycles, comparing their performance to that of limestone. Though inferior, the CO2 sorption capacity of the residues resulted comparable to that of limestone, and steadily increased for a significant number of cycles. This peculiar behavior was attributed to the presence of a chlorinated phase which enhances the CO2 uptake in the diffusion-controlled stage of carbonation, by reducing the product layer resistance to CO2 diffusion. No significant release of acid gases was observed at the characteristic temperatures of calcium looping carbonation.
Low energy cost conversion of methane to ethylene in a hybrid plasma-catalytic reactor system Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 3.752) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Evangelos Delikonstantis, Marco Scapinello, Georgios D. Stefanidis
Mo remarkably enhances catalytic activity of Cu@MoCo core-shell nanoparticles for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 3.582) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Cong Wang, Hongli Wang, Zhili Wang, Xiaoju Li, Yue Chi, Minggang Wang, Dawei Gao, Zhankui Zhao
Ammonia borane (AB) has been identified as one of the most promising candidates for chemical hydrogen storage. However, the practical application of AB for hydrogen production is hindered by the need of efficient and inexpensive catalysts. For the first time, we report that the incorporation of Mo into Cu@Co core-shell structure can significantly improve the catalytic efficiency of hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of AB. The Cu0.81@Mo0.09Co0.10 core-shell catalyst displays high catalytic activity towards the hydrolysis dehydrogenation of AB with a turnover frequency (TOF) value of 49.6 molH2 molcat−1 min−1, which is higher than most of Cu-based catalysts ever reported, and even comparable to those of noble-metal based catalysts. The excellent catalytic performance is attributed to the multi-elements co-deposition effect and electrons transfer effect of Cu, Mo and Co in the tri-metallic core-shell NPs.
The effect of Nafion membrane fouling on the power generation of a microbial fuel cell Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 3.582) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Sami G.A. Flimban, Sedky H.A. Hassan, Md. Mukhlesur Rahman, Sang-Eun Oh
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are the most useful technologies for energy production and wastewater treatment due to their low cost and support of the environment. In this study, the membrane fouling and their effects on power generation were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results demonstrate that proton exchange membrane (PEM) was affected by biofouling in a two-chamber H-type MFC, which would significantly affect coulombic efficiencies (CEs), and maximum power densities leading to reduced power generation. The power densities of both rice straw and potato peels were 119.35 mW/m2 and 152.55 mW/m2, respectively. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) showed substantial accumulation of bacteria and their end-products forming a thick biofilm on the surface of PEM leading to a decrease, if not, preventing the passage of protons from the anode side toward the cathode side. The decline in power generation may result mainly from the biofouling, not of electrodes but, of PEM membrane from both sides (Anode and Cathode) because of improper regular PEM cleaning.
Fe-Cu coated nickel mesh usage as cathode catalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 3.582) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Esra Telli, Denizhan Özer
Nickel mesh electrodes were used as the working electrode. Iron and copper were electrochemically deposited on the nickel mesh in different amounts. When electrochemical coatings had been carried out, different currents were passed from the circuit at different times and coatings were accumulated at constant load. The prepared electrodes called as FexCux, FexCu3x and FexCu9x and these electrodes have been used for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The surface morphologies were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The HER activity is assessed by recording cathodic current–potential curves, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that FexCu9x catalysts have a compact and porous structure as well as good electrocatalytic activity for the HER in alkaline media.
Effect of addition of Zr, Ni, and Zr-Ni alloy on the hydrogen absorption of Body Centred Cubic 52Ti-12V-36Cr alloy Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 3.582) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Amol Kamble, Pratibha Sharma, Jacques Huot
Novel nanocomposite materials for oxygen and hydrogen separation membranes Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 3.582) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Vladislav A. Sadykov, Alexey V. Krasnov, Yulia E. Fedorova, Anton I. Lukashevich, Yulia N. Bespalko, Nikita F. Eremeev, Pavel I. Skriabin, Konstantin R. Valeev, Oleg L. Smorygo
Design of oxygen and hydrogen separation membranes is the point of current interest in producing syngas from biofuels. Nanocomposites with a high mixed ionic-electronic conductivity are known to be promising materials for these applications. This work aims at studying performance of oxygen and hydrogen separation membranes based on nanocomposites PrNi0.5Co0.5O3-δ + Ce0.9Y0.1O2-δ and Nd5.5WO11.25-δ + NiCu alloy, respectively. A high and stable performance promising for the practical application was demonstrated for these membranes. For oxygen separation membrane CH4 conversion is up to 50% with H2 content in the outlet feed being up to 25% at 900 °C. For reactor with hydrogen separation membrane complete EtOH conversion was achieved at T ∼ 700 °C even at the highest flow rate, and a high hydrogen permeation (≥1 ml H2 cm−2 min−1) was revealed.
Effect of CeO2 on oxidation and electrical behaviors of ferritic stainless steel interconnects with Ni Fe coatings Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 3.582) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Peng Fei You, Xue Zhang, Hai Liang Zhang, Hui Jun Liu, Chao Liu Zeng
Ferritic stainless steels are promising materials for application in interconnects of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The present problems to be solved urgently for using ferritic stainless steels as interconnects are their rapid increase in electrical resistance and the cathode poisoning caused by evaporation of chromia. In the present study, the Ni Fe and NiFe CeO2 alloy coatings have been electro-deposited onto 430 stainless steels (430SS). During oxidation at 800 °C in air, an outer dense NiFe2O4 layer and an inner protective Cr2O3 layer have thermally grown on the coated samples. The NiFe2O4 layer retards the outward migration of chromium effectively. The addition of CeO2 reduces the growth rate of Cr2O3 and decreases the number of pores near the oxide scale/alloy interface. Moreover, a higher electrical conductivity has been achieved by the addition of CeO2.
Techno-economic feasibility of fleets of far offshore hydrogen-producing wind energy converters Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 3.582) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Aurélien Babarit, Jean-Christophe Gilloteaux, Gaël Clodic, Maxime Duchet, Alexandre Simoneau, Max F. Platzer
Innovative solutions need to be developed for harvesting wind energy far offshore. They necessarily involve on-board energy storage because grid-connection would be prohibitively expensive. Hydrogen is one of the most promising solutions. However, it is well-known that it is challenging to store and transport hydrogen which may have a critical impact on the delivered hydrogen cost. In this paper, it is shown that there are vast areas far offshore where wind power is both characterized by high winds and limited seasonal variations. Capturing a fraction of this energy could provide enough energy to cover the forecast global energy demand for 2050. Thus, scenarios are proposed for the exploitation of this resource by fleets of hydrogen-producing wind energy converters sailing autonomously. The scenarios include transportation and distribution of the produced hydrogen. The delivered hydrogen cost is estimated for the various scenarios in the short term and in the longer term. Cost estimates are derived using technical and economic data available in the literature and assumptions for the cost of electricity available on-board the wind energy converters. In the shorter term, delivered cost estimates are in the range 7.1–9.4 €/kg depending on the scenario and the delivery distance. They are based on the assumption of on-board electricity cost at 0.08€/kWh. In the longer term, assuming an on-board electricity cost at 0.04€.kWh, the cost estimates could reduce to 3.5 to 5.7 €/kg which would make the hydrogen competitive on several hydrogen markets without any support mechanism. For the hydrogen to be competitive on all hydrogen markets including the ones with the highest GHG emissions, a carbon tax of approximately 200 €/kg would be required.
A strategy for regulating the performance of DCFC with semi-coke fuel Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 3.582) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Guoyang Liu, Yating Zhang, Jiangtao Cai, Anning Zhou, Yongqiang Dang, Jieshan Qiu
Facile synthesis of MoS2/N-doped macro-mesoporous carbon hybrid as efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 3.582) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Xiaoling Chen, Kangning Zhang, Zhenzhen An, Lina Wang, Yan Wang, Sen Sun, Tong Guo, Dongxia Zhang, Zhonghua Xue, Xibin Zhou, Xiaoquan Lu
Nano-PCM filled energy storage system for solar-thermal applications Renew. Energy (IF 4.357) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Manar Al-Jethelah, Syeda Humaira Tasnim, Shohel Mahmud, Animesh Dutta
In this paper, a nano-PCM filled enclosure, which is a representative geometry of a thermal energy storage (TES) system, is investigated using scale analysis, numerical simulation, and experimental analysis. The enclosure is assumed to be square in shape. It is also assumed that one vertical wall of the enclosure is actively participating in absorbing energy from a source while the remaining walls are insulated. The thermal boundary condition at the active wall is treated as ‘constant heat flux boundary condition’ in this paper. The energy absorbing material, i.e., the nano-PCM, is CuO nanoparticles dispersed in coconut oil PCM. The influence of the volume fraction of nanoparticles (0≤φ≤5% 0 ≤ φ ≤ 5 % ) is investigated on the flow and thermal fields, heat transfer rate, energy stored and liquid fraction during the melting process of nano-PCM at different values of Rayleigh number based on base PCM (104≤Raφ=0%≤108 10 4 ≤ R a φ = 0 % ≤ 10 8 ). The Rayleigh number is adjusted by adjusting the size of the enclosure (i.e., higher Ra R a represents the larger enclosure). In addition to the isothermal lines and velocity vectors, heatlines are utilized to exhibit the energy flow patterns inside the enclosure during the melting process. Besides the numerical calculations, scale analysis is presented to demonstrate the different stages of melting process of nano-PCM. The detailed scale analysis assists to identify relationship of Nusselt number and solid-liquid interface location as a function of well established dimensionless numbers: Stefan number (Ste S t e ), Fourier number (Fo F o ), and Rayleigh number (Raφ=0% R a φ = 0 % ). Finally, an experimental setup is developed to visualize the melting process of nano-PCM inside a prototype enclosure. Experiments are conducted to illustrate the impact of adding nanoparticles into PCM on the melting process. The numerical and experimental results show the significant improvement of the melting process by adding nanoparticles to PCM.
Combustion characterization of waste cooking oil and canola oil based biodiesels under simulated engine conditions Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 C. Ming, I.M. Rizwanul Fattah, Qing N. Chan, Phuong X. Pham, Paul R. Medwell, Sanghoon Kook, Guan H. Yeoh, Evatt R. Hawkes, Assaad R. Masri
Alternative fuels will come from a variety of feed stocks and refinement processes. Understanding the fundamentals of combustion and pollutants formation processes of these fuels will be useful for their implementation in different combustion systems. In this work, optical diagnostics were performed to waste cooking oil (WCO) and canola oil (CAO) based biodiesel sprays to assess their combustion and soot formation processes. Conventional diesel was used as a reference fuel for comparison with the biodiesels. The experiments were conducted in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion chamber (CVCC) with simulated compression-ignition engine conditions, with different degree of exhaust gas recirculation. The liquid length and lift-off length results indicate that there was no significant interaction between the liquid phases of the fuels and their combustion regions. The flame lift-off lengths were found to be affected by both the chemical and physical properties of the fuels. It was observed that a larger difference between the lift-off length and the first-luminosity distance was correlated with lesser downstream soot formation, although the molecular structure of the fuel was found to affect the process too. Assessing the sooting and combustion characteristics of the biodiesel and diesel flames across the varied ambient O2 atmospheres revealed that the estimated soot contents of the biodiesel and diesel flames peaked at 15 and 21 vol.% O2 concentration, respectively. The peak soot contents of the WCO and CAO biodiesel flames were found be comparable, but lower than that of diesel, across the various O2 environment. The results also demonstrated that the biodiesels have higher normalized peak pressure values than diesel at all O2 conditions. Two-color pyrometry data demonstrated that the measured soot temperature and soot KL factors of the flames were similar at 15 and 21 vol.% O2, but varied with further reduction of ambient O2 concentration. Variations in the combustion duration and flame area were found to be fuel dependent.
N-Type Doping of Fullerenes for Planar Perovskite Solar Cells ACS Energy Lett. Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Qing-Qing Ye, Zhao-Kui Wang, Meng Li, Cong-Cong Zhang, Ke-Hao Hu, Liang-Sheng Liao
Atomically Dispersed Iron–Nitrogen Active Sites within Porphyrinic Triazine-Based Frameworks for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Both Alkaline and Acidic Media ACS Energy Lett. Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Jun-Dong Yi, Rui Xu, Qiao Wu, Teng Zhang, Ke-Tao Zang, Jun Luo, Yu-Lin Liang, Yuan-Biao Huang, Rong Cao
Adsorption of CO2 on MgAl-CO3 LDHs-Derived Sorbents with 3D Nanoflower-like Structure Energy Fuels (IF 3.091) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Xiaochen Kou, Hongxia Guo, Etsegenet Gossa Ayele, Shan Li, Yujun Zhao, Shengping Wang, Xinbin Ma
In this paper, the porous MgAl-CO3 LDHs-derived mixed oxides with Mg/Al molar ratios of 2:1, 2.5:1, 3:1, 3.5:1, and 4:1 have been successfully prepared by a facile solvothermal method. With a 3D nanoflower-like structure, the MgAl-CO3 LDHs-derived mixed oxides with a Mg/Al molar ratio of 2 exhibit the best CO2 sorption performance of about 0.9 mmol/g at the adsorption temperature of 200 °C. The addition of NaNO3 into the MgAl-CO3 LDHs-derived mixed oxides (Mg/Al = 2:1) can facilitate the sorption process by reducing the energy barrier between MgO and MgCO3. Introducing methanol to the preparation process of LDHs prior to drying can effectively increase the specific surface area and improve the porosity of the sorbents by substituting the water molecules of MgAl-CO3 LDHs. The sorbents co-modified by NaNO3 and methanol with a Mg/Al molar ratio of 2 show the favorable sorption performance with the CO2 uptake of 1.70 mmol/g over 100 sorption/desorption cycles about 300 h.
Separation of Viscous Oil Emulsions Using Three-Dimensional Nanotetrapodal ZnO Membranes Energy Fuels (IF 3.091) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Thomas E. O’Loughlin, Frank-Eric Ngamassi, Patrick McKay, Sarbajit Banerjee
Unveiling Adsorption Mechanisms of Elemental Mercury on Defective Boron Nitride Monolayer: A Computational Study Energy Fuels (IF 3.091) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Xiaoping Gao, Yanan Zhou, Yujia Tan, Zhiwen Cheng, Qingli Tang, Jinping Jia, Zhemin Shen
The control of mercury in flue gas is challenging, especially that of elemental mercury (Hg0). Recently, many researchers have focused on various mercury removal technologies. Here by performing density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we systematically studied the adsorption of Hg0 on several experimentally available hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets with defect-free, nitrogen vacancy (VN), boron vacancy (VB), and both nitride and boron vacancy (VN+B) as well as their structures and electronic properties. Our calculation results show that the presence of VN, VB, and VN+B vacancies enhances the adsorption energies of Hg0 by 9, 45, and 214 kJ/mol, respectively. Moreover, a more negative potential at the VB and VN+B vacancy sites results in the h-BN-VB and h-BN-VN+B surfaces more reactive than those of h-BN and h-BN-VN. The partial density of states (PDOS) analysis unveils that Hg atom interacts firmly with surface B or/and N atoms through the orbital hybridization. The tendency of equilibrium constant implies that adsorption of Hg0 on h-BN-VN+B surface is beneficial at low temperature. Our computational studies reveal that defective h-BN nanosheets with VB and VN+B have great potential to serve as novel sorbents for the efficient removal of mercury in flue gas.
Mercury interaction on modified activated carbons under oxyfuel combustion conditions Energy Fuels (IF 3.091) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Margarita Quirós-Álvarez, Mercedes Diaz Somoano, Wolfgang Bongartz, Satrugna Vinjarapu
Mercury pollution is a cause for concern that requires global action. The most demonstrated and commercially available technology for mercury control is pulverised activated carbon injection. During oxy-coal combustion, the elevated concentrations of SOx, the moisture level in the flue gas and the recirculation streams may affect the performance of activated carbons as mercury sorbents. This works evaluates mercury oxidation and capture using impregnated-activated carbons. In this study a novel aspect is considered by the application of a novel thermal desorption procedure for mercury species identification and the elucidation of the interaction mechanism. The results show oxidation efficiencies ranging from 85 to 96%. The mercury is partially retained in the solid by chemical adsorption. The formation of new mercury species HgS, HgI2 and HgO by the interaction was established.
2D and 3D Spectrum Graphics of the Chemical-Morphological Domains of Complex Biomass by Low Field Proton NMR Energy Relaxation Signal Analysis Energy Fuels (IF 3.091) Pub Date : 2018-03-18 Zeev Wiesman, Charles Linder, Maysa T Resende, Natan Ayalon, Ofer Levi, Oigres D Bernardinelli, Luiz A Colnago, Cirlei Igreja Nascimento Mitre, Roi Jackman
The present paper describes novel low frequency (LF) 1H NMR energy relaxation time signal analysis for mapping the different chemical and morphological domains in complex cattle manure (CM) and cattle forage (CF) biomass. Relaxation signals generated by different absorbed water pools and aliphatic chains, are analysed by specifically designed sparse representation methods and a convex optimization PDCO solver, for generating 2D T1 (spin-matrix) vs. T2 (spin-spin) energy relaxation time spectrum graphics, and 3D graphs that includes 1H population density. Using analytical spectral analyses and spiking assignment with material standards of the individual T1 vs. T2 peaks in the generated CM graphics, a morphological and chemical domain dictionary was formulated demonstrating well resolved signal peaks and a better understanding of the different chemical and morphological structural organization within the complex biomass material. This bench top proton LF-NMR relaxation sensor system and its signal generation into chemical-morphological spectrum graphics, has the potential to significantly contribute to a rapid and accurate monitoring system for bio-based industrial processes with significant applicability in for example, bio-refineries.
Thermal characteristics of biomass pyrolysis oil and potential hydrogen production by catalytic steam reforming Energy Fuels (IF 3.091) Pub Date : 2018-03-18 Ningbo Gao, Cui Quan, Zhengzhao Ma, Chunfei Wu
: In order to facilitate the further processing and utilization of biomass pyrolysis oil, the chemical composition and thermal properties of biomass pyrolysis oil from pyrolysis of rice husk were investigated. The chemical composition analysis revealed that the pyrolysis oil contained large amount of oxygenated compounds, i.e., acid, ketones and phenols. Thermal degradation behaviors and kinetics of pyrolysis oil were investigated at different heating rates (5, 20, 35 and 50 oC min-1) under N2 and air atmosphere by TG. Pyrolysis oil decomposition mainly experienced three stages either in N2 or air atmosphere, and the corresponding activation energies vary with the degree of conversion. Py-GC/MS analysis of the pyrolysis oil reveals that ketones and aromatics are the main pyrolysis products of biomass pyrolysis oil. When the temperature increased from 600 to 700 oC during Py-GC/MS analysis, the content of ketones increased while the content of aromatics decreased. Subsequently, the feasibility of catalytic steam reforming of pyrolysis oil to produce renewable hydrogen was performed in a fixed-bed reactor with a NiO/ceramic foam catalyst. The effects of calcination temperature and metal content on the hydrogen yield were investigated. It is indicated that higher calcination temperature and loading content lead to the aggregation and sintering of NiO particles. A maximum hydrogen yield of 105.28 g H2 kg-1 pyrolysis oil (up to 81.1% of the stoichiometric yield) was obtained at reaction temperature of 700 oC, S/C ratio of 1, NiO loading content of 3.54%.
Investigation of strength and reduction reactivity during heat treatment in simulated-experimental blast furnace of carbon-containing pellet prepared by vapor deposition of tar to cold-bonded pellet with large particle size Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 3.752) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Yuuki Mochizuki, Naoto Tsubouchi, Tomohiro Akiyama
Optimum conditions for preparing carbon-containing pellets with a high crushing strength and high reactivity using three kinds of cold-bonded pellets (CPs) prepared by different methods are investigated in this study. The carbon-containing pellets, which have a size fraction suitable for blast furnace are prepared by completely filling the pores in CPs with carbonaceous materials derived from coke oven gas (COG) tar by the vapor deposition (VD) method. A flow-type quartz fixed-bed reactor is used for this method, using a combination of tar pyrolysis at 700 °C and VD at 350 °C. The changing pore size distribution, distribution of the carbonaceous material, and crushing strength of the VD samples are then measured for the prepared composites. The carbonaceous materials derived from COG tar completely fills into the mesopores and macropores of the CPs, which is prepared by using Portland cement (PCB) or Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), as the binder, and the aging method in stainless-steel container, with increasing VD treatment time. When PCB is treated by the VD method, the C content and crushing strength tends to increase with increasing VD treatment time, and reached 16 wt%-dry and 45 daN, respectively, until 60 min; these values are comparable to the strength of metallurgical-coke with DI1506 = 87.1. Additionally, carbonaceous materials are uniformly deposited in the particles inside. The changes in the reduction behavior and crushing strength of the prepared VD sample under various heat conditions (simulation-values in experimental-blast furnaces in COURSE50 project). The reduction extent of the VD samples prepared from PCB reaches up to 30–40% at 850 °C. These rates increase above 850 °C and attain a value >95% until 950 °C irrespective of the heating and atmospheric conditions. Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 in the VD samples are reduced to FeO and/or α-Fe until 850 °C under any condition used, while FeO is completely reduced to α-Fe by 950 °C. The cold crushing strength of VD samples is maintained up to 850 °C. Although this value drastically decreases at 900 °C, which is the temperature at which α-Fe formation occurred, there is no decrease in strength for the reduction of Fe2O3 to Fe3O4, which has been observed reduction disintegration occurs in a conventional blast furnace.
Transition metal doped ceria for solar thermochemical fuel production Sol. Energy (IF 4.018) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 G.D. Takalkar, R.R. Bhosale, A. Kumar, F. AlMomani, M. Khraisheh, R.A. Shakoor, R.B. Gupta
In this paper, the effect of doping of transition metal cations on thermal reduction and CO2 splitting ability of Ce0.9M0.1O2−δ materials (where, M = Ni, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Co, Zr) is investigated by performing multiple thermochemical cycles using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The Ce0.9M0.1O2−δ materials are successfully derived via co-precipitation method and analyzed via powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and BET surface area analyzer (BET). The Ce0.9M0.1O2−δ materials derived are further tested towards their O2 releasing and CO production capacity by performing ten thermochemical CO2 splitting cycles. The obtained TGA results indicate that CeZn and CeFe are capable of releasing higher amounts of O2 as compared to other Ce0.9M0.1O2−δ materials at 1400 °C. Likewise, these two oxides are again observed to be better than other Ce0.9M0.1O2−δ materials in terms of their CO production capacity at 1000 °C. For instance, CeZn and CeFe releases an average of 50.5 and 50.0 μmol of O2/g·cycle during ten thermochemical cycles in which the thermal reduction step is performed at at 1400 °C. Also, the CO production capacity of CeZn and CeFe material is observed to be equal to 103.3 and 96.3 μmol of CO/g·cycle for ten thermochemical cycles in which the CO2 splitting is carried out at 1000 °C. The compositional and thermal stability of all Ce0.9M0.1O2−δ materials is also analyzed after performing ten thermochemical cycles. The phase composition of all the Ce0.9M0.1O2−δ materials remain unchanged after performing ten thermochemical cycles. However, the crystallite size of all the Ce0.9M0.1O2−δ materials increases after performing the ten thermochemical cycles due to the high temperature processing.
(In, Cu) Co-doped ZnS nanoparticles for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 3.582) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Gang-Juan Lee, Hui-Chuan Chen, Jerry J. Wu
Crosswise stream of hydrogen-oxide (H2O) through a porous media containing copper nanoparticles Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 3.582) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Rashid Mehmood, R. Tabassum, O. Pourmehran, D.D. Ganji
Transport theories in porous media are quite operative to analyse heat transferral phenomenon in biological tissues, reducing bio convective flow instabilities by means of porous media and many more. Inspired by these remarkable features, the present study is conducted to analyse heat transfer phenomenon for obliquely striking nanofluid through a porous media. Copper (Cu) nanoparticles are suspended in traditional Hydrogen Oxide based fluid. Scaling group of transformations is conveniently employed to reduce governing transport equations and is tackled numerically afterwards. Influence of nanoparticles volume fraction, stretching ratio and porosity parameter on physical measures of concern such as normal and tangential skin friction and corresponding heat flux at wall is portrayed. Streamline patterns are traced out to discover the influence of porosity factor on actual flow behavior. It was observed that solid volume fraction of copper nanoparticles enhanced the skin friction coefficients and heat flux. Increasing the porosity parameter leads to greater heat flux and tangential skin friction co-efficient.
Ni supported on CaO-MgO-Al2O3 as a highly selective and stable catalyst for H2 production via the glycerol steam reforming reaction Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 3.582) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 N.D. Charisiou, K.N. Papageridis, L. Tzounis, V. Sebastian, S.J. Hinder, M.A. Baker, M. AlKetbi, K. Polychronopoulou, M.A. Goula
A comparative study of the GSR performance for Ni/CaO-MgO-Al2O3 and Ni/Al2O3 catalysts is reported. Catalysts were synthesized applying the wet impregnation method at a constant metal loading (8 wt %). Synthesized samples were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, ICP, BET, XRD, NH3-TPD, CO2-TPD, H2-TPR, XPS, TEM, STEM-HAADF and EDS. The carbon deposited on their surface under reaction conditions was characterized by TPO, Raman and TEM. It was proven that the use of CaO-MgO as alumina modifiers leads to smaller nickel species crystallite size, increased basicity and surface amount of Ni0 phase. Thus, it increases the conversion to gaseous products favoring H2 and CO2 production to the detriment of CO formation, by enhancing the water gas-shift (WGS) reaction. No liquid products were produced by the Ni/modAl catalyst over 550 °C, whereas time on stream results confirmed that deactivation can be prevented, as apart from decreasing the amount of coke deposition the nature of carbon was altered towards less graphitic and more defective structures.
PtRu nanoalloys loaded on graphene and TiO2 nanotubes co-modified Ti wire as an active and stable methanol oxidation electrocatalyst Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 3.582) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Jingsong Han, Liming Yang, Lixia Yang, Wenjing Jiang, Xubiao Luo, Shenglian Luo
Exploring a novel ceramic (Ti,W)3SiC2 for interconnect of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 3.582) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Lili Zheng, Qingsong Hua, Xichao Li, Meishuan Li, Yuhai Qian, Jingjun Xu, Zuoqiang Dai, Hongxin Zhang, Tiezhu Zhang, Junwei Wu
A solid solution (Ti,W)3SiC2 possessing good oxidation resistance and low area-specific resistance (ASR) after oxidation has been synthesized by an in-situ hot pressing process. The oxidation rate constant at 800 °C in air is 6.29 × 10−14 g2 cm−4 s−1 for (Ti,W)3SiC2. The formed single-layer oxide is composed of W doped rutile TiO2 and amorphous SiO2. SiO2 is evenly inlaid in the communicative body frame of TiO2. W doped in TiO2 mainly exists as W6+. W doping not only hinders the outward diffusion of Ti by decreasing the concentration of native Ti interstitials in TiO2, but also restrains the inward diffusion of oxygen by decreasing the concentration of O vacancies. Furthermore, W dopant in TiO2 enhances the electrical conductivity of TiO2 by increasing the concentration of semi-free electron. Therefore, the low ASR of (Ti,W)3SiC2 after oxidation owes to high electrical conductivity of TiO2 as well as the reduced thickness of oxide scale. All the results render (Ti1-xWx)3SiC2 promising as interconnects for the intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell.
Effect of additive distribution in H2 absorption and desorption kinetics in MgH2 milled with NbH0.9 or NbF5 Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 3.582) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Santiago A. Pighin, Bruno Coco, Horacio Troiani, Facundo J. Castro, Guillermina Urretavizcaya
This paper presents a comparative study of H2 absorption and desorption in MgH2 milled with NbF5 or NbH0.9. The addition of NbF5 or NbH0.9 greatly improves hydriding and dehydriding kinetics. After 80 h of milling the mixture of MgH2 with 7 mol.% of NbF5 absorbs 60% of its hydrogen capacity at 250 °C in 30 s, whereas the mixture with 7 mol.% of NbH0.9 takes up 48%, and MgH2 milled without additive only absorbs 2%. At the same temperature, hydrogen desorption in the mixture with NbF5 finishes in 10 min, whereas the mixture with NbH0.9 only desorbs 50% of its hydrogen content, and MgH2 without additive practically does not releases hydrogen. The kinetic improvement is attributed to NbH0.9, a phase observed in the hydrogen cycled MgH2 + NbF5 and MgH2 + NbH0.9 materials, either hydrided or dehydrided. The better kinetic performance of the NbF5-added material is attributed to the combination of smaller size and enhanced distribution of NbH0.9 with more favorable microstructural characteristics. The addition of NbF5 also produces the formation of Mg(HxF1-x)2 solid solutions that limit the practically achievable hydrogen storage capacity of the material. These undesired effects are discussed.
Application of microwave synthesized Ag-Rh nanoparticles in cyclohexane dehydrogenation for enhanced H2 delivery Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 3.582) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Jayshri V. Pande, Ankush B. Bindwal, Yogesh B. Pakade, Rajesh B. Biniwale
The catalytic dehydrogenation of liquid organic hydrides (LOH) is a promising route to deliver H2 for various mobile and stationary applications. However, an efficient and low-cost dehydrogenation catalyst, as an alternative to Pt, is a key for the success of LOH-based H2 supply. In a quest for such catalysts, we synthesized stable Ag-Rh bimetallic nanoparticles (BNP) supported on activated carbon cloth (ACC) and Y2O3 using the microwave-assisted polyol technique. The performance of these catalysts during dehydrogenation of LOH viz., cyclohexane, was evaluated at 300 °C using an advanced spray-pulse reactor system. The Ag:Rh ratio was optimized to maximize the cyclohexane conversion and H2 evolution. The effect of Ag:Rh ratio, catalyst support, and synthesis method was investigated, too. The most stable H2 evolution performance was exhibited by microwave-synthesized 1:4 Ag-Rh/Y2O3 catalyst with the cyclohexane conversion, dehydrogenation rate and H2 evolution rate of 35.8%, 17.2 mmol/gMet/min and 400 mmol/gMet/min, respectively. Finally, the performance of catalysts used in this study was compared with the Pt-based catalysts.
Comparative thermodynamic analysis of densely-packed concentrated photovoltaic thermal (CPVT) solar collectors in thermally in-series and in-parallel receiver configurations Renew. Energy (IF 4.357) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Omar Z. Sharaf, Mehmet F. Orhan
In this study, two densely-packed concentrated photovoltaic thermal (CPVT) solar collector configurations are optically and thermodynamically designed and analyzed and then exergoeconomically and environmentally assessed and compared. The designs are composed of parabolic dish concentrators, multi-junction photovoltaic (MJPV) cells, segmented thermoelectric generator (sTEG) couples with interconnectors, and finned minichannel heat extractors (mHXs). In configuration I, the receiver assembly components are connected thermally in-series whereas in configuration II they are connected thermally in-parallel. Geometric relations are employed to size the concentrator with design evaluations taking place with the aid of ray trace simulations. To better homogenize the reflected flux, the receiver is slightly shifted from the effective focal plane of the concentrator. Optical analysis reveals that the dish reflector is very sensitive to incidence angle deviations. It is found that the thermally in-series configuration offers an average annual exergy efficiency of 29.1% compared to 19.3% for the thermally in-parallel configuration. Both configurations offer comparable average annual energy efficiencies with a slight environmental and exergoeconomic advantage towards the thermally in-parallel configuration. The thermally in-series configuration is shown to provide a higher economic and thermodynamic value when electrical output is given preference over thermal output. The thermally in-parallel configuration, on the other hand, is favored in applications where thermal energy streams at multiple outlet temperatures are simultaneously desired, including a high-temperature thermal output. From an environmental viewpoint, both configurations are found capable of displacing a considerable amount of primary energy and CO2-equivalent emissions. While from an exergoeconomic viewpoint, for a system lifetime of 25 years, it is shown that the investment cost needs to be brought to approximately 21,000 AED for the proposed CPVT units to yield a positive lifecycle net present value (LCNPV). The annual escalation rate of electricity is observed to have a significant effect on the LCNPV of the collectors. Both environmental and exergoeconomic performance indices are shown to be sensitive to the thermal energy application meant for the CPVT collectors. Exergy analysis reveals that a drop in electrical exergy is offset by a rise in thermal exergy when higher system operation temperatures are used. The performance of both designs is simulated and compared on a monthly basis using weather data of Abu Dhabi, UAE.
Integration of tidal range energy with undersea pumped storage Renew. Energy (IF 4.357) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Rodica Loisel, Martin Sanchez-Angulo, Franck Schoefs, Alexandre Gaillard
The deployment of tidal technology is affected by the general bottlenecks associated with all new renewables in respect of finance and integration with the grid. In this research, a development strategy is defined for tidal range projects based on geodynamics, civil engineering, and economics with the aim of assisting policy makers and industry. Criteria related to hydrodynamics, bathymetry, marine structure safety and cost recovery apply to relevant sites and to real data power prices. The case study described is that of the Bay of Bourgneuf on the French Atlantic coast, where a tidal range power plant of 900 MW could optimally be built with respect to sedimentation, water depth, and tidal coefficients. It has been determined that a 30 m-high artificial dam could maximise the harvestable energy (3 TWh). Numerical simulations show that a tidal plant sized at just 700 MW would be cost-efficient, due to the constraints of the grid and to high power curtailment rates (30%). The expected value of the Levelised Cost of Electricity would be around 200€2016/MWh. Integration into the grid could be improved through addition of an innovative underwater energy storage system, rated to one third of the size of the tidal plant. The economics would improve (the LCOE would drop to 170€2016/MWh) due to lower curtailment and to price arbitrage opportunities. Issues related to missing investor money (>3Bln€2016) and unquantifiable positive externalities such as flood protection, energy independency, and clean energy provision are discussed, underpinning the need for regulator support.
Effect of adding 2-ethylhexyl nitrate cetane improver on the autoignition properties of ethanol–diesel fuel blend – Investigation at various ambient gas temperatures Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Hubert Kuszewski
One of the alternative fuels considered for powering piston internal combustion engines is ethanol. In some countries, ethanol has been successfully used for many years as a self-contained fuel in positive-ignition engines after relatively minor technical modifications. Due, among other things, to a very low cetane number, this fuel cannot be used in pure form in diesel engines. Consideration is being given to fuels that are blends of diesel fuel with some ethanol fraction. Diesel fuel containing up to 15% (v/v) of ethanol is sometimes referred to as e-diesel or oxygenated diesel. However, it is necessary to improve the autoignition properties of such a blend. Improvement of the autoignition properties of an ethanol–diesel fuel blend (EDB) can be accomplished by introducing an additive that improves the propensity for autoignition. One such additive may be 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (2-EHN), which is commonly used to improve the autoignition properties of diesel fuels. This study determined the effect of the addition of 2-EHN (up to 10,000 ppm [m/m]) on the autoignition properties of an EDB with an ethanol fraction of 15% (v/v). The study was carried out by using a device with a constant volume combustion chamber, which additionally enabled determination of the effect of the ambient gas temperature (in the range 550–650 °C) on the period of ignition delay and the period of combustion delay, as well as the derived cetane number. The average and maximum pressure rise rates in the combustion chamber were also analysed. Studies have shown that, with an increase of the 2-EHN fraction in an EDB, the periods of ignition and combustion delay decrease, and the increase in the temperature of ambient gas into which the fuel is injected shortens these periods to a varying extent.
Expanded fluid-based thermal conductivity model for hydrocarbons and crude oils Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 F. Ramos-Pallares, F.F. Schoeggl, S.D. Taylor, H.W. Yarranton
Thermal conductivity data for crude (mainly heavy) oils and mixtures of crude oils and pure hydrocarbons were collected at temperatures from 20 to 125 °C and pressures up to 10 MPa using a hot wire apparatus. A criterion was established to screen out data that were affected by convection. The screened data and data from the literature were used to develop an Expanded Fluid (EF) based thermal conductivity model for pure hydrocarbons, crude oils and their mixtures. The proposed model is applicable across the entire phase diagram including the critical region; however, it does not predict the critical enhancement of thermal conductivity observed in the vicinity of the critical point. The model inputs are the density of the fluid, the pressure, the dilute gas thermal conductivity, the compressed state density, and three other fluid specific parameters. The gas thermal conductivity is calculated from a well-established correlation. The compressed state density is obtained from the literature or from fitting the EF viscosity model to viscosity data. The three fluid specific parameters are determined by fitting the model to thermal conductivity data. The model fits the data of 63 pure hydrocarbons at temperatures from −150 to 330 °C and pressures up to 200 MPa with average deviation of 4%, except in the vicinity of the critical point (0.97 < reduced temperature < 1.1). The model also fits the data of 7 different crude oils at temperatures and pressures up to 150 °C and 10 MPa to within 0.3% of the experimental data. Mass based mixing rules were proposed for the model parameters of mixtures. The data for 19 pure hydrocarbon binaries at atmospheric pressure were predicted with average deviation of 0.5% and that of 8 bitumen/solvent pseudobinaries, at pressures up to 10 MPa, was predicted with average deviation of 1.6%. The introduction of binary interaction parameters into the mixing rules halved the magnitude of the deviations.
Bed material as a catalyst for char gasification: The case of ash-coated olivine activated by K and S addition Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Teresa Berdugo Vilches, Jelena Maric, Pavleta Knutsson, Daniel C. Rosenfeld, Henrik Thunman, Martin Seemann
Vitrinite reflectance as a measure of the range of influence of the temperature of a georeactor on rock mass during underground coal gasification Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Leokadia Róg
Tests of coal samples collected from a borehole drilled in the surrounding of an underground coal gasification georeactor were conducted. This experiment was conducted for the first time in an active coal mine in Poland. The aim of the tests was to determine the extent of heat penetration around the UCG cavity during a nearly two month gasification process. The method of measuring the mean reflectance of the vitrinite index (Ro), which is more generally used to measure the degree of the coalification of organic substances in coal (macerals) under the influence of temperature, was applied. The method is still used to evaluate the usefulness of coal for producing coke. The mean reflectance of the vitrinite index determined for the collected samples and reflectograms, allowed the inference that when the georeactor was operating, the temperature in the UCG cavity reached approximately 1300 °C. Based on Ro, the point in a coal seam surrounding the georeactor corresponding to the temperature of approximately 700 °C was also identified, where there were signs of the initial stage of coal transformation. The point was located 1.94 m from the boundary of the UCG cavity. Then, at the distance of 1.73 m from the boundary of the UCG cavity the point with a temperature of approximately 1000 °C was identified. The tests confirmed that it is possible to use the method of determining the mean reflectance of vitrinite index to measure the distance of influence of georeactor temperature on the rock mass. This is particularly important for underground coal gasification conducted in active mines. In the future the results will be used to predict the time of heating needed for coal deposits to become gasified, based on laboratory tests and coal type.
Numerical investigation of twin swirl application in diesel engine combustion Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Alper Tolga Calik, Ozgur Oguz Taskiran, Rafig Mehdiyev
Unlike conventional Diesel engine Combustion Chambers (CC) which have single swirl, MR-Process CC has twin swirl that promotes fuel air mixture formation by enabling ideal vaporization of fuel spray directed towards tangentially to piston walls. For the initial studies 2-valve (one intake manifold) engine CC geometry was modified aiming to create twin swirls from the initial single swirl and this limited version of MR-Process named as Quasi MR-Process. It is concluded in these studies that a 4-valve engine is needed for an ideal twin swirl formation. However, design and application of 4-valve engine head with two intake manifolds that satisfies ideal twin swirl conditions inside the CC is a challenging task. In addition, proposed unique MR-Process CC is not known before and there is no available experimental data for the optimum values of injection characteristics, air flow field and swirl conditions. Optimum intake manifold and MR-Process CC shape design and optimum spray injection angle determination will be an expensive and time-consuming task if only utilized from experimental studies. In this study numerical analysis of MR-Process CC were performed to investigate the feasibility of twin swirl initiation and the results are presented. This study aims to reveal effectiveness/potential of twin swirl application on Diesel engines utilizing closed cycle simulations. For this purpose, the existing swirl model in open source KIVA3V-R2 code was modified to create perfect initial twin swirls at the start of the compression stroke. Then different angular velocities of the initial swirls and injection directions of fuel sprays were applied to obtain optimum fuel air mixture that ensues to increase efficiency and decrease harmful exhaust emissions. The analyzed results showed that MR-Process has potential to obtain better fuel air mixture, hence reduce emission levels while increasing efficiency of Diesel engines. This study also presents a basis for further full-cycle investigations of MR-Process CC.
Valorization of citrus wastes by fast pyrolysis in a conical spouted bed reactor Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Jon Alvarez, Bahar Hooshdaran, Maria Cortazar, Maider Amutio, Gartzen Lopez, Fabio B. Freire, Masoud Haghshenasfard, Seyyed Hossein Hosseini, Martin Olazar
The fast pyrolysis of the juice squeezing derived orange waste has been carried out in a continuous pyrolysis bench-scale plant consisting of a conical spouted bed reactor (CSBR). A prior study performed in thermobalance and a kinetic model consisting of a multi-component mechanism allowed determining the contents of pectin (35 wt%), hemicellulose (16.6 wt%) and cellulose (17.1 wt%), but that of lignin could not be satisfactorily determined as its degradation curve overlapped with other compounds such as sugars, proteins and fats. In the bench scale experiments, the bio-oil yields were very high in the 425–500 °C range (close to 55 wt%) due to the suitable features of the CSBR (high heat and mass transfer rates and short residence time of the volatiles), but they are lower for higher temperatures due to the promotion of secondary cracking reactions. Compared to lignocellulosic biomasses, the orange waste produced a bio-oil with more methanol and furfural and less phenolic species, which is an encouraging fact for its stability and valorization by catalytic cracking or steam reforming. The high concentration of CO2 in the gas is a drawback for use for energy production. The char yield (33–27 wt%) was high in the whole range of temperatures studied and its high carbon content (71–73 wt%) and HHV (≈27 MJ kg−1) are suitable for use as fuel.
Predicting Wobbe Index and methane number of a renewable natural gas by the measurement of simple physical properties Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Partho Sarothi Roy, Christopher Ryu, Chan Seung Park
General hydro-geological impact of cleats on underground coal gasification Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Liangliang Jiang, Zhangxin Chen, S.M. Farouq Ali
Potential aquifer contamination has been a huge environmental concern for the implementation of underground coal gasification (UCG) as coal seams are frequently overlaid by an aquifer. To explore the general impact of cleats on the mass transfer problems in UCG, particularly in the vertical direction, a dual-permeability (DP) cleat model was integrated into a 3-D numerical model which is dimensionally extensive to account for the hydrostatic effect of an aquifer. It was found that cleats favour UCG production, and the prime operational parameter, i.e., the injection pressure, plays a dominant role in governing vertical mass transport in UCG. Syngas production retains some constancy with variable geological settings unless a surge in the injection pressure occurs. Higher pressure injection generates higher peak rates but delayed production. At near-hydrostatic injection, gas species attain a weak presence in the overburden contrary to expectations based on key geological parameters. However, gas saturation in the cap rock increases appreciably under above-hydrostatic injection. The role of higher injection pressure becomes so overwhelming that variations or heterogeneity in geological parameters produce little difference in the transfer problems.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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