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  • A comprehensive review on laminar spherically premixed flame propagation of syngas
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 3.956) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Yongliang Xie, Xujiang Wang, Haiquan Bi, Yanping Yuan, Jinhua Wang, Zuohua Huang, Bo Lei

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle is a technology which has been studied widely as a future clean energy system. As one important portion of it, syngas premixed combustion is crucial due to its immediate impact on the efficiency and emission. However, its control is challenging since turbulent combustion in the chamber is extremely complex due to the composition variability and structural complexity of the combustion devices. Deep study on the laminar premixed combustion of syngas is of great importance for revealing the real complex turbulent combustion process. In the present paper, recent progress in fundamental research on laminar spherically premixed flame propagations of syngas, including laminar flame speed, Markstein length, flame stretch, cellular flame structure and self-acceleration are presented. Detailed summaries and discussions for different stages of the flame propagation are given. In particular, laminar flame speed and wrinkled flame front due to intrinsic flame instability are emphasized. Furthermore, future prospects on laminar spherically premixed flame propagation of syngas mixtures are discussed.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Pore structure evaluation of cementing composites blended with coal by-products: Calcined coal gangue and coal fly ash
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 3.956) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Jin Yang, Ying Su, Xingyang He, Hongbo Tan, Youzhi Jiang, Linghao Zeng, Bohumír Strnadel

    Coal gangue (CG) and coal fly ash (FA) are the main coal by-product wastes. This paper focuses on the pore structure evaluation of CG and FA blended cementing composites with various replacement levels from 3 days up to 180 days. Results indicate that negative effect of coal by-products on the compressive strength and average pore size can be reduced to a negligible level at late ages. Similar average pore size (~10 nm) and critical width (10–20 nm) are found for CG and FA composites after 90 days. Moreover, the blended composites have significantly higher gel pore fraction, and the higher the dosage the larger the gel pore fraction. Multi-fractal feature is observed with the fact that scale of micro-fractal region is found always broader than the macro-fractal region and the micro-Ds is found always larger than the macro-Ds. Both the micro- and macro-Ds of blended composites are systematically larger than the plain pastes.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • 更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Modified exergy and exergoeconomic analyses of a biomass post fired hydrogen production combined cycle
    Renew. Energy (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Saeed Soltani

    Biomass post fired hydrogen production combined cycle (BPFHPCC) is proposed and analyzed via common exergy and exergoeconomic analyses. In order to have an objective insight and especially realistic approach to the cycle’s thermodynamic and exergoeconomic performance, modified approach is applied. Within common exergy analysis, the components with high exergy destruction are respectively, the combustion chamber, heat recovery steam generator and gasifier while with modified exergy analysis they are the gas turbine, steam turbine and post combustion chamber. As far as components exergy destruction cost rate are concerned, with common analysis the highest exergy destruction cost rates are for the combustion chamber, heat recovery steam generator and steam turbine while with modified analysis they are the combustion chamber, gas turbine, and steam turbine. In this system hydrogen is used for other units. However, if we want to use it within the system, the case in which hydrogen is injected into the combustion chamber is extended. The effects on the thermodynamic efficiency and system product cost were negative while it decreased the system CO2 emissions, exergy destruction and loss rates as well as the exergy destruction and loss cost rates.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • An integrated GIS-based Ordered Weighted Averaging Analysis for Solar Energy Evaluation in Iran: Current Conditions and Future Planning
    Renew. Energy (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Mohammad Karimi Firozjaei, Omid Nematollahi, Naeim Mijani, Saman Nadizadeh Shorabeh, Hamzeh Karimi Firozjaei, Ara Toomanian

    Solar energy is one of the important energy sources and countries have realized the important role of renewable energies due to depletion of conventional energy sources. In this study, a GIS- based analysis is utilized for investigating the feasibility of solar energy in Iran. To evaluate the concept of risk into the GIS-based analysis for determining optimal areas for installation of solar power plants an Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) approach is used for first time. Integration of OWA-based approach and GIS analysis provide models that determine the regions priority from risk free decision to risky decision strategies. The results show that Kerman, Yazd, Fars, Khuzestan, Sistan and Baluchistan, South Khorasan and Isfahan provinces have a good capacity to invest in solar energy projects. The GIS-based analysis indicates, that the values of installed solar power plants percentages in high chosen areas for the most pessimistic and optimistic strategies are 7% and 64%, respectively.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Theoretical study of direct vapor generation for energy integrated solar absorption machines
    Renew. Energy (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Antonio Lecuona-Neumann, Antonio Famiglietti, Mathieu Legrand
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Green synthesis of nanoarchitectured nickel fabrics as high performance electrodes for supercapacitors
    Renew. Energy (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Ruitao Zhou, Yexiang Fu, Kuo-an Chao, Ching-Hsiang Cheng
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Hydrochar derived from green waste by microwave hydrothermal carbonization
    Renew. Energy (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Yuchao Shao, Yuyang Long, Hengyi Wang, Dongyun Liu, Dongsheng Shen, Ting Chen
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Inter-sectoral effects of high renewable energy share in global energy system
    Renew. Energy (IF 4.9) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Esa Pursiheimo, Hannele Holttinen, Tiina Koljonen

    Renewable energy future from energy coupling perspective is analysed by using global energy system model. Energy system with high renewable share is examined by four scenarios differentiated by biomass potential and electric vehicle market share. For comparison, business-as-usual scenario with emission fees but without non-renewable energy exclusion is used. In renewable scenarios non-renewable energy sources are phased out by high tax for year 2050 and letting model find cost-optimal path from 2010 to 2050. Results indicate that high renewable share poses major changes in each energy system sector, especially in power generation, industry and transportation. Substantial biomass utilisation is required, and increased electrification of energy system, especially in industrial sector, is necessary with high penetration of solar and wind power. Solar photovoltaics (PV) reaches globally 39–44% share in primary energy and 75% share in electricity generation since positive development of PV technology directs especially power generation in Asia to solar power. This requires high capacity of power-to-x technologies, which use electricity to produce synthetic fuels used in industrial and transport sectors, and electricity storages. Transition to renewable energy system mitigates CO2 emissions by 90% from 2010 to 2050, even though the issue of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions remain.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Mass spectrometric evaluation of the soluble species of Shengli lignite using cluster analysis methods
    Fuel (IF 4.908) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Ya-Ru Yu, Xing Fan, Lu Chen, Xueming Dong, Yun-Peng Zhao, Bei Li, Xian-Yong Wei, Feng-Yun Ma, Aisha Nulahong

    A coal was extracted and thermally dissolved with cyclohexane, acetone and methanol sequentially. The ultrasonic extracts and thermal dissolution (TD) products were analyzed using an Orbitrap mass spectrometer (MS) with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source in positive ion mode. Large amounts of MS data were obtained but there were challenges in obtaining meaningful information from the data. The purpose of cluster analysis is to reduce complex multivariate data into meaningful groups. Two cluster analysis methods, hierarchical cluster analysis and expectation maximum algorithm based on Gaussian mixture model (EMGM), run by R language were introduced to obtain in-depth statistical results for compounds in both extracts and TD products. Seven types of heteroatomic compounds (O1, O2, N1, S1, O1N1, O1S1 and N1S1) in the extracts under the condition of ultrasonic extraction with cyclohexane were clustered with EMGM and possible structures of the related models can be inferred by analyzing the relationship between carbon number and double bond equivalent. The application of cluster analysis will provide methodological guidance in studying the structure of coal molecules.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • 更新日期:2018-09-25
  • 更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Neural networks to fit potential energy curves from asphaltene-asphaltene interaction data
    Fuel (IF 4.908) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    J.H. Pacheco-Sánchez, R. Alejo, H. Cruz-Reyes, F. Álvarez-Ramírez

    Neural networks methodology is a tool that allows to get the potential energy curve in cases where the data dispersion does not fit a discrete distribution; hence, a binding energy fitting can be found with this methodology. A data distribution of the intermolecular pair interaction potential in vacuum has been previously accomplished between asphaltene-asphaltene (UAA) systems by using compass classical force field. In the latter, all possible interaction geometries are taken into account between the species: random, face-to-face, t-shape and edge to edge. In one of these cases, a potential energy curve is gotten when the geometry of interaction is face-to-face using a statistical fit. Focusing in these data distribution, neural networks have been applied on the following cases: i) face-to-face distribution of asphaltene-asphaltene interactions; ii) the complete asphaltene-asphaltene discrete distribution of energy vs contact distance (the minimum distance at which the interacting species is not equal to zero) where all-geometries were used, and iii) the random distribution of geometries of asphaltene-asphaltene interactions. In addition, using an asphaltene model molecule reported by Speight and taking into account two possible asphaltene interactions (face-to-face and random), firstly the data distribution of energy as a function of distance is obtained, and secondly neural networks are applied to fit the corresponding potential energy curve.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Characteristics of co-combustion of strongly caking and non-caking coals in a pilot circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC)
    Fuel (IF 4.908) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Kyoungil Park, Jong-Min Lee, Dong-Won Kim, Gyu-Hwa Lee, Yong Kang

    Co-firing of Russian caking coal with non-caking coals (mixtures of Australian bituminous and Korean anthracite coals) was performed on a pilot scale using a circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). The free swelling index (FSI) of caking coal was very high and the alkali index of non-caking coals was relatively high. However, stable fluidization and combustion were attained using various coal blends (containing up to 20 wt% of strongly caking coal). The average particle size in bottom ash increased slightly as the proportion of caking coal increased, triggering a slight temperature rise in the lower part of the combustor. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry and X-ray diffraction analyses of coarse particles showed that Al-rich bottom ash captured problematic K to form kalsilite (KAlSiO4), with a melting point much higher than the operating temperature of a typical CFBC. Such data strongly suggest that stable CFBC co-combustion is possible using mixtures featuring strongly caking coals. The unburnt carbon content of fly ash and the O2 concentration in flue gas at the steady state increased linearly as the proportion of caking coal increased, indicating reduced co-combustion of caking coal. Morphological analyses of unburnt carbon in bottom ash revealed that pore clogging progressed on addition of caking coal, decreasing char reactivity by blocking oxygen access during co-combustion. In terms of pollutants, NO emission from fuel N in flue gas increased slightly on addition of caking coal, but N2O emission decreased slightly, attributable to a temperature rise in the dense combustor bed. However, the conversion rate of fuel S to SO2 did not significantly change when the proportion of caking coal increased.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • A computational model to simulate self-heating ignition across scales, configurations, and coal origins
    Fuel (IF 4.908) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Han Yuan, Francesco Restuccia, Franz Richter, Guillermo Rein

    Self-heating of fuel layers can trigger ignition when the temperature of the surroundings is sufficiently high. Self-heating ignition has been a hazard and safety concern in raw materials production, transportation, and storage facilities for centuries. Hot plate and oven-basket experiments are the two most used lab-scale experiments to assess the hazard of self-heating ignition. While extensive experiments have been done to study this phenomenon, modelling of the experiments is substantially lagging behind. A computational model that can accurately simulate self-heating ignition under the two experimental configurations has not been developed yet. In this study, we build such a model by coupling heat transfer, mass transfer, and chemistry using the open-source code Gpyro. Due to the accessibility of large amount of experimental data, coal is chosen as the material for model validation. A literature review of the kinetic parameters for coal samples from different origins reveals that there is a compensation effect between the activation energy and exponential factor. Combining the compensation effect with our model, we simulate 6 different experimental studies covering the two experimental configurations, a wide range of sample sizes (heights ranging from 5 mm to 126 mm), and various coal origins (6 countries). The model accurately predicts critical ignition temperature (Tig) for all 24 experiments with an error below 7 °C. This computational model unifies for the first time the two most used self-heating ignition experiments and provides theoretical insights to understand self-ignition for different fuels under different conditions.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Origin based classification of crude oils by infrared spectrometry and chemometrics
    Fuel (IF 4.908) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Amir Bagheri Garmarudi, Mohammadreza Khanmohammadi, Hassan Ghafoori Fard, Miguel de la Guardia

    Crude oil samples from different Iranian petrol resources in both, raw and mixture forms have been characterized by attenuated total reflectance mid infrared spectroscopy. Obtained spectra were classified by chemometric techniques to propose a method for geological based classification of crude oil samples. Totally 251 samples from 7 petrol fields and 3 mixtures were analyzed. Mean centering and principal component analysis (PCA) supported – leverage value based outlier detection were used as preprocessing approaches. PCA, cluster analysis and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were utilized to classify the spectra. Obtained results confirmed that SIMCA is a robust chemometric technique for origin classification of crude oil samples based on their IR spectra, while the mixture samples were also classified satisfactory in some cases. Root mean square error, method precision and regression coefficient for the prediction of origin of an independent validation set of 111 samples were 1.41%, 96.7% and 0.957 respectively.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • TSR, deep oil cracking and exploration potential in the Hetianhe gas field, Tarim Basin, China
    Fuel (IF 4.908) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Guangyou Zhu, Ying Zhang, Xiaoxiao Zhou, Zhiyao Zhang, Dedao Du, Shengbao Shi, Tingting Li, Weiyan Chen, Jianfa Han

    Oil and gas in deep and ultra-deep strata has been a hot topic in both research and exploration. The understanding of reservoirs in relatively shallow strata may be of significance for deep exploration. The Hetianhe gas field is the only large gas field discovered yet in the southwest region of the Tarim Basin, with a small quantity of condensate oil penetrated and a burial depth ranging from 1035 m to 2885 m, and the origin and source of the oil and gas has long been unclear. By using comprehensive 2D gas chromatography/time of flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS), abundant diamondoids and some thiadiamondoids were detected in condensate oil samples collected from 3 wells, additionally, the features, including dry gas with a trace amount of hydrogen sulfide, heavy carbon isotopes, and similar sulfur isotopes in hydrogen sulfide and Cambrian gypsum, indicate that the oil and gas has undergone the thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) and thermal cracking. The current reservoir temperature, from 35 °C to 83 °C, does not meet the condition for the onset of these secondary geochemical alterations, therefore, the oil and gas may originate from deep strata. According to the reconstruction of the geologic evolution, deep oil and gas may have migrated vertically along faults and accumulated in the Hetianhe structure formed after 10 Ma to form the secondary gas reservoirs; hence it is inferred that favorable petroleum plays may exist in deep strata. The thick evaporite in the Middle Cambrian and the high-quality dolomite reservoirs in the Lower Cambrian constitute a favorable reservoir-seal assemblage, with the current depth between 8500 m and 10000 m and reservoir temperature above 200 °C, where the TSR and thermal cracking may occur. The sulfur isotope of hydrogen sulfide also demonstrates the occurrence of TSR process in the Cambrian strata. Therefore, large-scale of oil and gas reserves may be preserved in the stable zones in the Cambrian sub-salt strata, and it is suggested to strengthen hydrocarbon exploration in the Cambrian sub-salt strata in the southwest region of the Tarim Basin.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Scaling law for slip flow of gases in nanoporous media from nanofluidics, rocks, and pore-scale simulations
    Fuel (IF 4.908) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Ye Tian, Xiangyu Yu, Jun Li, Keith B. Neeves, Xiaolong Yin, Yu-Shu Wu

    In unconventional reservoirs, as the effective pore size becomes close to the mean free path of gas molecules, gas transport in porous media begins to deviate from Darcy’s law. The objective of this study is to explore the similarities of gas flows in nanochannels and core samples as well as those simulated by direct simulation BGK (DSBGK), a particle-based method that solves the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation.Due to difficulties in fabrication and experimentation, previous study on gas flow experiments in nanochannels is very limited. In this work, steady-state gas flow was measured in reactive-ion etched nanochannels with a controlled channel size on a sillicon wafer. A core-based permeability measurement apparatus was used to perform steady-state gas flow measurements on carbonate and shale samples. Klinkenberg permeability was obtained under varying pore pressures but constant temperature and effective stress. Methane was used in nanofluidic and rock experiments, making them directly comparable. Results from both experiments were then compared to gas flow simulations by DSBGK method carried out on several independently constructed geometry models. DSBGK uses hundreds of millions of simulated molecules to approximate gas flow inside the pore space. The intermolecular collisions are handled by directly integrating the BGK equation along each molecules trajectory, rather than through a sampling scheme like that in the direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) method. Consequently, the stochastic noise is significantly reduced, and simulation of nano-scale gas flows in complex geometries becomes computationally affordable.The slippage factors obtained from these independent studies varied across three orders of magnitude, yet they all appear to collapse on a single scaling relation where the slippage factor in the slip flow regime is inversely proportional to the square root of intrinsic permeability over porosity. Our correlation could also fit the data in the literature, which were often obtained using nitrogen, after correcting for temperature and gas properties. This study contributes to rock characterization, well testing analysis as well as the understanding of rarefied gas transport in porous media.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Density functional theory study on improved reactivity of alkali-doped Fe2O3 oxygen carriers for chemical looping hydrogen production
    Fuel (IF 4.908) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Yuchuan Feng, Nana Wang, Xin Guo

    The key obstacle preventing the widespread use of chemical looping hydrogen production is the scarcity of high-performance oxygen carrier (OC) materials. Here, for the first time we investigated improved reactivity of all the alkali-doped Fe2O3 OCs by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Firstly, the location of alkali dopants (Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs) in the Fe2O3 crystal structure was studied. Our calculation results showed that all the alkali dopants prefer to be located at the surface of Fe2O3 rather than in the bulk. Then oxygen vacancy formation energies (Evac) of Fe2O3 and alkali-doped Fe2O3 OCs, which could be used to evaluate the activity of OC surface oxygen, were calculated via DFT. It was found that the Evac of surface oxygen adjacent to the dopants for all the alkali-doped Fe2O3 are much lower than that for undoped Fe2O3. The smaller the ionic radius is and the stronger the electronegativity is, the lower the Evac of surface oxygen away from the dopants is. The surface oxygen adjacent to the dopants will show the better activity compared to the one away from the dopants. Finally, we analyzed the effect of alkali dopants on the reactivity of Fe2O3 OC. We concluded that the addition of Li, Na and K dopants are certainly able to enhance the activity of surface oxygen, thereby improving the reactivity of Fe2O3 OC. Compared with Li, Na and K, Rb and Cs will have a worse synergetic effect on the reactivity of Fe2O3 OC. Li, Na and K were identified as the optimal dopants. A quick screening of promising dopants for Fe2O3 OC could be realized by our DFT calculations.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Deactivation kinetics for lignite gasification in a fluidized bed reactor
    Fuel (IF 4.908) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Tansu Uyar, Yahya Suyadal

    Lignite gasification may be characterized by the active site restriction result from deactivation. As was aimed here, a deactivation model (DM) can be developed by “pseudo-steady-state” mass balance, i.e. describing variation of available surface with time. For this purpose, bench-scale fluidized bed reactor (FBR) was operated for obtaining gasification product profiles. Gas samples were taken from the reactor effluent stream, and fed continuously to the gas analyzers for on-line simultaneous measurements of H2, CO2, CO, CH4 and O2. Data were used for extracting model parameters (k// and kD) from the linear form of DM. Experiments at temperature range of 973–1173 K were conducted. Fluidizing mixture (air and steam) entered the bed through a distributor of a 200-mesh stainless steel sieve and fluidized the single charge of lignite with a mean particle diameter approximately 250 µm. The agreement between the experimental and predicted carbon concentrations was confirmed for DM. The latter may be successfully used to design the fluidized bed combustors or gasifiers.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Porous extruded-spheronized Li4SiO4 pellets for cyclic CO2 capture
    Fuel (IF 4.908) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Yingchao Hu, Mingyu Qu, Hailong Li, Yuandong Yang, Jianping Yang, Wenqi Qu, Wenqiang Liu
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Gas and liquid permeability measurements in Wolfcamp samples
    Fuel (IF 4.908) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Athma R. Bhandari, Peter B. Flemings, Sebastian Ramiro-Ramirez, Ronny Hofmann, Peter J. Polito

    Argon gas and liquid (dodecane) permeability measurements in two mixed quality siliceous mudstone samples within the Wolfcamp formation demonstrate that it is possible to close multiple bedding parallel open artificial micro-fractures and obtain representative matrix permeability by applying two confining stress cycles at a constant pore pressure under effective stresses ranging from 6.9 MPa to 59.7 MPa. The clearly micro-fractured sample exhibited a three-order decrease in permeability from 4.4 × 10−17 m2 to 2.1 × 10−20 m2. In contrast, the relatively intact sample exhibited initial liquid permeability of 1.6 × 10−19 m2 that declined gradually with stress to 3.0 × 10−20 m2. In this study, we developed a new permeability testing protocol and analytical approaches to interpret the evolution of micro-fractures and estimate the matrix permeability based on initial pulse-decay gas permeability measurements. The insights gained are useful to identify pore-scale controls on fluid flow behavior using SEM petrography and pore-space characterization and validate fundamental fluid flow mechanisms examined using pore-scale numerical models.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Multiple-doped barium cerate proton-conducting electrolytes for chemical-energy cogeneration in solid oxide fuel cells
    Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 4.229) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Jie-Yuan Lin, Lin Shao, Feng-Zhan Si, Xian-Zhu Fu, Jing-Li Luo

    Proton-conducting perovskite oxides such as doped barium cerate and barium zirconate are promising electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Multiple-doped barium cerate perovskite oxide proton conductors of BaCe0·7Zr0·1Y0.2-xNdxO3−δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) are prepared by solid state reaction and the properties of the fabricated material are characterized by various technologies. Nd doping improves the sinterability and Zr doping enhances the chemical stability in CO2 atmosphere. The electrical conductivity order of the as-prepared electrolytes at elevated temperature in hydrogen atmosphere is: BaCe0·7Y0·17Zr0.1Nd0.03O3−δ > BaCe0·7Y0·2Zr0·1O3−δ > BaCe0·7Y0·1Zr0.1Nd0.1O3−δ. Ethane is selectively dehydrogenated to ethylene with cogeneration of electrical power in the SOFC operated at 650–700 °C. The maximum power density of the SOFC is 123 mW cm−2 for ethane fuel and 138 mW cm−2 for hydrogen fuel at the 700 °C. These unique features make the multiple-doped barium cerate perovskite oxide a promising electrolyte for chemical-energy cogeneration in SOFCs.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors of coke gasification in N2COCO2H2H2O
    Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 4.229) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Chenchen Lan, Qing Lyu, Xiaojie Liu, Maofa Jiang, Yana Qie, Shuhui Zhang

    Changes in the gas balance components, carbon gasification rate and reaction enthalpy of carbon in reaction with CO2 and H2O were analyzed by thermodynamic calculations under different temperatures and pressures. The dynamic behavior of coke was simulated using a thermogravimetric method in N2COCO2H2H2O, and the gasification reaction rate of coke and the controlling factors in the gasification process were analyzed. The results show that the effect of H2O on coke gasification is stronger than that of CO2. In the low-temperature region, the reaction enthalpy of C and H2O is higher than that of C and CO2, and the reaction enthalpy of C and CO2 gradually becomes higher than that of C and H2O with increasing temperature. Increasing pressure can block the C gasification. Increases in temperature and in H2O volume fraction promote coke gasification; furthermore, the effective internal diffusion coefficient and the interfacial reaction rate constant of coke gasification gradually increase, and the improvement of the internal diffusion conditions is clearly greater than that of the interfacial reaction. In the process of coke gasification, with increasing temperature and H2O volume fraction, the gasification reaction region controlled by the interfacial reaction gradually increases.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Enhancing the yield of hydrogen peroxide and phenol degradation via a synergistic effect of photoelectrocatalysis using a g-C3N4/ACF electrode
    Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 4.229) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Fangke Yu, Yi Wang, Hongrui Ma, Guohui Dong

    In this work, a new activated carbon fiber (ACF) cathode modified with graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was developed, which enables the substantially improved production of H2O2 (up to 32.8 mg L−1) with relatively low energy consumption (10.9 kWh kg−1) compared to generation without g-C3N4 (4.09 mg L−1). The cathode was analyzed and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, and it was proved that the synthesized g-C3N4 is a thin layer sheet with a large number of carbon particles and low defect porosity. The cathode manufacturing parameters were optimized, and the influences of H2O2 production including the cathode potential, pH value, aeration rate and performance stability were studied. These features improved the production of H2O2 by about more than 7 folds when optimized ratio of g-C3N4 was used, and the modified cathode kept stable performance of H2O2 generation in 5 cycles. Further discussed by linear sweep voltammetry, rotating disk electrode and contact angle analysis, the existence of g-C3N4 were found to accelerate the electron transfer rate, is advantageous to the surface of the oxygen reaction, but will not change the two electronic number of oxygen reduction reaction activities, and this leads to enhanced performance of hydrogen peroxide production and the possible mechanism was suggested. Finally, the cathode improve by g-C3N4 proved the degradation effect of phenol by photoelectric-Fenton process. Phenol was degraded completely, and 93.8% of the organic carbon was removed, which is more than 1.5 and 5 times the amount achieved using electro-Fenton and photo-Fenton degradation only. In the degradation process of phenol, electrocatalysis and photocatalysis, they were optimized to produce substantial synergistic effect, proving the great potential practical application of organic wastewater treatment.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Syngas production by chemical looping gasification of biomass with steam and CaO additive
    Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 4.229) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Yuting Wu, Yanfen Liao, Guicai Liu, Xiaoqian Ma

    In the present work chemical looping gasification (CLG) of biomass, with introduction of steam and CaO, was conducted in a fixed bed to produce syngas. The addition of steam facilitated both the reforming reaction and water gas shift reaction to produce more gaseous products, especially H2. Depending on gas yield and gasification efficiency, the requirement of steam was sufficient for CLG at steam flow n = 0.6 r/min. It was also confirmed that CaO had a positive effect in gasification and the addition in the ratio of CaO/C = 1 was adequate for syngas production. Moreover, CaO mainly played a role as CO2 absorbent at low temperature but as catalyst above 700 °C. However, the catalysis of CaO received the major attention because of its availability for high syngas yield (1.367 m3/kg) and efficiency (carbon conversion efficiency was 89.28% and gasification efficiency was 88.81%) at 800 °C. CaO was found to retard the sintering and porosity reduction of Fe2O3, the oxygen carrier, by covering Fe2O3 and forming calcium ferrites during multiple redox cycles.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Hydrogen sensing performance of a Pd/HfO2/GaOx/GaN based metal-oxide-semiconductor type Schottky diode
    Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 4.229) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Ching-Hong Chang, Kun-Wei Lin, Hsin-Hau Lu, Rong-Chau Liu, Wen-Chau Liu
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Effect of hydrogen addition on the OH* and CH* chemiluminescence emissions of premixed combustion of methane-air mixtures
    Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 4.229) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    M. Reyes, F.V. Tinaut, B. Giménez, José V. Pastor

    Chemiluminescence emissions measurements of OH* and CH* are used to characterize the combustion of blends of methane and hydrogen in air in a constant volume combustion bomb, with two sets of initial conditions. The combined results of combustion development cover from 0.1 to 2.5 MPa. Burning velocity, heat release and unburned/burned gas temperatures are obtained from the pressure by using a two-zone thermodynamic combustion diagnostic model. Intensity of OH* and CH* increases with the initial temperature and the percentage of hydrogen, in parallel with the usual increase in burning velocity. The timings of the peaks of OH* and CH* chemiluminescence emissions are found to correlate respectively with the maximum rate of heat release and flame temperature. These results show that both chemiluminescence signals can be used to monitorize the burning process in combustion devices operating in the pressure range studied.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Nanoflake δ-MnO2 deposited on carbon nanotubes-graphene-Ni foam scaffolds as self-standing three-dimensional porous anodes for high-rate-performance lithium-ion batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.945) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Xue Zhai, Zhu Mao, Guangyu Zhao, David Rooney, Naiqing Zhang, Kening Sun

    The electrification of transportation necessitates the growth of high-power-density lithium ion batteries. However, traditional graphite anodes in lithium ion batteries perform poorly especially when charged or discharged under high current density. In this work, we deposit nanoflake δ-MnO2 on the carbon nanotubes-Graphene-Nickel foam compound matrix and apply it as a self-standing anode without binder or conductive agent. This composite buffers volume change, enables more electrochemical active sites, boosts the conductivity of electrode materials and facilitates lithium-ion diffusion. The resulting lithium ion batteries with the composite anodes show improved cycle life and enhanced rate performance, yielding a high specific capacity of 1250 mAh g−1 for 350 cycles at 0.4 A g−1 and 490 mAh g−1 over 700 cycles at 4.0 A g−1.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Asymmetric supercapacitor for sensitive elastic-electrochemical stress sensor
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.945) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Ning Wei, Qiang Wang, Yue Ma, Limin Ruan, Wei Zeng, Dong Liang, Chao Xu, Linsheng Huang, Jinling Zhao
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Hydrogen storage in MgX (X = Cu and Ni) systems - is there still news?
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.945) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Gauthier Lefevre, Sébastien Saitzek, Rachel Desfeux, Nathalie Kunkel, Adlane Sayede
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • High valence chromium regulated cobalt-iron-hydroxide for enhanced water oxidation
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.945) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Xin Bo, Yibing Li, Xianjue Chen, Chuan Zhao
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Controllable synthesis of Co2P nanorods as high-efficiency bifunctional electrocatalyst for overall water splitting
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.945) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Meijing Song, Yu He, Mengmeng Zhang, Xuerong Zheng, Yang Wang, Jinfeng Zhang, Xiaopeng Han, Cheng Zhong, Wenbin Hu, Yida Deng
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Thermal cycling durability improved by doping fluorine to PrBaCo2O5+δ as oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalyst in intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.945) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Yanhong Wan, Yulin Xing, Yihang Li, Daoming Huan, Changrong Xia

    Double perovskite PrBaCo2O5+δ (PBC) has received much attention as cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) due to its excellent catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), especially at intermediate temperature up to 800 °C. However, its high thermal expansion coefficient (CTE), about twice as the electrolytes, usually results in poor durability. This work presents the effect of CTE reduction by doping fluorine ion to the oxygen-site of PrBaCo2O5+δ. The fluorine doping, which is confirmed with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations, can substantially reduce CTE, from 24.03 × 10−6 K−1 down to 16.78 × 10−6 K−1 as determined with dilatometry while from 26.52 × 10−6 K−1 to 17.46 × 10−6 K−1 with high-temperature XRD. Consequently, the durability is improved by a factor of ∼3.0 when the electrodes are subjected to 200–800 °C thermal cycles. In addition, the fluorine doping does not deteriorate but maintains or even improves the oxygen transport properties and electrochemical performance for ORR of PBC, demonstrating that fluorine doping is very attractive for the development of promising cathode materials for intermediate-temperature SOFCs.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Highly efficient sol-gel synthesis for ZnS@N, S co-doped carbon nanosheets with embedded heterostructure for sodium ion batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.945) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Kaiwen Yang, Qiubo Guo, Honglei Li, Xuechun Hao, Yifan Ma, Mei Yang, Teng Zhai, Serguei V. Savilov, Valery V. Lunin, Hui Xia
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Cobalt iron carbonate hydroxide hydrate on 3D porous carbon as active and stable bifunctional oxygen electrode for Zn–air battery
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.945) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Yan Qi Jin, Zhipeng Lin, Rui Zhong, Jilin Huang, Guofeng Liang, Jiawang Li, Yanshuo Jin, Hui Meng
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Size effects of micro-pattern on lithium metal surface on the electrochemical performance of lithium metal secondary batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.945) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Joonam Park, Dohwan Kim, Dahee Jin, Charudatta Phatak, Kuk Young Cho, Young-Gi Lee, Seungbum Hong, Myung-Hyun Ryou, Yong Min Lee
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Generation of a functional, semisynthetic [FeFe]-hydrogenase in a photosynthetic microorganism
    Energy Environ. Sci. (IF 30.067) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Adam Wegelius, Namita Khanna, Charlène Esmieu, Giovanni David Barone, Filipe Pinto, Paula Tamagnini, Gustav Berggren, Peter Lindblad

    [FeFe]-hydrogenases are hydrogen producing metalloenzymes with excellent catalytic capacities, highly relevant in the context of a future hydrogen economy. Here we demonstrate the synthetic activation of a heterologously expressed [FeFe]-hydrogenase in living cells of Synechocystis PCC 6803, a photoautotrophic microbial chassis with high potential for biotechnological energy applications. H2-evolution assays clearly show that the non-native, semi-synthetic enzyme links to the native metabolism in living cells.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Correction: Review of electrical energy storage technologies, materials and systems: challenges and prospects for large-scale grid storage
    Energy Environ. Sci. (IF 30.067) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Turgut M. Gür

    Correction for ‘Review of electrical energy storage technologies, materials and systems: challenges and prospects for large-scale grid storage’ by Turgut M. Gür, Energy Environ. Sci., 2018, DOI: 10.1039/c8ee01419a.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • The influence of substrate-dependent triboelectric charging of graphene on the electric potential generation by the flow of electrolyte droplets
    Nano Energy (IF 13.12) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Daehoon Park, Sejeong Won, Kwang-Seop Kim, Joo-Yun Jung, Jang-Young Choi, Junghyo Nah
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • High-Performance Electrochemical CO2 Reduction Cells Based on Non-noble Metal Catalysts
    ACS Energy Lett. (IF 12.277) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Xu Lu, Yueshen Wu, Xiaolei Yuan, Ling Huang, Zishan Wu, Jin Xuan, Yifei Wang, Hailiang Wang
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Present and Future Perspective on Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Zinc-Ion Batteries
    ACS Energy Lett. (IF 12.277) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Aishuak Konarov, Natalia Voronina, Jae Hyeon Jo, Zhumabay Bakenov, Yang-Kook Sun, Seung-Taek Myung

    The zinc-ion battery (ZIB) is a two century-old technology, but has recently attracted renewed interest owing to the possibility of switching from primary to rechargeable ZIBs. Nowadays, ZIBs employing a mild aqueous electrolyte are considered one of the most promising candidates for emerging energy storage systems (ESS) and portable electronics applications due to their environmental friendliness, safety, low cost, and acceptable energy density. However, there are many drawbacks associated with these batteries that have not yet been resolved. In this review, we present the challenges and recent developments related to rechargeable ZIB research. Recent research trends and directions on electrode materials that can store Zn2+ ions and electrolytes that can improve the battery performance are comprehensively discussed.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Linking morphology and multi-physical transport in structured photoelectrodes
    Sustainable Energy Fuels Pub Date : 2018-09-10
    Silvan Suter, Marco Cantoni, Yannick K. Gaudy, Simone Pokrant, Sophia Haussener
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Critical role of {002} preferred orientation on electronic band structure of electrodeposited monoclinic WO3 thin films
    Sustainable Energy Fuels Pub Date : 2018-09-04
    Wai Ling Kwong, Pramod Koshy, Judy N. Hart, Wanqiang Xu, Charles C. Sorrell
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Enhanced storage capability by biomass-derived porous carbon for lithium-ion and sodium-ion battery anodes
    Sustainable Energy Fuels Pub Date : 2018-09-02
    Jian Hao, Yanxia Wang, Caixia Chi, Jing Wang, Qingjie Guo, Yu Yang, Yao Li, Xiaoxu Liu, Jiupeng Zhao
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Glucose isomerization catalyzed by bone char and the selective production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in aqueous media
    Sustainable Energy Fuels Pub Date : 2018-08-30
    Babasaheb M. Matsagar, Chi Van Nguyen, Md. Shahriar A. Hossain, Md. Tofazzal Islam, Yusuke Yamauchi, Paresh L. Dhepe, Kevin C.-W. Wu
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Will the competitive future of solid state Li metal batteries rely on a ceramic or a composite electrolyte?
    Sustainable Energy Fuels Pub Date : 2018-08-24
    Antonio Gutiérrez-Pardo, Andrea I. Pitillas Martinez, Laida Otaegui, Meike Schneider, Andreas Roters, Anna Llordés, Frédéric Aguesse, Lucienne Buannic
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • A cobalt hydroxide-based compressible electrode material for asymmetrical all-solid supercapacitors
    Sustainable Energy Fuels Pub Date : 2018-08-23
    Yuanyuan Yang, Yuan Tu, Pengli Zhu, Leicong Zhang, Tingxi Li, Hairong Zheng, Rong Sun, Chingping Wong
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • 更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Photo-electrochemical hydrogen production from neutral phosphate buffer and seawater using micro-structured p-Si photo-electrodes functionalized by solution-based methods
    Sustainable Energy Fuels Pub Date : 2018-08-16
    Anurag Kawde, Alagappan Annamalai, Lucia Amidani, Manuel Boniolo, Wai Ling Kwong, Anita Sellstedt, Pieter Glatzel, Thomas Wågberg, Johannes Messinger
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • 更新日期:2018-09-25
  • 更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Amino-fulleropyrrolidines as electrotropic additives to enhance organic photovoltaics
    Sustainable Energy Fuels Pub Date : 2018-08-08
    Supravat Karak, Zachariah A. Page, Shaoguang Li, Jonathan S. Tinkham, Paul M. Lahti, Volodimyr V. Duzhko, Todd Emrick
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Preparation and photocatalytic activity of Au/TiO2 lyogels for hydrogen production
    Sustainable Energy Fuels Pub Date : 2018-08-03
    Lester Martínez, Mónica Benito, Ignasi Mata, Lluís Soler, Elies Molins, Jordi Llorca
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Rechargeable organic–air redox flow batteries
    Sustainable Energy Fuels Pub Date : 2018-08-03
    P. Leung, D. Aili, Q. Xu, A. Rodchanarowan, A. A. Shah
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Impact of the addition of poly-dihydrogen ruthenium precursor complexes on the hydrogen storage properties of the Mg/MgH2 system
    Sustainable Energy Fuels Pub Date : 2018-08-03
    Basile Galey, Aline Auroux, Sylviane Sabo-Etienne, Mary Grellier, Sameh Dhaher, Georgeta Postole
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Benzothiadiazole–triphenylamine as an efficient exciton blocking layer in small molecule based organic solar cells
    Sustainable Energy Fuels Pub Date : 2018-08-03
    Laura Caliò, Bhushan R. Patil, Johannes Benduhn, Koen Vandewal, Horst-Günter Rubahn, Morten Madsen, Samrana Kazim, Shahzada Ahmad
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Water-tolerant lithium metal cycling in high lithium concentration phosphonium-based ionic liquid electrolytes
    Sustainable Energy Fuels Pub Date : 2018-08-03
    Robert Kerr, Nikhilendra Singh, Timothy S. Arthur, Thushan Pathirana, Fuminori Mizuno, Kensuke Takechi, Maria Forsyth, Patrick C. Howlett
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • One-pot synthesis of g-C3N4/MnO2 and g-C3N4/SnO2 hybrid nanocomposites for supercapacitor applications
    Sustainable Energy Fuels Pub Date : 2018-07-27
    Jithesh Kavil, P. M. Anjana, Pradeepan Periyat, R. B. Rakhi
    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • 更新日期:2018-09-25
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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