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  • Determination of triacylglycerol oxidation mechanisms in canola oil using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Shunji Kato, Naoki Shimizu, Yasuhiko Hanzawa, Yurika Otoki, Junya Ito, Fumiko Kimura, Susumu Takekoshi, Masayoshi Sakaino, Takashi Sano, Takahiro Eitsuka, Teruo Miyazawa, Kiyotaka Nakagawa

    Triacylglycerol (TG), the main component of edible oil, is oxidized by thermal- or photo- oxidation to form TG hydroperoxide (TGOOH) as the primary oxidation product. Since TGOOH and its subsequent oxidation products cause not only the deterioration of oil quality but also various toxicities, preventing the oxidation of edible oils is essential. Therefore understanding oxidation mechanisms that cause the formation of TGOOH is necessary. Since isomeric information of lipid hydroperoxide provides insights about oil oxidation mechanisms, we focused on dioleoyl-(hydroperoxy octadecadienoyl)-TG (OO-HpODE-TG) isomers, which are the primary oxidation products of the most abundant TG molecular species (dioleoyl-linoleoyl-TG) in canola oil. To secure highly selective and sensitive analysis, authentic OO-HpODE-TG isomer references (i.e., hydroperoxide positional/geometrical isomers) were synthesized and analyzed with HPLC-MS/MS. With the use of the method, photo- or thermal- oxidized edible oils were analyzed. While dioleoyl-(10-hydroperoxy-8E,12Z-octadecadienoyl)-TG (OO-(10-HpODE)-TG) and dioleoyl-(12-hydroperoxy-9Z,13E-octadecadienoyl)-TG (OO-(12-HpODE)-TG) were characteristically detected in photo-oxidized oils, dioleoyl-(9-hydroperoxy-10E,12E-octadecadienoyl)-TG and dioleoyl-(13-hydroperoxy-9E,11E-octadecadienoyl)-TG were found to increase depending on temperature in thermal-oxidized oils. These results prove that our methods not only evaluate oil oxidation in levels that are unquantifiable with peroxide value, but also allows for the determination of oil oxidation mechanisms. From the analysis of marketed canola oils, photo-oxidized products (i.e., OO-(10-HpODE)-TG and OO-(12-HpODE)-TG) were characteristically accumulated compared to the oil analyzed immediately after production. The method described in this paper is valuable in the understanding of oil and food oxidation mechanisms, and may be applied to the development of preventive methods against food deterioration.

  • Food-grade cationic antimicrobial ε-polylysine transiently alters the gut microbial community and predicted metagenome function in CD-1 mice
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 
    Xiaomeng You, Jonah E. Einson, Cynthia Lyliam Lopez-Pena, Mingyue Song, Hang Xiao, David Julian McClements, David A. Sela

    Food-grade cationic antimicrobial ε-polylysine transiently alters the gut microbial community and predicted metagenome function in CD-1 mice Food-grade cationic antimicrobial ε-polylysine transiently alters the gut microbial community and predicted metagenome function in CD-1 mice, Published online: 18 December 2017; doi:10.1038/s41538-017-0006-0 Despite the trend of ‘going green’, in modern societies food additives are inadvertently ingested by us on a daily basis. While these additives have all been tested for the lack of direct harm, whether they may indirectly affect our health is unclear. In the gut, a complex mixture of bacteria is finely maintained to promote beneficial immunity. Using mouse as a model, the team led by David Sela at University of Massachusetts studies shows that an anti-microbial food additive, cationic homopolymer ε-polylysine, that is meant for thwarting bacteria in packed food, can also alter the ‘balance’ of gut bacteria, and, interestingly, does so in a gender-independent manner. These findings pave the road for further studies associating food additives, gut bacteria and immune-related diseases.

  • Food for thought: how nutrition impacts cognition and emotion
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2017-12-06
    Sarah J. Spencer, Aniko Korosi, Sophie Layé, Barbara Shukitt-Hale, Ruth M. Barrientos

    More than one-third of American adults are obese and statistics are similar worldwide. Caloric intake and diet composition have large and lasting effects on cognition and emotion, especially during critical periods in development, but the neural mechanisms for these effects are not well understood. A clear understanding of the cognitive–emotional processes underpinning desires to over-consume foods can assist more effective prevention and treatments of obesity. This review addresses recent work linking dietary fat intake and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid dietary imbalance with inflammation in developing, adult, and aged brains. Thus, early-life diet and exposure to stress can lead to cognitive dysfunction throughout life and there is potential for early nutritional interventions (e.g., with essential micronutrients) for preventing these deficits. Likewise, acute consumption of a high-fat diet primes the hippocampus to produce a potentiated neuroinflammatory response to a mild immune challenge, causing memory deficits. Low dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can also contribute to depression through its effects on endocannabinoid and inflammatory pathways in specific brain regions leading to synaptic phagocytosis by microglia in the hippocampus, contributing to memory loss. However, encouragingly, consumption of fruits and vegetables high in polyphenolics can prevent and even reverse age-related cognitive deficits by lowering oxidative stress and inflammation. Understanding relationships between diet, cognition, and emotion is necessary to uncover mechanisms involved in and strategies to prevent or attenuate comorbid neurological conditions in obese individuals.

  • Is nano safe in foods? Establishing the factors impacting the gastrointestinal fate and toxicity of organic and inorganic food-grade nanoparticles
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    David Julian McClements, Hang Xiao

    Nanotechnology offers the food industry a number of new approaches for improving the quality, shelf life, safety, and healthiness of foods. Nevertheless, there is concern from consumers, regulatory agencies, and the food industry about potential adverse effects (toxicity) associated with the application of nanotechnology in foods. In particular, there is concern about the direct incorporation of engineered nanoparticles into foods, such as those used as delivery systems for colors, flavors, preservatives, nutrients, and nutraceuticals, or those used to modify the optical, rheological, or flow properties of foods or food packaging. This review article summarizes the application of both inorganic (silver, iron oxide, titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide, and zinc oxide) and organic (lipid, protein, and carbohydrate) nanoparticles in foods, highlights the most important nanoparticle characteristics that influence their behavior, discusses the importance of food matrix and gastrointestinal tract effects on nanoparticle properties, emphasizes potential toxicity mechanisms of different food-grade nanoparticles, and stresses important areas where research is still needed. The authors note that nanoparticles are already present in many natural and processed foods, and that new kinds of nanoparticles may be utilized as functional ingredients by the food industry in the future. Many of these nanoparticles are unlikely to have adverse affects on human health, but there is evidence that some of them could have harmful effects and that future studies are required.

  • Four years post-horsegate: an update of measures and actions put in place following the horsemeat incident of 2013
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Stephanie Brooks, Christopher T. Elliott, Michelle Spence, Christine Walsh, Moira Dean

    Complexities in food supply chains were highlighted by the so called ‘horsegate’ crisis in 2013, where beef meat was fraudulently adulterated with horse meat causing widespread recalls and subsequent investigations across both retail and food service markets in the European Union (EU). The beef supply chain is a complex supply chain, with global (EU and Non EU) sourcing strategies in order to secure supply. However, managing these complex supply chains can be difficult and consequentially can expose vulnerabilities similar to that of horsemeat, where horsemeat was found in beef meat within EU supply chains. Six months after the crisis broke, an independent review into the integrity and assurance of food supply networks was commissioned by the UK government and undertaken by Professor Chris Elliott of Queen’s University, Belfast. The review recommended eight pillars of food integrity to industry and government: consumers first, zero tolerance, intelligence gathering, laboratory services, audit, government support, leadership and crisis management. This article examines the extent to which these recommendations have been implemented using personal communications from Professor Chris Elliott and relevant industry bodies. Following the review, industry attitudes have changed substantially, testing and surveillance systems have been integrated into normal industry practice and the government is more prepared for future incidents through the establishment of the National Food Crime Unit (NFCU). Horsegate raised the profile of food fraud and crime in supply chains and despite improvements to date, further collaboration between industry and government is required in order to align fully with the recommendations.

  • Direct interaction of food derived colloidal micro/nano-particles with oral macrophages
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Lijing Ke, Huiqin Wang, Guanzhen Gao, Pingfan Rao, Lei He, Jianwu Zhou

    Like any typical food system, bone soup (or broth), a traditional nourishing food in many cultures, contains a colloid dispersion of self-assembled micro/nano-particles. Food ingestion results in the direct contact of food colloidal MNPs with immune cells. Will they ever interact with each other? To answer the question, MNPs and NPs were separated from porcine bone soup and labeled with Nile Red, and their uptake by murine oral macrophages and its consequent effects were investigated. Colloidal particle samples of UF-MNPs and SEC-NP were prepared from porcine bone soup by ultrafiltration (UF) and size-exclusion chromatography, respectively. Their mean hydrodynamic diameters were 248 ± 10 nm and 170 ± 1 nm with dominant composition of protein and lipid. Particles in both samples were found to be internalized by oral macrophages upon co-incubation at particle/cell ratios of 14,000/1. In normal oral macrophages, the particle uptake exerted influence neither on the cellular cytosolic membrane potential (Vmem) nor mitochondrial superoxide level, as were indicated with fluorescent dyes of DiBAC4(3) and MitoSOX Red, respectively. However, when oral macrophages were challenged by peroxyl radical inducer AAPH, the engulfment of UF-MNPs and SEC-NPs mitigated the peroxyl radical induced membrane hyperpolarization effect by up to 70%, and the suppression on the oxygen respiration in mitochondria by up to 100%. Those results provide evidence of the direct interaction between food colloidal particles with immune cells, implying a possible new mode of food-body interaction.

  • Chemical messages from an ancient buried bottle: metabolomics for wine archeochemistry
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Chloé Roullier-Gall, Silke S. Heinzmann, Jean-Pierre Garcia, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Régis D. Gougeon

    Restoration works in the old Clunisian Saint-Vivant monastery in Burgundy revealed an unidentified wine bottle (SV1) dating between 1772 and 1860. Chemical evidence for SV1 origin and nature are presented here using non-targeted Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance analyses. The SV1 chemical diversity was compared to red wines (Pinot Noir) from the Romanée Saint Vivant appellation and from six different vintages spanning from 1915 to 2009. The close metabolomic signature between SV1 and Romanée Saint Vivant wines spoke in favor of a filiation between these wines, in particular considering the Pinot noir grape variety. A further statistical comparison with up to 77 Pinot noir wines from Burgundy and vintages from nearly all the 20th century, confirmed that SV1 must have been made more than one hundred years ago. The increasing number of detected high masses and of nitrogen containing compounds with the ageing of the wine was in accordance with known ageing mechanisms. Besides, resveratrol was shown here to be preserved for more than one hundred years in wine. For the first time, the age of an old unknown wine along with its grape variety have been assessed through non-targeted metabolomic analyses.

  • Message from the editors-in-chief
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Pingfan Rao, Sharon P. Shoemaker

    Message from the editors-in-chief Message from the editors-in-chief, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41538-017-0004-2 Message from the editors-in-chief

  • Impact of diet-derived signaling molecules on human cognition: exploring the food–brain axis
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Raymond L. Rodriguez, John G. Albeck, Ameer Y. Taha, Kassandra M. Ori-McKenney, Gregg H. Recanzone, Tyler W. Stradleigh, Bronte C. Hernandez, Feng-Yao Vincent Tang, En-Pei Isabel Chiang, Lillian Cruz-Orengo

    The processes that define mammalian physiology evolved millions of years ago in response to ancient signaling molecules, most of which were acquired by ingestion and digestion. In this way, evolution inextricably linked diet to all major physiological systems including the nervous system. The importance of diet in neurological development is well documented, although the mechanisms by which diet-derived signaling molecules (DSMs) affect cognition are poorly understood. Studies on the positive impact of nutritive and non-nutritive bioactive molecules on brain function are encouraging but lack the statistical power needed to demonstrate strong positive associations. Establishing associations between DSMs and cognitive functions like mood, memory and learning are made even more difficult by the lack of robust phenotypic markers that can be used to accurately and reproducibly measure the effects of DSMs. Lastly, it is now apparent that processes like neurogenesis and neuroplasticity are embedded within layers of interlocked signaling pathways and gene regulatory networks. Within these interdependent pathways and networks, the various transducers of DSMs are used combinatorially to produce those emergent adaptive gene expression responses needed for stimulus-induced neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Taken together, it appears that cognition is encoded genomically and modified by epigenetics and epitranscriptomics to produce complex transcriptional programs that are exquisitely sensitive to signaling molecules from the environment. Models for how DSMs mediate the interplay between the environment and various neuronal processes are discussed in the context of the food–brain axis.

Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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