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  • Climatic and volcanic forcing of tropical belt northern boundary over the past 800 years
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 14.391) Pub Date : 2018-10-15
    R. Alfaro-Sánchez, H. Nguyen, S. Klesse, A. Hudson, S. Belmecheri, N. Köse, H. F. Diaz, R. K. Monson, R. Villalba, V. Trouet
    更新日期:2018-10-15
  • Rapid incision of the Mekong River in the middle Miocene linked to monsoonal precipitation
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 14.391) Pub Date : 2018-10-15
    Junsheng Nie, Gregory Ruetenik, Kerry Gallagher, Gregory Hoke, Carmala N. Garzione, Weitao Wang, Daniel Stockli, Xiaofei Hu, Zhao Wang, Ying Wang, Thomas Stevens, Martin Danišík, Shanpin Liu
    更新日期:2018-10-15
  • Author Correction: Carbon budgets for 1.5 and 2 °C targets lowered by natural wetland and permafrost feedbacks
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 14.391) Pub Date : 2018-10-15
    Edward Comyn-Platt, Garry Hayman, Chris Huntingford, Sarah E. Chadburn, Eleanor J. Burke, Anna B. Harper, William J. Collins, Christopher P. Webber, Tom Powell, Peter M. Cox, Nicola Gedney, Stephen Sitch
    更新日期:2018-10-15
  • High resolution land surface modeling of hydrological changes over the Sanjiangyuan region in the eastern Tibetan Plateau: 1. Model development and evaluation
    J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. (IF 3.97) Pub Date : 2018-10-15
    Xing Yuan; Peng Ji; Linying Wang; Xin‐Zhong Liang; Kun Yang; Aizhong Ye; Zhongbo Su; Jun Wen

    High resolution modeling became popular in recent years due to the availability of multisource observations, advances in understanding fine‐scale processes, and improvements in computing facilities. However, modeling of hydrological changes over mountainous regions is still a great challenge due to the sensitivity of highland water cycle to global warming, tightly coupled hydro‐thermal processes, and limited observations. Here we show a successful high resolution (3 km) land surface modeling over the Sanjiangyuan region located in the eastern Tibetan Plateau, which is the headwater of three major Asian rivers. By developing a new version of a Conjunctive Surface‐Subsurface Process model named as CSSPv2, we increased Nash‐Sutcliffe efficiency by 62%‐130% for streamflow simulations due to the introduction of a storage‐based runoff generation scheme, reduced errors by up to 31% for soil moisture modeling after considering the effect of soil organic matter on porosity and hydraulic conductivity. Compared with ERA‐Interim and GLDAS1 reanalysis products, CSSPv2 reduced errors by up to 30%, 69%, 92% and 40% for soil moisture, soil temperature, evapotranspiration (ET) and terrestrial water storage change (TWSC) respectively as evaluated against in‐situ and satellite observations. Moreover, CSSPv2 well captured the elevation‐dependent ground temperature warming trends and the decreased frozen dates during 1979‐2014, and significant increasing trends (p<0.05) in ET and TWSC during 1982‐2011 and 2003‐2014 respectively, while ERA‐Interim and GLDAS1 showed no trends or even negative trends. This study implies the necessity of developing high resolution land surface models in realistically representing hydrological changes over highland areas that are sentinels to climate change.

    更新日期:2018-10-15
  • High resolution land surface modeling of hydrological changes over the Sanjiangyuan region in the eastern Tibetan Plateau: 2. Impact of climate and land cover change
    J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. (IF 3.97) Pub Date : 2018-10-15
    Peng Ji; Xing Yuan

    Known as the “China Water Tower”, the Sanjiangyuan region over the eastern Tibetan Plateau experienced significant hydrological changes during the past few decades, potentially affecting the security of food, energy and water over the downstream areas. Previous studies attributed the hydrological changes to global warming or land cover change, and obtained contrary conclusions on the dominant drivers. Here we show that natural climate change is mainly responsible for most hydrological changes (except low flows) over the Sanjiangyuan region, followed by the anthropogenic climate change, while land cover contributed the least. The newly developed Conjunctive Surface‐Subsurface Process version 2 (CSSPv2) land surface model that was evaluated comprehensively in the first part of this series, was used to conduct a set of high resolution simulations driven by Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) detection and attribution experiment outputs with natural or anthropogenic forcings. By using an integrated hydroclimate attribution framework, anthropogenic climate change was found to cause significant ground temperature warming and soil frozen period shortening. However, significant decreasing trends in annual mean streamflow and high flows over the Yellow River headwater region, and the terrestrial water storage averaged over the Sanjiangyuan region were mainly caused by natural climate change, with contribution by 57%‐97%. The contributions from land cover change are less than 11%. This study suggests that adaptations are more important than mitigations for the water resources management over the Sanjiangyuan and its downstream regions, because natural climate change outweighed human‐induced climate change in the headwater region.

    更新日期:2018-10-15
  • ISOLESC: Equation Chapter 1 Section 1A coupled Isotope‐LSM–LES‐Cloud modeling system to investigate the water budget in the atmospheric boundary layer
    J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. (IF 3.97) Pub Date : 2018-10-15
    Zhongwang Wei; Xuhui Lee; Edward G. Patton

    Stable isotopes of water (H2O, HDO, H218O) are tracers that provide powerful constraints on water transport processes in the atmosphere. This paper presents a description of an atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) simulation system called ISOLESC that couples water isotope fractionation processes with a land surface model, a large eddy simulation model, and a two‐moment cloud microphysics parameterization. Results from two model configurations – one with shallow precipitating cumulus and the other for a cloud‐free ABL – are presented to evaluate the model performance and determine its sensitivity to isotopic parameterizations. The coupled model successfully reproduces important ABL statistics (ABL height, cloud fraction, cloud liquid water content), the expected effects of mixing and fractionation on the time evolution of ABL vapor isotopic composition, and observed diurnal variations of near‐surface water vapor isotopic composition. For the current configuration, non‐discriminating entrainment contributes 17 % to the sub‐daily time variation of near‐surface vapor deuterium excess, while surface evapotranspiration contributes 83 %. The isotopic compositions of water vapor and cloud water are insensitive to mesh resolution, but the profiles of cloud water specific humidity, rainwater specific humidity and its isotopic ratios show moderate response to changes in grid size. Since ISOLESC resolves the energy containing scales of turbulent motions in the ABL and incorporates microphysical processes, it can be used for constraining ABL parameterizations. We find that a further improvement of raindrop re‐evaporation in the current cloud microphysical scheme is required in order to produce realistic near‐surface raindrop deuterium excess for the case simulated here. We suggest that ISOLESC provides a quantitative framework for utilizing vapor‐phase isotopic measurements to study local hydrological processes.

    更新日期:2018-10-15
  • 更新日期:2018-10-15
  • Influences of subsidence and free‐tropospheric conditions on the nocturnal growth of non‐classical marine stratocumulus
    J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. (IF 3.97) Pub Date : 2018-10-13
    Y.‐F. Ma; J. G. Pedersen; W. W. Grabowski; M. K. Kopec; S. P. Malinowski

    Effects of free‐tropospheric thermodynamic properties and large‐scale subsidence on the nocturnal growth of marine stratocumulus (MSc) clouds are investigated through large‐eddy simulation based on Flight 5 of the Physics of Stratocumulus Top research campaign. It was characterized by a weak inversion and moist troposphere. Sensitivity simulations are performed using variations in the subsidence and free‐tropospheric temperature and humidity. The results confirm that the cloud‐top entrainment instability (CTEI) parameter κ alone cannot unambiguously control the behaviors of MSc due to the opposite response of liquid water path (LWP) to changes in the humidity and temperature jumps with the same variation in κ, thereby both jumps should be considered separately. However, sometimes it could be considered as a joint factor of the humidity and temperature jumps controlling LWP even though CTEI does not occur or κ < 0. An obvious role of subsidence is to push the inversion layer down nearly identically and at the same rate under different ambient conditions. Enhanced subsidence, as expected, diminishes the entrainment rate, cloud‐top height, cloud thickness and LWP. However, it has a small influence on the inversion thickness and the dynamic instability across the inversion. An LWP budget analysis shows that the direct effect of subsidence is a small reduction in the LWP, but the indirect effect of subsidence is large due to contributions from other physical processes. Therefore, subsidence is an important physical process controlling the LWP budget, even though its direct contribution is significantly smaller than the largest contributions from both radiation and entrainment.

    更新日期:2018-10-14
  • The International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) System: Design, Theory, and Implementation
    J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. (IF 3.97) Pub Date : 2018-10-12
    Nathan Collier; Forrest M. Hoffman; David M. Lawrence; Gretchen Keppel‐Aleks; Charles D. Koven; William J. Riley; Mingquan Mu; James T. Randerson

    The increasing complexity of Earth system models (ESMs) has inspired efforts to quantitatively assess model fidelity through rigorous comparison with best‐available measurements and observational data products. ESMs exhibit a high degree of spread in predictions of land biogeochemistry, biogeophysics, and hydrology, which are sensitive to forcing from other model components. Based on insights from prior land model evaluation studies and community workshops, the authors developed an open source model benchmarking software package that generates graphical diagnostics and scores model performance in support of the International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) project. Employing a suite of in situ, remote sensing, and reanalysis datasets, the ILAMB package performs comprehensive model assessment across a wide range of land variables and generates a hierarchical set of webpages containing statistical analyses and figures designed to provide the user insights into strengths and weaknesses of multiple models or model versions. Described here is the benchmarking philosophy and mathematical methodology embodied in the most recent implementation of the ILAMB package. Comparison methods unique to a few specific datasets are presented, and guidelines for configuring an ILAMB analysis and interpreting resulting model performance scores are discussed. ILAMB is being adopted by modeling teams and centers during model development and for model intercomparison projects, and community engagement is sought for extending evaluation metrics and adding new observational datasets to the benchmarking framework.

    更新日期:2018-10-14
  • Remotely-sensed phenology of Italian forests: Going beyond the species
    Int. J. Appl. Earth Obs. Geoinf. (IF 4.003) Pub Date : 2018-10-12
    S. Bajocco, C. Ferrara, A. Alivernini, M. Bascietto, C. Ricotta

    Remotely sensed observations of seasonal greenness dynamics represent a valuable tool for studying vegetation phenology at regional and ecosystem-level scales. We investigated the seasonal variability of forests in Italy, examining the different mechanisms of phenological response to biophysical drivers. For each point of the Italian National Forests Inventory, we processed a multitemporal profile of the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index. Then we applied a multivariate approach for the purpose of (i) classifying the Italian forests into phenological clusters (i.e. pheno-clusters), (ii) identifying the main phenological characteristics and the forest compositions of each pheno-cluster and (iii) exploring the role of climate and physiographic variables in the phenological timing of each cluster. Results identified four pheno-clusters, following a clear elevation gradient and a distinct separation along the Mediterranean-to-temperate climatic transition of Italy. The “High-elevation coniferous” and the “High elevation deciduous” resulted mainly affected by elevation, with the former characterized by low annual productivity and the latter by high seasonality. To the contrary, the “Low elevation deciduous” showed to be mostly associated to moderate climate conditions and a prolonged growing season. Finally, summer drought was the main driving variable for the “Mediterranean evergreen”, characterized by low seasonality. The discrimination of vegetation phenology types can provide valuable information useful as a baseline framework for further studies on forests ecosystem and for management strategies.

    更新日期:2018-10-14
  • 更新日期:2018-10-14
  • NO2 suppression of autoxidation - inhibition of gas-phase highly-oxidized dimer product formation
    ACS Earth Space Chem. Pub Date : 2018-10-12
    Matti P. Rissanen

    Atmospheric autoxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) leads to prompt formation of highly-oxidized multifunctional compounds (HOM) that have been found crucial in forming ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA). As a radical chain reaction mediated by oxidized peroxy (RO2) and alkoxy (RO) radical intermediates, the formation pathways can be intercepted by suitable reaction partners, preventing the production of the highest oxidized reaction products, and thus the formation of the most condensable material. Commonly, NO is expected to have a detrimental effect on RO2 chemistry, and thus on autoxidation, whereas the influence of NO2 is mostly neglected. Here it is shown by dedicated flow tube experiments, how high concentration of NO2 suppresses cyclohexene ozonolysis initiated autoxidation chain reaction. Importantly, the addition of NO2 ceases covalently bound dimer production, indicating their production involving acylperoxy radical (RC(O)OO•) intermediates. In related experiments NO was also shown to strongly suppress the highly-oxidized product formation, but due to possibility for chain propagating reactions (as with RO2 and HO2 too), the suppression is not as absolute as with NO2. Furthermore, it is shown how NOx reactions with oxidized peroxy radicals lead into indistinguishable product compositions, complicating mass spectral assignments in any RO2 + NOx system. The present work was conducted with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) as the detection method for the highly-oxidized end-products and peroxy radical intermediates, under ambient conditions and at short few second reaction times. Specifically, the insight was gained by addition of a large amount of NO2 (and NO) to the oxidation system, upon which acylperoxy radicals reacted in RC(O)O2 + NO2 → RC(O)O2NO2 reaction to form peroxyacylnitrates, consequently shutting down the oxidation sequence.

    更新日期:2018-10-14
  • WISHE‐Moisture Mode in an Aquaplanet Simulation
    J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. (IF 3.97) Pub Date : 2018-10-12
    Xiaoming Shi; Daehyun Kim; Ángel F. Adames; Jai Sukhatme

    This study aims to understand the nature of the tropical intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) in an aquaplanet simulation performed using Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's AM2.1 with a uniform sea surface temperature within the deep tropics. The simulated ISO resembles the observed Madden‐Julian Oscillation in that the spectral peak in precipitation appears at zonal wave number 1 and a period of ~60 days. Vertically integrated moist static energy budget of the simulated ISO shows that enhanced latent heat flux to the east of anomalously active convection causes eastward propagation of the ISO mode, which is weakly opposed by horizontal moisture advection. A series of mechanism denial experiments are conducted either by homogenizing select variables—surface wind stress, longwave radiative heating, and surface evaporation—with their zonal means from the control simulation or by suppressing free‐tropospheric moisture variation. Results of the mechanism denial experiments show that the simulated ISO disappears when the interactive surface evaporation is disabled, suggesting that the wind‐induced surface heat exchange (WISHE) mechanism is essential to the simulated ISO. Longwave cloud‐radiation feedbacks and moisture‐convection feedbacks affect horizontal scale and phase speed of the simulated ISO, respectively. Our results strongly suggest that the simulated ISO is the linear WISHE‐moisture mode of Fuchs and Raymond under horizontally uniform boundary conditions.

    更新日期:2018-10-12
  • Explicitly Accounting for the Role of Remote Oceans in Regional Climate Modeling of South America
    J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. (IF 3.97) Pub Date : 2018-10-12
    Amir Erfanian; Guiling Wang

    The common practice in dynamic downscaling is to nest a higher‐resolution regional climate model (RCM) into a global model that resolves the large‐scale circulation. However, nested RCMs can develop distinct large‐scale features that substantially diverge from those of the driving model. This is especially problematic over regions such as South America (SA), where the climate features strong teleconnection with remote oceans. Here we propose to explicitly resolve the atmospheric processes underlying the teleconnection by expanding the RCM domain to include the influential oceans. Using the coupled RegCM4.3.4‐CLM4.5 model, RCM simulations designed under the new paradigm demonstrate a substantial improvement of model skills over those using the standard CORDEX SA domain. Analysis of the underlying physical mechanisms indicates that the RCM captures the large‐scale dynamics and climate teleconnections substantially better when it includes the influential oceans. The Big Brother experimental protocol is then used to identify sources of uncertainties and skills, and the results suggest that the nesting practice cannot effectively capture the impact of forcings and processes acting outside the RCM domain. This uncertainty introduces substantial systematic bias to RCM simulations yet is not sampled by existing coordinated regional modeling projects (e.g., CORDEX) due to the use of a single domain focusing over land. Explicitly including oceans within the domain substantially reduces the sensitivity of the SA model climate to domain size/location and promises great potential for RCM applicability in studying regional mechanisms and feedback processes of SA's hydroclimate.

    更新日期:2018-10-12
  • 更新日期:2018-10-12
  • Climate-induced discharge variations of the Nile during the Holocene: Evidence from the sediment provenance of Faiyum Basin, north Egypt
    Glob. Planet. Change (IF 3.982) Pub Date : 2018-10-10
    Qianli Sun, Yan Liu, Alaa Salem, Leszek Marks, Fabian Welc, Ma Fuwei, Weiguo Zhang, Jing Chen, Jun Jiang, Zhongyuan Chen

    The Faiyum Basin of northern Egypt occupies a key location on the source-to-sink pathway of the Nile. High-resolution grain size, organic carbon and carbonates, as well as geochemical and magnetic analyses, were conducted on a sediment core retrieved from the basin to infer changes in sediment provenance in association with climate-induced variations in Nile River discharge during the Holocene. A high Si/Al ratio in the coarse sediment with weak magnetic properties prior to ca. 9.7 cal ka BP indicated prevalent aeolian activities in the lake basin, revealing no Nile discharge inputs and thus a dry Nile. Initial high values of the mobile elements (CaO, MgO and Sr) after ca. 9.7 cal ka BP with well-sorted finer sediment marked the establishment of a flow connection between the basin and the Nile since then. This establishment was followed by a durative hydrological connection to the Nile until ca. 5.0 cal ka BP inferred from high organic matter and stable magnetic and geochemical properties of the finer sediment, implying a humid climate phase of the Nile between ca. 9.7–5.0 cal ka BP. Afterwards, an increasing Ti/Al ratio and magnetism of the sediment indicated a brief change in sediment provenance, as material from the volcanic Ethiopian Uplands carried by the Blue Nile and the Atbara became dominant. A drying climate prevailed in the Nile Basin after ca. 5.0 cal ka BP. Although the Ti/Al ratio and sediment magnetic properties still showed a prominent sediment contribution from the volcanic Ethiopian Uplands, the natural discharge from the river Nile to the Faiyum Basin was weakened, especially when increasing water extraction by humans occurred after ca. 4.0 cal ka BP. The sediment provenance pattern of the Faiyum Basin was substantially influenced by climate-induced variations of the Nile discharge in response to the advance/retreat of the African Summer Monsoon (ASM) driven by the northward/southward migration of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ).

    更新日期:2018-10-11
  • Towards understanding the global and regional climatic impacts of Modoki magnitude
    Glob. Planet. Change (IF 3.982) Pub Date : 2018-10-11
    Muhammad Mubashar Dogar, Fred Kucharski, Tomonari Sato, Shahbaz Mehmood, Shaukat Ali, Zhiqiang Gong, Debanjana Das, Josefina Arraut

    Earlier studies suggest that the frequency and the strength of ENSO Modoki events increased considerably since last few decades (1970–2010) resulting in a need to revisit the climatic impacts of varying magnitude of ENSO Modoki. Hence, to better understand the impact of ENSO Modoki amplitude over the tropical and extra-tropical regions especially in the Pacific, Asian and African regions, we conducted ENSO Modoki sensitivity experiments using ICTP-AGCM (SPEEDY). One of the main interests of this study is to see how ICTP-AGCM can reproduce teleconnections induced by ENSO Modoki events and how sensitive is the global and regional climate to ENSO Modoki strength. SPEEDY model qualitatively reproduces the impact of ENSO Modoki over the Pacific, Atlantic, North and South America and African regions very well. However, it underestimates ENSO Modoki induced teleconnection patterns and associated changes in South Asia, particularly in the Indian region. This study suggests a nonlinear climatic response to increased magnitude of ENSO Modoki. Our results reveal that like conventional ENSO, ENSO Modoki also induces considerable impact over North Pacific (Atlantic) region and initiates strong PNA (NAO) like response. ENSO Modoki-induced negative/positive NAO-like response and associated changes in Southern Europe and North Africa region get significantly strong following increased intensity of El Niño/La Niña Modoki in the boreal winter. We further find that ENSO Modoki magnitude significantly impacts tropical and high latitude circulation cells. The positive phase of ENSO (El Niño) overall strengthens Hadley Cell and a reverse is true for La Niña phase. ENSO Modoki-induced strengthening and weakening of Hadley Cell induce significant impact over South Asian and African ITCZ convective regions through modification of ITCZ/monsoon circulation system.

    更新日期:2018-10-11
  • The Iberia-Eurasia plate boundary east of the Pyrenees
    Earth Sci. Rev. (IF 7.491) Pub Date : 2018-10-10
    S. Tavani, C. Bertok, P. Granado, F. Piana, R. Salas, B. Vigna, J.A. Muñoz

    In this work we provide a reappraisal of the mid-Cretaceous extensional basins located to the east of the Pyrenean mountain ranges, from the easternmost portion of Iberia to the Briançonnais Domain of the Western Alps fold-and-thrust belt. These features are reviewed and compared with those of the Bay of Biscay-Pyrenean rift, with the aim of defining geometry, kinematics, timing and lateral extent of the eastern termination of the Mesozoic Iberia-Eurasia plate boundary. Timing and direction of extension, as well as the style of structural segmentation in the Bay of Biscay - Pyrenean rift, are similar to those of basins exposed to the east of the Pyrenean mountain ranges. In both areas, the divergent movement between Iberia and Eurasia caused NNE-SSW oriented extension recorded in WNW-ESE elongated Late Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous basins, segmented by NNE-SSW trending transfer zones.In this work we also individuate and introduce the eastern termination of the Iberia-Eurasia plate boundary. This is the Marguareis extensional system of the Briançonnais Domain of the SW Alps. The crustal-scale Marguareis extensional system involves Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks and includes a tens of km long transfer fault flanking an extensional domino array that accounted for ca. 2 km of extension along 6 km long sections. When post-Cretaceous alpine rotation is removed, the mid-Cretaceous transfer fault and the extension direction of the Marguareis extensional system become oriented parallel to those of the other portions of the plate boundary, indicating its pertinence to the Bay of Biscay-Pyrenean rift system.Reviewed and newly presented data about the mid-Cretaceous tectonics spanning from the easternmost portion of Iberia to the Western Alps indicate that: (i) the Marguareis extensional system and the extensional structures of south France constituted the easternmost portion of the segmented and laterally terminating Bay of Biscay-Pyrenean rift system; (ii) this easternmost portion of the Iberia-Eurasia plate boundary was characterised by a purely divergent Early to mid-Cretaceous movement.

    更新日期:2018-10-11
  • Remote sensing of coal fires in India: A review
    Earth Sci. Rev. (IF 7.491) Pub Date : 2018-10-11
    Tajdarul Hassan Syed, Moidu Jameela Riyas, Claudia Kuenzer

    Coal fires are a persistent threat to major coal producing countries in the world. Alongside massive wastage of coal resources, coal fires pose enormous constraints to mining operations in adjacent areas. Beyond its dire denouement for a country's economy, coal fires pose potential risk to the environment, infrastructure and human health at local and regional scales. Owing to its dynamic nature and widespread occurrence, remote sensing provides the most cost-effective technology for mapping and monitoring of coal fires in India and the world over. This work presents a brief discussion on the principles of various remote sensing techniques and an in-depth review of the applications of remote sensing as a reliable tool to detect and monitor coal fires in India. While we review the capabilities and efficiencies of various remote sensing techniques, implemented since its inception in the late 1980s, we also highlight their limitations and advantages. Also, included are a broad overview of coal and coal fires in India, factors inducing them and their impact on the environment. Finally, we discuss the existing knowledge gaps, prospective challenges, urgent requirements and recommendations for extending the scope of remote sensing based coal fire investigations in the future.

    更新日期:2018-10-11
  • Jurassic paleogeography of the Tian Shan: An evolution driven by far-field tectonics and climate
    Earth Sci. Rev. (IF 7.491) Pub Date : 2018-10-11
    Julien Morin, Marc Jolivet, Cécile Robin, Gloria Heilbronn, Laurie Barrier, Sylvie Bourquin, Yingying Jia

    The strongly intracontinental Tian Shan region, in Central Asia represents a key area to understand the long term evolution of continents in general and Asia in particular. If its Paleozoic and Cenozoic geodynamics are well understood, its Mesozoic evolution remains poorly constrained. In order to decipher the paleogeographic and large-scale tectonic evolution of the Tian Shan area during the Jurassic, we compiled, detailed field analyses of sedimentary rocks acquired within and around the Chinese Tian Shan region together with previously published data. We present three paleogeographical maps corresponding to the late Early – early Middle Jurassic, late Middle – early Late Jurassic and Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous transition periods. We provide a large - scale picture of the Jurassic paleogeographic and climatic evolution of the Tian Shan region and discuss the geological evolution of the range together with the possible driving mechanisms. During the Early to early Middle Jurassic, the topographic evolution of the Tian Shan Range was dominated by progressive planation of late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic relief, locally interrupted by short-lived tectonic uplift. Throughout the region, contemporaneous sedimentation was characterized by alluvial to lacustrine strata deposited under humid conditions. During this period, recurrent limited deformation events associated with strike-slip and compressive tectonics occurred that cannot be explained by far field effect of the Qiangtang collision but could instead be associated to the coeval subduction-related extension affecting the Caspian - Turan domains. During the late Middle to early Late Jurassic, the planation of the Paleozoic – early Mesozoic Tian Shan Range then continued. A shift to more semi-arid conditions during the Late Jurassic is also recorded in the sedimentary series all over the region. At that time, few evidences of deformation exists in the Tian Shan or within the Caspian – Turan domains. We propose that the late Middle – early Late Jurassic corresponded to a period of relative tectonic quiescence in the area. Finally, the Late Jurassic – Early Cretaceous transition was marked by a tectonic reactivation leading to the inversion of the Yarkand – Fergana Basin and to localized relief building in the Tian Shan. This renewed transpressive deformation phase could be mainly related to the coeval accretion of the Helmand block to the south-west, and possibly to the onset of the accretion of the Lhasa Block along the southwestern margin of Eurasia. Finally, this period was also characterized by the climax of aridification which played a major role on the emplacement of extensive alluvial fan systems in the basins surrounding the range.

    更新日期:2018-10-11
  • 更新日期:2018-10-11
  • Functional Group Composition of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formed from Ozonolysis of α-Pinene Under High VOC and Autoxidation Conditions
    ACS Earth Space Chem. Pub Date : 2018-10-10
    Megan S. Claflin, Jordan Krechmer, Weiwei Hu, Jose L. Jimenez, Paul J. Ziemann

    The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from α-pinene ozonolysis has been widely studied, with a recent focus on contributions from highly oxidized multifunctional compounds (HOMs) that have been observed in laboratory and field studies. Most of what is known about the chemical composition of SOA and HOMs formed, however, consists of molecular formulas and limited molecular structure identification based on mass spectrometric analysis. Here we characterized the SOA formed from α-pinene ozonolysis using derivatization-spectrophotometric methods to quantify peroxide, carbonyl, carboxyl, ester, and hydroxyl groups. Experiments were conducted over a range of α-pinene concentrations and relative humidities, including regimes in which gas-phase HOMs were detected using NO3– chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Results for experiments conducted with high concentrations of α-pinene were also compared with predictions of a model that employed the Master Chemical Mechanism and included gas-particle and gas-wall partitioning. It appears that gas-phase monomer and dimer products formed through RO2• + RO2•, RO2• + HO2, RO2• isomerization, and stabilized Criegee intermediate + carboxylic acid or water reactions contributed to SOA formation, but that in particles the aldehyde and ketone groups in these compounds were often converted to carboxyl and ester groups through Baeyer-Villager reactions with hydroperoxides and peroxycarboxylic acids. Evidence also indicates that hydrolysis of dimers containing diacyl peroxide groups contributed to the formation of carboxyl and ester groups, that hydroxyl groups were less abundant in SOA than expected (because of minor gas-phase alkoxy radical isomerization or conversion to an undetectable acetal oligomer), and that gas-to-particle partitioning of small carbonyl compounds may have contributed to SOA.

    更新日期:2018-10-11
  • Identifying and forecasting potential biophysical risk areas within a tropical mangrove ecosystem using multi-sensor data
    Int. J. Appl. Earth Obs. Geoinf. (IF 4.003) Pub Date : 2018-10-09
    Shanti Shrestha, Isabel Miranda, Abhishek Kumar, Maria Luisa Escobar Pardo, Subash Dahal, Taufiq Rashid, Caren Remillard, Deepak R. Mishra
    更新日期:2018-10-10
  • Neoproterozoic magmatism in the western and northern margins of the Yangtze Block (South China) controlled by slab subduction and subduction-transform-edge-propagator
    Earth Sci. Rev. (IF 7.491) Pub Date : 2018-10-10
    Jun-Hong Zhao, Qi-Wei Li, Hang Liu, Wei Wang

    South China Craton consists of the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks that were welded together along the Jiangnan Fold Belt in the Neoproterozoic. The Neoproterozoic magmatism in the western and northern margins of the Yangtze Block is characterized by voluminous volcano-sedimentary strata, numerous felsic intrusions and many mafic-ultramafic plutons which provide a good opportunity to examine the geodynamics and tectonic evolution of South China during the assemblage and breakup of Rodinia. Our study shows that the igneous rocks in the western and northern margins of the Yangtze Block have formed in subduction- and rift-related tectonic settings, respectively.In the western margin of the Yangtze Block, the Neoproterozoic mafic and ultramafic rocks show arc-affinity elemental compositions that are indicative of mantle sources enriched by slab fluids. High-δ18O mafic rocks (850–780-Ma) were derived from mantle sources that were modified by sediment melts, whereas low-δ18O mafic rocks (750–740-Ma) were formed by partial melting of mantle sources further enriched by altered oceanic crust melts. The widespread calc-alkaline I-type granitoids in this region, generated between 870 and 750 Ma, show negative to positive whole rock εNd (−4.9 to +4.8) and variable zircon εHf values (−1.9 to +10.6), similar to those of the contemporary mafic-ultramafic rocks, suggesting that they were produced by melting of the juvenile crust. The 780–750 Ma adakitic granitoids are characterized by high Sr/Y (19–318) and low Y (1.78–17.9 ppm) and have relatively constant εNd (−2.1 to +2.9) and εHf (+4.3 to +7.1) and mantle-like δ18O values (3.40‰ to 6.86‰), suggesting that they were partial melts of a subducted oceanic slab. These three types of igneous rocks demonstrate that the Neoproterozoic magmatism in the western margin of the Yangtze Block was controlled by a continuous subduction system.However, Neoproterozoic magmatism in the South Qinling Belt at the northern margin of the Yangtze Block generated both arc- and rift-related igneous rocks. The arc-like mafic-ultramafic rocks are thought to have been derived from a subduction-modified lithospheric mantle source, whereas the MORB-affinity mafic rocks were probably sourced from an asthenosphere mantle. Associated Neoproterozoic granitoids were produced by melting of the juvenile mafic crust, including minor felsic rocks derived from the ancient basement. Widespread 800–700-Ma volcano-sedimentary sequences and 650-Ma mafic dike swarms suggest an extensional environment. Neoproterozoic magmatic zircons preserve low-δ18O values that were inherited from their protolith which underwent high temperature hydrothermal interaction in a rift setting. On the basis of these observations, the Neoproterozoic magmatism in the South Qinling Belt is proposed to have been controlled by a subduction-transform edge propagator (STEP) in relation to the continuous subduction system at the western margin of the Yangtze Block.

    更新日期:2018-10-10
  • A review of the Famatinian Ordovician magmatism in southern South America: Evidence of lithosphere reworking and continental subduction in the early proto-Andean margin of Gondwana
    Earth Sci. Rev. (IF 7.491) Pub Date : 2018-10-10
    Carlos W. Rapela, Robert J. Pankhurst, César Casquet, Juán A. Dahlquist, C. Mark Fanning, Edgardo G. Baldo, Carmen Galindo, Pablo H. Alasino, Carlos D. Ramacciotti, Sebastián O. Verdecchia, Juán A. Murra, Miguel A.S. Basei

    Along the proto-Pacific margin of Gondwana, from Venezuela to northeastern Patagonia, the Early–Middle Ordovician Famatinian orogeny was the first orogenic event following assembly of the supercontinent. Previous isotope studies of the igneous and (meta-)sedimentary rocks of southwestern Gondwana yield ambiguous implications for the role of juvenile mantle addition during the early crustal growth at the supercontinental margin. To interpret the geological and tectonic evolution of the orogen and the magma sources in different episodes we look at evidence from a large area of southern South America, including the 700 × 600 km type sector of the orogen in the Sierras Pampeanas (27°–33°S), the Precordillera, and northeastern Patagonia. Previous geological, geochemical and geochronological results are reviewed together with new U—Pb SHRIMP crystallization ages, 177Hf/176Hf and 18O/16O data for dated zircon, and whole-rock Sr and Nd isotope compositions.Four geological domains are recognized in the Sierras Pampeanas (Western, Central, Eastern and Foreland Famatinian domains). Magmatism is mostly restricted to the interval 463 ± 4 to 486 ± 7 Ma, with the most intense period of emplacement between 468 and 472 Ma constituting a magmatic flare-up. Granitoid emplacement in both northeastern Patagonia and the Cordon de Lila (Puna Altiplano, Chile) was effectively synchronous with that in the Sierras Pampeanas, defining a continuous belt. Combined geochemical and isotopic data (whole-rock Sr, Nd; Hf, O in zircon) indicate that the source of calcic metaluminous suites is the subcontinental lithosphere – both mantle and mafic lower crust – with variable contamination by the Early Paleozoic metasedimentary country rocks. The lithospheric mantle involved is assumed to underlie the outcropping 1330–1030 Ma age basement of the Western Domain, which exhibits tectonic characteristics of active continental margin in the north and oceanic arc-back arc in the south. The latter sector is the potential source of some minor Famatinian igneous rocks with less evolved isotopic compositions, although a restricted asthenospheric addition cannot be discarded in this case. Minor peraluminous granites are spatially associated with the metaluminous sequence, but major highly-peraluminous batholiths occur on the eastern flank of the Central Domain. Field relations and geochemical/isotopic evidence indicate that the most obvious source of these crustal melts was the very thick post-early Cambrian metasedimentary sequence comprising the host country rocks.Episodic tectono-magmatic evolution of the Famatinian magmatic belt in two overlapping stages is invoked to explain different characteristics in the four recognized domains in the type sector:•ca. 474–486? Ma, roll-back stage. This is a mainly extensional interval involving asthenospheric upwelling and thinning of the subcontinental mantle; full development of the marine ensialic basins and early emplacement of both metaluminous granites and highly-peraluminous batholiths in the Central and Eastern Famatinian domains. Trondhjemite plutons with an adakitic signature were emplaced in the Foreland Domain•ca. 468–482 Ma, slab break-off stage. Steepening of the oceanic slab and arc migration to the southwest ended with slab break-off due to subduction of continental crust during continental collision with the Precordillera terrane. This stage produced voluminous metaluminous magmatism at the western edge of the Central Domain (the flare-up episode), K-bentonites in the Precordillera, leucogranites in the Western Domain and scattered metaluminous and peraluminous plutons in all Famatinian domains.Both slab roll-back and break-off stages developed during a high-T regime typical of hot orogens.Although asthenospheric mantle was a necessary heat source for lithospheric melting, its material contribution to the growth of Early Paleozoic crust was apparently very minor. Recycling of Mesoproterozoic lithosphere, including the subcontinental mantle, coupled with crustal melting of Early Paleozoic metasedimentary sequences, accounts for most Famatinian magmatism. Comparable results from the Central Andes and East Antarctica confirm that the early stages of the Terra Australis orogen in SW Gondwana were dominated by lithospheric reworking processes.

    更新日期:2018-10-10
  • Characterizing Technetium in Subsurface Sediments for Contaminant Remediation
    ACS Earth Space Chem. Pub Date : 2018-10-09
    Carolyn I. Pearce, R. Jeffrey Serne, Sarah A. Saslow, Wooyong Um, Robert M. Asmussen, Micah D. Miller, Odeta Qafoku, Michelle M. V. Snyder, Charles T. Resch, Kayla C. Johnson, Guohui Wang, Steve M. Heald, Jim E. Szecsody, John M. Zachara, Nikolla P. Qafoku, Andrew. E. Plymale, Vicky L. Freedman
    更新日期:2018-10-10
  • Formation of metre-scale bladed roughness on Europa’s surface by ablation of ice
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 14.391) Pub Date : 2018-10-08
    Daniel E. J. Hobley, Jeffrey M. Moore, Alan D. Howard, Orkan M. Umurhan
    更新日期:2018-10-09
  • 更新日期:2018-10-09
  • Low buffering capacity and slow recovery of anthropogenic phosphorus pollution in watersheds
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 14.391) Pub Date : 2018-10-08
    J. -O. Goyette, E. M. Bennett, R. Maranger
    更新日期:2018-10-09
  • Basalt geochemistry as a diagnostic indicator of tectonic setting
    Gondwana Res. (IF 5.657) Pub Date : 2018-10-09
    Linqi Xia, Xiangmin Li
    更新日期:2018-10-09
  • Coupling soil water processes and nitrogen cycle across spatial scales: Potentials, bottlenecks and solutions
    Earth Sci. Rev. (IF 7.491) Pub Date : 2018-10-09
    Qing Zhu, Michael J. Castellano, Guishan Yang

    Interactions among soil water processes and the nitrogen (N) cycle govern biological productivity and environmental outcomes in the earth's critical zone. Soil water influences the N cycle in two distinct but interactive modes. First, the spatio-temporal variation of soil water content (SWC) controls redox coupling among oxidized and reduced compounds, and thus N mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification. Secondly, subsurface flow controls the movement of water and dissolved N. These two processes interact such that subsurface flow dynamics control the occurrence of relatively static, isolated soil solution environments that span a range of reduced to oxidized conditions. However, the soil water-N cycle is usually treated as a black box. Models focused on N cycling simplify soil water parameters, while models focused on soil water processes simplify N cycling parameters. In addition, effective ways to deal with upscaling are lacking. New techniques will allow comprehensive coupling of the soil water-N cycle across time and space: 1) using hydrogeophysical tools to detect soil water processes and then linked to electrochemical N sensors to reveal the soil N cycle, (2) upscaling small-scale observations and simulations by constructing functions between soil water-N cycle and ancillary soil, topography and vegetation variables in the hydropedological functional units, and (3) integrating soil hydrology models with N cycling models to minimize the over-simplification of N biogeochemistry and soil hydrology mechanisms in these models. These suggestions will enhance our understanding of soil water processes and the N cycle and improve modeling of N losses as important sources of greenhouse gas emission and water pollution

    更新日期:2018-10-09
  • Constraining Aging Processes of Black Carbon in the Community Atmospheric Model Using Environmental Chamber Measurements
    J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. (IF 3.97) Pub Date : 2018-10-08
    Yuan Wang; Po‐Lun Ma; Jianfei Peng; Renyi Zhang; Jonathan H. Jiang; Richard C. Easter; Yuk L. Yung

    The direct radiative forcing of black carbon aerosols (BC) on the earth system remains unsettled, largely due to the uncertainty with physical properties of BC throughout their lifecycle. Here we show that ambient chamber measurements of BC properties provide a novel constraint on the crude BC aging representation in climate models. Observational evidence for significant absorption enhancement of BC can be reproduced when the aging processes in the four‐mode version of the Modal Aerosol Module (MAM4) aerosol scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) are calibrated by the recent in‐situ chamber measurements. An observation‐based scaling method is developed in the aging timescale calculation to alleviate the influence of biases in the simulated model chemical composition. Model sensitivity simulations suggest that the different monolayer settings in the BC aging parameterization of MAM4 can cause as large as 26% and 24% differences in BC burden and radiative forcing, respectively. We also find that an increase in coating materials (e.g. sulfate and secondary organic aerosols) reduces BC lifetime by increasing the hygroscopicity of the mixture but enhances its absorption, resulting in a net increase in BC direct radiative forcing. Our results suggest that accurate simulations of BC aging processes as well as other aerosol species are equally important in reducing the uncertainty of BC forcing estimation.

    更新日期:2018-10-09
  • Author Correction: Microbial temperature sensitivity and biomass change explain soil carbon loss with warming
    Nat. Clim. Change (IF 19.181) Pub Date : 2018-10-08
    Tom W. N. Walker, Christina Kaiser, Florian Strasser, Craig W. Herbold, Niki I. W. Leblans, Dagmar Woebken, Ivan A. Janssens, Bjarni D. Sigurdsson, Andreas Richter

    Author Correction: Microbial temperature sensitivity and biomass change explain soil carbon loss with warmingAuthor Correction: Microbial temperature sensitivity and biomass change explain soil carbon loss with warming, Published online: 08 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0322-7Author Correction: Microbial temperature sensitivity and biomass change explain soil carbon loss with warming

    更新日期:2018-10-09
  • Public acceptance of resource-efficiency strategies to mitigate climate change
    Nat. Clim. Change (IF 19.181) Pub Date : 2018-10-08
    Catherine Cherry, Kate Scott, John Barrett, Nick Pidgeon

    Rapid action to improve resource efficiency is essential for achieving climate mitigation goals. As they are likely to reshape everyday life in unexpected ways, new products, policies and business models will need to consider the public acceptability of resource-efficiency strategies, as well as the technical emission-reduction potential. Here, using consumption-based emissions modelling and deliberative public workshops, we find considerable public support for a range of resource-efficiency strategies that combined could reduce the carbon footprint in the United Kingdom by up to 29 Mt of CO2-equivalent (CO2e) emissions (a 39% emissions reduction from household products, such as cars, clothing, electronics, appliances and furniture). Public acceptability is already high for strategies that aim to develop more resource-efficient products. Strategies that aim to encourage product sharing and extend product lifetimes were also perceived positively, although acceptance was dependent on meeting other important conditions, such as trustworthiness, responsibility, fairness, affordability, convenience, safety and hygiene.

    更新日期:2018-10-09
  • Author Correction: Re-examining tropical expansion
    Nat. Clim. Change (IF 19.181) Pub Date : 2018-10-08
    Paul W. Staten, Jian Lu, Kevin M. Grise, Sean M. Davis, Thomas Birner

    Author Correction: Re-examining tropical expansionAuthor Correction: Re-examining tropical expansion, Published online: 08 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0323-6Author Correction: Re-examining tropical expansion

    更新日期:2018-10-09
  • High Radionuclides in Groundwater of an Inland Basin from Northwest China: Origin and Fate
    ACS Earth Space Chem. Pub Date : 2018-10-08
    Huaming Guo, Weiguang Zhao, Hailong Li, Wei Xiu, Jiaxing Shen
    更新日期:2018-10-09
  • 更新日期:2018-10-08
  • 更新日期:2018-10-08
  • Geological reconstructions of the East Asian blocks: From the breakup of Rodinia to the assembly of Pangea
    Earth Sci. Rev. (IF 7.491) Pub Date : 2018-10-06
    Guochun Zhao, Yuejun Wang, Baochun Huang, Yunpeng Dong, Sanzhong Li, Guowei Zhang, Shan Yu

    Pangea is the youngest supercontinent in Earth's history and its main body formed by assembly of Gondwana and Laurasia about 300–250 Ma ago. As supported by voluminous evidence from reliable geological, paleomagnetic and paleontological data, configurations of major continental blocks in Pangea have been widely accepted. However, controversy has long surrounded the reconstructions of East Asian blocks in Pangea. To determine whether or not the East Asian blocks were assembled to join Pangea before its breakup, we carried out geological and paleomagnetic investigations on East Asian blocks and associated orogenic belts, supported by a NSFC Major Program entitle “Reconstructions of East Asian blocks in Pangea”. Our results indicate that the breakup of Rodinia around 750 Ma ago led to the opening of the Proto-Tethys and Paleo-Asian oceans in East Asia, with the former separating the South China, North China, Alex Qaidam and Tarim blocks from other East Asian blocks at the margins of Australia and India, whereas the Paleo-Asian Ocean existed between the East Asian blocks and Siberia-Eastern Europe. The Proto-Tethys Ocean closed in the early Paleozoic (500–420 Ma), leading to the collision of South China, North China, Alex, Qaidam and Tarim with other East Asian blocks at the northern margin of Gondwana. The subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean formed the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, the largest accretionary orogen in Earth's history, and its closure was diachronous, with its western, central and eastern segments closing at 310–280 Ma, 280–265 Ma and 260–245 Ma, respectively, leading the Tarim, Alex and North China blocks to join Eastern Europe-Siberia as part of Pangea. During the early Devonian (420–380 ma), the East Paleo-Tethys Ocean opened with two branches, of which the north branch is called the Mianlue Ocean that separated the Tarim-Qaidam-Central Qilian-Alex and North China blocks in the north from North Qiangtang-Indochina-South China in the south, and the south branch is the stricto sensu East Paleo-Tethys Ocean that separated North Qiangtang-Indochina-South China from the Sibumasu and South Qiangtang-Lhasa blocks at the northern margin of Gondwana. In the Triassic, the East Paleo-Tethys Ocean (stricto sensu) closed along the Longmu Co – Shuanghu – Changning – Menglian – Inthanon belt, leading to the collision of North Qiangtang-Indochina-South China with Sibumasu and South Qiangtang-Lhasa, forming a single southern continent, which then collided with the Tarim-Qaidam-Central Qilian-Alex and North China blocks to form a coherent East Asian continent that had become part of Pangea by 220 Ma, when the Mianlue Ocean closed, leading to the formation of the E-W-trending Central China Orogenic System.

    更新日期:2018-10-06
  • Convectively Generated Gravity Waves in High Resolution Models of Tropical Dynamics
    J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. (IF 3.97) Pub Date : 2018-10-05
    Sebastian K. Müller; Elisa Manzini; Marco Giorgetta; Kaoru Sato; Tomoe Nasuno

    We investigate numerical models that display the transition of global climate modeling from coarse grids, at which convection and gravity waves are still parameterized, towards finer resolutions, where both are treated explicitly. Gravity waves generated by deep, tropical convection are examined by means of spectral analysis. We make use of the models' different setups to discuss the impacts of spatial resolution, the treatment of moist convection and the degree of model complexity, on convectively generated gravity waves.

    更新日期:2018-10-06
  • 更新日期:2018-10-05
  • Petroleum systems and hydrocarbon potential of the North-West Himalaya of India and Pakistan
    Earth Sci. Rev. (IF 7.491) Pub Date : 2018-10-05
    J. Craig, N. Hakhoo, G.M. Bhat, M. Hafiz, M.R. Khan, R. Misra, S.K. Pandita, B.K. Raina, J. Thurow, B. Thusu, W. Ahmed, S. Khullar

    The Himalayan orogeny has shaped the sedimentary basins of the region, where continuous deformation formed both ‘conventional’ and ‘unconventional’ petroleum systems at multiple stratigraphic levels ranging in the age from Precambrian to Neogene. Himalaya is considered to be prospective for hydrocarbon exploration because of its suitable tectono-sedimentary environment, oil/gas shows, and the presence of commercial oil and gas discoveries in broadly similar structural settings in the eastern and western regions. Although detailed surface geological mapping, the acquisition of geological data and the drilling of wells has considerably improved the understanding of the geological and structural setting and the hydrocarbon potential of the NW Himalaya, commercial discoveries have remained largely elusive.In the NW Himalaya the Precambrian-Cambrian sequences that are of primary interest include the Salt Range Formation (Potwar Basin), and also some sequences in the Lesser-and-Sub-Himalaya, such as the Proterozoic Sirban Limestone Formation; in the Kashmir and Bhadarwah-Chamba basins further to the northeast, and in the Garhwal Group and the Krol belt in the southeast.The Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks exposed within the Lesser Himalaya and the Tethyan Himalaya (represented by the Kashmir, Zanskar-Spiti, Kinnaur-Uttarakhand and Kumaon basins) have been subjected to low grade metamorphism, and presently have no significant hydrocarbon generation potential. The Cambrian Khewra and the Permian Tobra formations form hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs in the East Potwar. The Palaeozoic stratigraphy of the Zanskar Tethyan Himalaya in northern India is rather similar to that of the Peshawar Basin in Pakistan. The thick argillaceous successions are the best potential hydrocarbon source rock horizons within the Palaeozoic.The Mesozoic and Early Eocene successions of the Tethyan Himalaya were deposited in the shallow southern margin of the Tethys Ocean. In the western Himalaya, the Tethyan Himalayan succession is exposed in Kashmir, Zanskar, Chamba and Spiti basins. The Mesozoic successions include thick sequences of organic material rich argillaceous sediments. The Triassic and Jurassic strata are generally poorly developed or absent in the eastern Potwar Basin, while they get thicker towards the west Potwar and Kohat basins. The sandstones of Jurassic age are proven reservoirs, and potential source rocks are present. The Mesozoic succession of the Kashmir Basin is represented by the formations of the Triassic age. Some of the shales contain organic matter (OM) and could represent viable hydrocarbon source rocks, while some of the limestones, dolomites and sandstones have sufficient reservoir characteristics. The OM content of the argillaceous sediments within the Mesozoic-Tertiary succession of the Zanskar-Spiti Basin (Ladakh Himalaya) is appropriate for hydrocarbon generation.The Cenozoic foreland basin of the Himalayan orogen was deformed by a southward migrating thrust system during the Late Miocene-Quaternary. The Sub-Himalaya Zone contains a sequence of Cenozoic sedimentary rocks divided into the Subathu and Dharamsala (=Murree) formations, and Siwalik Group. Hydrocarbon source rocks are present in the Subathu and Dharamsala formations; while the Lower Siwalik, Kasauli and Dagshai formations contain potential sandstone reservoirs. The Eocene Subathu Formation is a key exploration target in the NW Himalaya with both potential hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks sealed by a thick clay sequence. The coeval shales within the Patala and Nammal formations are considered to be the main source rocks in the Potwar Basin, whereas, the fractured carbonates of Palaeocene and Early Eocene age are the main reservoirs. The Miocene Murree Formation is the youngest oil-producing horizon in the Potwar Basin. Palaeocene Hangu Sandstone and Lockhart Limestone are the main reservoirs in the Kohat Basin. The stratigraphy of Kohat-Potwar Basin extends into Margalla, Kalachitta and Samana Ranges. In these ranges the Jurassic-Eocene strata is exposed, so sub-thrust sheets could have hydrocarbon potential.In the NW Himalaya, the surface gas seeps are characterised by a high nitrogen content, and are either thermogenic or biogenic in origin, while the gases encountered in the wells are typically methane rich (dry) with low nitrogen concentrations, indicating thermogenic origin. There appears to be a strong linear correlation between the relative concentration of methane and nitrogen in the Himalayan fore-deep gas shows. There are numerous references to biogenic gas seeps in the Plio-Pleistocene sediments and lignite fields in the Kashmir Valley, and also in the shallow Plio-Pleistocene sediments in the Peshawar Basin.The evolution and establishment of the key petroleum system elements, the generation, expulsion, migration and accumulation (entrapment) of hydrocarbons at multiple stratigraphic levels in NW Himalaya has been controlled by the regional tectonic events. These events are associated with the source rock burial and maturation history, coupled with hydrocarbon generation, ‘peak oil’ and subsequent migration occurring concomitantly with the peak activity along the major regional thrusts. The complex and variable structural geometries have allowed a variety of traps beneath sections where source rocks have adequate burial depth, and where traps have not been breached. In NW Himalaya, the key to understand the direct relationship between tectonics and the evolution of petroleum systems are the accurate estimates for the timing of the related tectonics and that of the hydrocarbon generation, accumulation and critical moment. Here, the exploration has been hampered by the structural complexity, difficult terrain, drilling complications and poor seismic data quality. Timing of the trap formation vs. hydrocarbon charge, trap integrity, seal presence and capacity, and reservoir quality are the key geological risks that have to be addressed.

    更新日期:2018-10-05
  • Understanding Cloud and Convective Characteristics in Version 1 of the E3SM Atmosphere Model
    J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. (IF 3.97) Pub Date : 2018-10-04
    Shaocheng Xie; Wuyin Lin; Philip J. Rasch; Po‐Lun Ma; Richard Neale; Vincent E. Larson; Yun Qian; Peter A. Bogenschutz; Peter Caldwell; Philip Cameron‐Smith; Jean‐Christophe Golaz; Salil Mahajan; Balwinder Singh; Qi Tang; Hailong Wang; Jin‐Ho Yoon; Kai Zhang; Yuying Zhang

    This study provides comprehensive insight into the notable differences in clouds and precipitation simulated by the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) atmosphere model version 0 (EAMv0) and version 1 (EAMv1). Several sensitivity experiments are conducted to isolate the impact of changes in model physics, resolution, and parameter choices on these differences. The overall improvement in EAMv1 clouds and precipitation is primarily attributed to the introduction of a simplified third‐order turbulence parameterization (CLUBB; Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals) (along with the companion changes) for a unified treatment of boundary layer turbulence, shallow convection, and cloud macrophysics, though it also leads to a reduction in subtropical coastal stratocumulus clouds (Sc). This lack of Sc is considerably improved by increasing vertical resolution from 30 to 72 layers, but the gain is unfortunately subsequently offset by other retuning to reach the top‐of‐atmosphere (TOA) energy balance. Increasing vertical resolution also results in a considerable underestimation of high clouds over the Tropical Warm Pool, primarily due to the selection for numerical stability of a higher air parcel launch level in the deep convection scheme. Increasing horizontal resolution from 1° to 0.25° without retuning leads to considerable degradation in cloud and precipitation fields, with much weaker tropical and subtropical short‐ and longwave cloud radiative forcing and much stronger precipitation in the intertropical convergence zone, indicating poor scale‐awareness of the cloud parameterizations. To avoid this degradation, significantly different parameter settings for the low‐resolution (1°) and high‐resolution (0.25°) were required to achieve optimal performance in EAMv1.

    更新日期:2018-10-05
  • Characterizing the radiative effect of rain using a global ensemble of cloud resolving simulations
    J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. (IF 3.97) Pub Date : 2018-10-04
    P. G. Hill; J. C. Chiu; R. Allan; J.‐D. Chern

    The effect of rain on radiative fluxes and heating rates is a process that is neglected in most of the large scale atmospheric models used for weather forecasting or climate prediction. Yet, to our knowledge, the magnitude of the resulting radiative bias remains unquantified. This study aims to quantify the rain radiative effect (RRE) at a range of temporal and spatial scales, as a step towards determining whether the radiation schemes in these models should include rain. Using offline radiative transfer calculations with input from an ensemble of cloud resolving model simulations, we find that rain has a negligible effect on global mean radiative fluxes (less than 0.2 W m‐2). Weekly mean RREs at specific locations may be larger (less than 4 W m−2). At the finest temporal and spatial resolutions, the RRE can occasionally be much larger again (greater than 100 W m‐2), but values exceeding 10 W m‐2 occur in less than 0.1% of cases. Using detailed analysis of case studies we demonstrate that the magnitude and direction of the RRE depend on the rain water path, its vertical location with respect to cloud and, for longwave radiation, the temperature at which it occurs. Large RREs generally only occur when the rain water path is large and the cloud water path is small. These cases are infrequent and intermittent. As the RREs are generally small, we conclude that this missing process is unlikely to be important for large scale atmospheric models.

    更新日期:2018-10-05
  • Air quality in Puerto Rico in the aftermath of Hurricane Maria: A case study on the use of lower-cost air quality monitors
    ACS Earth Space Chem. Pub Date : 2018-10-04
    R Subramanian, Aja Ellis, Elvis Torres-Delgado, Rebecca Tanzer, Carl Malings, Felipe Rivera, Maité Morales, Darrel Baumgardner, Albert A Presto, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Maria, the electricity grid in Puerto Rico was devastated, with over 90% of the island without electricity; as of December 2017, about 50% of the island lacked electricity, and power outages were common elsewhere. Backup generators were widely used, sometimes as the main source of electricity. The hurricane also damaged the island’s existing air monitoring network and the University of Puerto Rico’s observing facilities. We deployed four lower-cost air quality monitors (Real-time Affordable Multi-Pollutant or RAMP monitors) and a black carbon (BC) monitor in the San Juan Metro Area in November 2017. The first month of data collected with the RAMPs showed high sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations of varying magnitudes each night. SO2 and CO are strongly correlated (r2 >0.9) at two sites ~5 km apart (University of Puerto Rico and an industrial area, Puerto Nuevo), suggesting a single source type. BC measured at the UPR site is also well correlated with CO and SO2. While the RAMPs are not certified as a federal equivalent method, the RAMP SO2 data suggest that the EPA’s daily 1-hour threshold for SO2 (75 ppb) was exceeded on almost 80% of the first 30 days of deployment (November-December 2017). The widespread reliance on generators for regular electric supply in the aftermath of Hurricane Maria appears to have increased air pollution in San Juan.

    更新日期:2018-10-05
  • Investigating spatial error structures in continuous raster data
    Int. J. Appl. Earth Obs. Geoinf. (IF 4.003) Pub Date : 2018-10-03
    Narumasa Tsutsumida, Pedro Rodríguez-Veiga, Paul Harris, Heiko Balzter, Alexis Comber
    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • 更新日期:2018-10-04
  • 更新日期:2018-10-04
  • Model-independent sequence stratigraphy
    Earth Sci. Rev. (IF 7.491) Pub Date : 2018-10-04
    Octavian Catuneanu

    Stratal stacking patterns provide the basis for the definition of all units and surfaces of sequence stratigraphy. The same types of stacking patterns may be observed at different scales, in relation to stratigraphic cycles of different magnitudes. At each scale of observation, stacking patterns define systems tracts, and changes in stacking pattern mark the position of sequence stratigraphic surfaces. The construction of a framework of systems tracts and bounding surfaces fulfills the practical purpose of sequence stratigraphy. Beyond this framework, model-dependent choices with respect to the selection of the ‘sequence boundary’ may be made as a function of the mappability of the various types of sequence stratigraphic surface within the studied section.Sequence stratigraphic frameworks are basin-specific in terms of timing and scales of the component units and bounding surfaces, reflecting the interplay of global and local controls on accommodation and sedimentation. A stratigraphic sequence corresponds to a cycle of change in stratal stacking patterns, defined by the recurrence of the same type of sequence stratigraphic surface in the rock record. Sequences, as well as component systems tracts and depositional systems, can be observed at all stratigraphic scales. Sequences of any scale may include unconformities of equal and/or lower hierarchical ranks, whose identification depends on the resolution of the data available. The relative ranking of sequences of different scales is defined by their stratigraphic relationships, as lower rank sequences are nested within higher rank systems tracts. Despite this nested architecture, the stratigraphic framework is not truly fractal because sequences of different scales may differ in terms of underlying controls and internal composition of systems tracts. A scale-independent approach to methodology and nomenclature is key to the standard application of sequence stratigraphy across the entire range of geological settings, stratigraphic scales, and types of data available.

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • The ~1.85 Ga carbonatite in north China and its implications on the evolution of the Columbia supercontinent
    Gondwana Res. (IF 5.657) Pub Date : 2018-10-04
    Yuling Xie, Yunwei Qu, Richen Zhong, Philip L. Verplanck, Sebastien Meffre, Daoxue Xu
    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • Two-stage marine anoxia and biotic response during the Permian–Triassic transition in Kashmir, northern India: pyrite framboid evidence
    Glob. Planet. Change (IF 3.982) Pub Date : 2018-10-03
    Yuangeng Huang, Zhong-Qiang Chen, Thomas J. Algeo, Laishi Zhao, Aymon Baud, Ghulam M. Bhat, Lei Zhang, Zhen Guo
    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • From remotely‐sensed data of Norwegian boreal forests to fast and flexible models for estimating surface albedo
    J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. (IF 3.97) Pub Date : 2018-10-03
    Xiangping Hu; Francesco Cherubini; Sajith Vezhapparambu; Anders Hammer Strømman

    The importance to consider changes in surface albedo and go beyond simple carbon accounting when assessing climate change impacts of forestry and land use activities is increasingly recognized. However, representation of albedo changes in climate models is complex and highly parameterized, thereby limiting their applications in climate impact studies. The availability of simple yet reliable albedo models can enhance consideration of albedo changes in land use studies. We propose a set of simplified models for estimating surface albedo in a boreal forest. We process and harmonize datasets of remotely‐sensed albedo estimates, forest structure parameters, and meteorological records for different forest locations in Norway. By combining linear unmixing with nonlinear programming, we simultaneously produce albedo estimates at the same resolution of the land cover dataset (16 m, notably higher than satellite retrievals) and a variety of flexible models for albedo predictions. We test different combinations of functional forms, variables, and constraints, including variants specific for snow‐free conditions. We find that models capture the seasonal pattern of surface albedo and the interactive effect of forest structures and meteorological parameters, and many of them show good statistical scores. The cross‐validation exercise shows that the models derived from one area perform reasonably well when applied to other forested areas in Norway, regardless of the temporal and spatial scales. By incorporating changes in forest structure and climate conditions as explicit variables, these models are simple to be used in different applications aiming at estimating albedo changes from forest management and climate change.

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • Using machine learning to parameterize moist convection: potential for modeling of climate, climate change and extreme events
    J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. (IF 3.97) Pub Date : 2018-10-03
    Paul A. O'Gorman; John G. Dwyer

    The parameterization of moist convection contributes to uncertainty in climate modeling and numerical weather prediction. Machine learning (ML) can be used to learn new parameterizations directly from high‐resolution model output, but it remains poorly understood how such parameterizations behave when fully coupled in a general circulation model (GCM) and whether they are useful for simulations of climate change or extreme events. Here, we focus on these issues using idealized tests in which an ML‐based parameterization is trained on output from a conventional parameterization and its performance is assessed in simulations with a GCM. We use an ensemble of decision trees (random forest) as the ML algorithm, and this has the advantage that it automatically ensures conservation of energy and non‐negativity of surface precipitation. The GCM with the ML convective parameterization runs stably and accurately captures important climate statistics including precipitation extremes without the need for special training on extremes. Climate change between a control climate and a warm climate is not captured if the ML parameterization is only trained on the control climate, but it is captured if the training includes samples from both climates. Remarkably, climate change is also captured when training only on the warm climate, and this is because the extratropics of the warm climate provides training samples for the tropics of the control climate. In addition to being potentially useful for the simulation of climate, we show that ML parameterizations can be interrogated to provide diagnostics of the interaction between convection and the large‐scale environment.

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • Observed trends in temperature and rainfall in Bangladesh using pre-whitening approach
    Glob. Planet. Change (IF 3.982) Pub Date : 2018-10-02
    Md. Reaz Akter Mullick, Ridwan Mohammed Nur, Md. Jahangir Alam, K.M. Ashraful Islam

    Understanding the trend of temperature and rainfall is of prime importance for climate change related research. This research aims to identify the trends of temperature and rainfall for the last 50 years (1966–2015) for Bangladesh. To detect the trends, the non-parametric Mann–Kendall test in combination with a trend-free pre-whitening approach for correcting the time series to eliminate the influence of serial correlation has been used whereas the Sen's slope method is used for identification of the trend value. Maximum, minimum, and mean monthly temperatures have been analyzed to identify the monthly, seasonal and annual trend. Four seasons are distinct in Bangladesh, namely, pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter. In case of rainfall, mean monthly rainfall, 1-day maximum rainfall and consecutive 3-day maximum rainfall are analyzed in a similar fashion. For maximum, minimum and mean monthly temperature, the majority of the stations show an increasing trend for all three indices. Monsoon season observes highest increasing trend of 0.015 °C/yr for mean monthly temperature whereas the winter season shows the negative trend of −0.002 °C/yr. On an annual basis, the trend is increasing with a value of 0.008 °C/yr or 0.4 °C in 50 years having significance level, p < .05. On the other hand, mean rainfall shows an increasing trend for the three seasons except for winter, however, significance level in this case is p > .10. The trend of mean rainfall for annual basis shows an increasing trend of 5.675 mm/yr. The trend in one day and consecutive three-day maximum rainfall depicts that the trend is increasing in few places whereas in other places the trend is decreasing with no significant change. The research concludes that the climate of Bangladesh is getting cooler and drier for winter, on the other hand, warmer and wetter for the rest of the year.

    更新日期:2018-10-03
  • The effect of long-term atmospheric changes on the macroevolution of birds
    Gondwana Res. (IF 5.657) Pub Date : 2018-10-02
    Francisco José Serrano, Luis María Chiappe, Paul Palmqvist, Borja Figueirido, John Long, José Luis Sanz
    更新日期:2018-10-03
  • Early paleozoic accretionary orogenies in NW Argentina: Growth of West Gondwana
    Earth Sci. Rev. (IF 7.491) Pub Date : 2018-10-02
    Roberto F. Weinberg, Raul Becchio, Pablo Farias, Nestor Suzaño, Alfonso Sola

    Two Early Paleozoic orogenic cycles in the Gondwana margin of NW Argentina were driven by subduction, and interrupted by collision of continental ribbons of Laurentian affinity. Subduction started at the passive margin of Gondwana, possibly in response to the end of amalgamation of the supercontinent. The passive margin was underlain by a hyper-extended continent-ocean transition, and low-angle subduction gave rise to a wide and hot fore-arc region during the Pampean orogenic cycle. The arrival of the first continent ribbon ended the Pampean cycle, steepened the subduction, further heating the fore-arc and restarting arc magmatism 250–300 km trenchwards, initiating the Famatinian orogenic cycle. This cycle started with a 30 Ma-long period of extension and marine sedimentation, followed by the arrival of the second continent ribbon and inversion the back-arc, initiating a ~20 Ma-long shortening event culminating with the shutting down of the arc. This event gave rise to a 300 km-wide, low-topography, hot orogeny. Thus, the many peculiarities of the two Paleozoic orogens of NW Argentina result from a subduction history that efficiently transferred heat to a 300–400 km-wide belt of turbidite-dominated sediments, that was first part of the fore-arc and then part of the retroarc of two orogenies, developed at the extended continental margin of Gondwana. The two orogenies with continued high heat flux lasted ~110 Ma, giving rise to two calc-alkaline arcs separated by a 300 km belt of high-T – low-P migmatites and peraluminous granites formed by anatexis of sediments deposited on the passive margin as well as those deposited in the wide Pampean fore-arc. These turbidite-dominated sequences were metamorphosed and melted to form a continental crystalline basement and accreted to the cratonic margin, adding 500 km of crystalline rocks to the margin of Gondwana, at the same time that a similar process was happening in eastern Australia. Interestingly this wide accretionary orogen has now become the region where the Andean system developed a wide orogeny above flat-slab subduction.

    更新日期:2018-10-03
  • The Late Cretaceous tectonic evolution of the South China Sea area: An overview, and new perspectives from 3D seismic reflection data
    Earth Sci. Rev. (IF 7.491) Pub Date : 2018-10-02
    Qing Ye, Lianfu Mei, Hesheng Shi, Giovanni Camanni, Yu Shu, Jing Wu, Lu Yu, Peng Deng, Gang Li

    The Late Cretaceous is a significant geologic period in the South China Sea area, as it marks the tectonic transition from the early Paleo-Pacific Plate subduction to the subsequent Cenozoic rifting related to the opening of the SCS. However, the Late Cretaceous tectonic evolution of the South China Sea area is yet to be clearly defined, and it is at present largely debated in the literature. In this paper, mainly on the basis of ~240,000 km2 newly acquired 3D seismic reflection data, 94 industrial wells and existing UPb ages of basement granitoids, we carried out an integrated interpretation, mapping and analysis of the pre-Cenozoic (> 66 Ma) structures within the basement of the Cenozoic rift basin in the northern South China Sea area, that can be crucial for a broad understanding of the Late Cretaceous tectonic evolution of this region. Results of this analysis suggest that three Late Cretaceous fault systems can be identified in the northern South China Sea margin: 1) the WNW-striking thrust system, 2) ENE-striking extensional fault system, and 3) ENE-striking thrust system. These three fault systems are considered to have developed in the Late Cretaceous since they are superimposed on the well dated Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (161.6–101.7 Ma) arc-related granitoids that define most of the basement of the Cenozoic rift basin within the study area. This new structural evidence, combined with a review of previous studies, led us to propose a renewed multi-phase geodynamic evolutionary model of the South China Sea area during the Late Cretaceous. The first tectonic event that can be recognized generated the WNW-striking thrust system and is, in this paper, interpreted to have formed as a result of a sinistral transpressional event that took place in the South China Sea area and adjacent areas around 100 Ma at the Early-Late Cretaceous boundary. This transpressional event was likely related to intense oblique convergence between the Paleo-Pacific Ocean Plate and the Eurasia Plate. The second tectonic phase that was identified in this paper (~100 Ma to ~72 Ma) is defined by an extensional event that generated the largely ENE-striking extensional fault systems and associated basins, which is interpreted to be related to the back-arc extension that took place in this period in response to the slab roll back and high-angle subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. This extensional phase eventually led to the opening of the Proto-South China Sea on the SE margin of the proto-South China Block, and it should be distinguished from the Cenozoic rifting phases that are related to the opening of the South China Sea. The third and last tectonic phase that was recognized in this paper is a compressional event that took place in the late stage of the Late Cretaceous (~72 Ma to ~66 Ma) and was responsible for the development of the ENE-striking thrust system. We suggest that this post-subduction (post-Yanshanian) compressional event can be interpreted to have developed in response to process of ridge push related to the sea floor spreading of the Proto-South China Sea.

    更新日期:2018-10-03
  • Effects of Explicit Convection on Land Surface Air Temperature and Land‐Atmosphere Coupling in the Thermal Feedback Pathway
    J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. (IF 3.97) Pub Date : 2018-10-02
    J. Sun; M. S. Pritchard

    Simulating and understanding continental temperature extremes is a critical issue in Earth System Modeling. Conventional general circulation models are impaired by imperfect cloud and boundary layer parameterization schemes with implications for potentially unrealistic distributions of atmospheric variables and land‐atmosphere coupling signals. In this study we examine a modern version of Superparameterization (SP) in the Community Atmosphere Model v.5 to examine impacts of SP on the characteristics of land surface air temperature, thermal land‐atmosphere coupling, and the relationship between them. The results show that SP in the Community Atmosphere Model (SPCAM) improves mean land surface air temperature at daily time scales regionally compared to Community Atmosphere Model 5 and better simulates thermal land‐atmosphere coupling (soil moisture‐surface air temperature coupling) in several well‐known hot spots (e.g., the Great Plains, Sahel, and India). Detailed analysis of regional probability distribution functions reveals how the intrinsic relationships of atmosphere variables, land‐atmosphere coupling, and temperature extremes are modified by SP. Regression‐type metrics are also used to examine global land‐atmosphere coupling, with some expected limitations where multiple coupling regimes coexist temporally. Stratifying results by soil moisture percentile proves illuminating in this regard and reveals that SP frequently amplifies land‐atmosphere thermal coupling at the dry end of regional coupling regimes.

    更新日期:2018-10-03
  • Accounting for vertical subgrid‐scale heterogeneity in low‐level cloud fraction parameterizations
    J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. (IF 3.97) Pub Date : 2018-10-02
    J. Jouhaud; J.‐L. Dufresne; J.‐B. Madeleine; Frédéric Hourdin; F. Couvreux; N. Villefranque; A. Jam

    Many GCMs assume some heterogeneity of water amounts in their gridboxes and use Probability Density Functions (PDFs) to parameterize cloud fractions CF and amounts of condensed water qc. Most GCM cloud schemes calculate the cloud fraction as the volume of the grid box that contains clouds (CFvol), whereas radiative fluxes primarily depend on the cloud fraction by surface (CFsurf), i.e. the surface of the gridbox covered by clouds when looking from above. This discrepancy matters as previous findings suggest that CFsurf is typically greater than CFvol by about 30%.

    更新日期:2018-10-03
  • Optical Properties of Humic Material Standards: Solution Phase and Aerosol Measurements
    ACS Earth Space Chem. Pub Date : 2018-10-02
    Deokhyeon Kwon, Matthew J. Sovers, Vicki H. Grassian, Paul D. Kleiber, Mark A. Young
    更新日期:2018-10-03
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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