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  • Addressing the sugar, salt, and fat issue the science of food way
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2018-07-16
    Pingfan Rao, Raymond L. Rodriguez, Sharon P. Shoemaker

    Addressing the sugar, salt, and fat issue the science of food way Addressing the sugar, salt, and fat issue the science of food way, Published online: 16 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41538-018-0020-x Addressing the sugar, salt, and fat issue the science of food way

    更新日期:2018-07-16
  • Purification and characterization of antioxidant peptides from cooked eggs using a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model in vascular smooth muscle A7r5 cells
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2018-04-23
    Jiapei Wang, Wang Liao, Chamila Nimalaratne, Subhadeep Chakrabarti, Jianping Wu

    Antioxidant peptides derived from food sources are considered as safer alternatives to commercially available antioxidant drugs. As one of the most abundant protein sources, hen’s egg proteins were extensively used to produce antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis. Our previous work indicated that gastrointestinal digestion of cooked eggs significantly increased the antioxidant activity due to hydrolysis of egg proteins. To characterize the responsible antioxidant peptides, cooked eggs were digested in a simulated in vitro model of human gastro-intestinal digestion. Prepared digests were fractionated with FPLC (Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography) and RP-HPLC (Reverse-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography) and the antioxidant activity was determined in A7r5 cells (vascular smooth muscle cell line). Further identification of peptides from peptide fractions with the highest antioxidant activity was carried out using LC-MS/MS. Four peptides derived from ovalbumin, DSTRTQ (48–53), DKLPG (61–65), DVYSF (96–100), and ESKPV (205–209), were identified; of which DKLPG did not show antioxidant activity in cells. Enzyme cleave analysis suggested that these four peptides were likely released from ovalbumin only by pepsin non-specific cleaves. It is postulated that egg consumption may exert protection against oxidative stress on human health due to release of antioxidant peptides during digestion.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Effect of bovine milk fat globule membranes as a complementary food on the serum metabolome and immune markers of 6-11-month-old Peruvian infants
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2018-04-12
    Hanna Lee, Nelly Zavaleta, Shin-Yu Chen, Bo Lönnerdal, Carolyn Slupsky

    This study builds on a previous study by this group in which 6–11-month-old Peruvian infants who were fed bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) containing complementary food had significantly fewer episodes of infection-related bloody diarrhea relative to those consuming a control food (skim milk powder). Micronutrient deficiencies including zinc deficiency were prevalent in this study population. To understand the mechanism behind the health benefits of consuming MFGM, the serum metabolome and cytokine levels, as markers for systemic immune responses, were evaluated using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics and a multiplex system, respectively. Combined with data on micronutrient status and anthropometry, a comparative analysis was performed. Supplementation with MFGM tended to improve micronutrient status, energy metabolism, and growth reflected as increased levels of circulating amino acids and weight gain, particularly in female infants compared to controls. Decreased levels of the microbial choline metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide in the MFGM-supplemented group (both male and female infants) suggest a functional perturbation in the intestinal microbiota. A cytokine shift toward a less T helper type 1 response was observed in those receiving the MFGM supplement, which was mainly attributed to decreases in interleukin-2 levels. Our findings suggest that consumption of MFGM with complementary food may reverse the metabolic abnormalities found in marginally nourished infants, thereby improving metabolic regulation, which may lead to enhanced immunity.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Example food: What are its sensory properties and why is that important?
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2018-06-19
    Herbert Stone

    Example food: What are its sensory properties and why is that important? Example food: What are its sensory properties and why is that important?, Published online: 19 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41538-018-0019-3 Example food: What are its sensory properties and why is that important?

    更新日期:2018-06-19
  • Public perception of genetically-modified (GM) food: A Nationwide Chinese Consumer Study
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2018-06-05
    Kai Cui, Sharon P. Shoemaker

    After more than 25 years of research and development on the genetic modification of a wide range of crops for food and fodder, China has reached a decision point as to whether it should accept, reject, or go slow with the use of genetically modified (GM) technology to produce the food and feed needed to sustain its population growth and economic renaissance. Here, we report a consumer survey on GM food that includes input from all provinces in China. Chinese consumers were surveyed for their awareness, knowledge, and opinion on GM food. The survey resulted in 11.9, 41.4, and 46.7% of respondents having a positive, neutral, or negative view on GM food, respectively. A minority of respondents (11.7%) claimed they understood the basic principles of GM technology, while most were either “neutral” or “unfamiliar with GM technology”. Most respondents (69.3%) obtained their information on GM food through the Internet and 64.3% of respondents thought that media coverage was predominately negative on GM food. The reasons given by consumers in favor of, or against, the use of GM food, were complex, as seen by the response of 13.8% of respondents who felt GM technology was a form of bioterrorism targeted at China. China’s Ministry of Agriculture and the science community generally expressed a positive attitude toward GM food, but the percentage of respondents that trusted the government and scientists was only 11.7 and 23.2%, respectively. Post-survey comments of respondents made suggestions on how the industrialization of GM technology might impact the future of China’s food supply and value chains. Finally, the impact of emerging technologies like genome editing and genome-edited organisms (GEOs) on the GM food debate is discussed.

    更新日期:2018-06-05
  • Application of industrial treatments to donor human milk: influence of pasteurization treatments, storage temperature, and time on human milk gangliosides
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2018-03-13
    Jaime Salcedo, Sercan Karav, Annabelle Le Parc, Joshua L. Cohen, Juliana M. L. N. de Moura Bell, Adam Sun, Matthew C. Lange, Daniela Barile

    Donor milk is the best option when mother’s own milk is unavailable. Heat treatments are applied to ensure donor milk safety. The effects of heat treatments on milk gangliosides—bioactive compounds with beneficial antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and prebiotic roles—have not been studied. The most abundant gangliosides in non-homogenized human milk were characterized and quantified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS)/MS before and after pasteurization treatments mimicking industrial conditions (63 °C/30 min, 72 °C/15 s, 127 °C/5 s, and 140 °C/6 s). Ganglioside stability over a 3-month period was assessed following the storage at 4 and 23 °C. Independent of the heat treatment applied, gangliosides were stable after 3 months of storage at 4 or 23 °C, with only minor variations in individual ganglioside structures. These findings will help to define the ideal processing and storage conditions for donor milk to maximize the preservation of the structure of bioactive compounds to enhance the health of fragile newborns. Moreover, these results highlight the need for, and provide a basis for, a standardized language enabling biological and food companies, regulatory agencies, and other food stakeholders to both annotate and compute the ways in which production, processing, and storage conditions alter or maintain the nutritive, bioactive, and organoleptic properties of ingredients and foods, as well as the qualitative effects these foods and ingredients may have on conferring phenotype in the consuming organism.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • A look at food security in China
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2018-02-20
    Kai Cui, Sharon P. Shoemaker

    A look at food security in China A look at food security in China, Published online: 20 February 2018; doi:10.1038/s41538-018-0012-x A look at food security in China

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Statuses of food-derived glutathione in intestine, blood, and liver of rat
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2018-02-06
    Hiroaki Yamada, Shinn Ono, Sayori Wada, Wataru Aoi, Eun Young Park, Yasushi Nakamura, Kenji Sato

    Oral administration of glutathione has been demonstrated to reduce exercise-induced fatigue and improve liver function, although glutathione can be synthesized in the liver. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism of this effect. To address this, the status of food-derived glutathione in the intestine, blood, and liver was examined. Glutathione-1-13C or N-acetyl-cysteine-1-13C (NAC) was orally administered to rats (50 mg/kg). Food-derived glutathione contents within tissues were estimated by subtracting endogenous glutathione-1-13C from the total glutathione-1-13C. Food-derived glutathione was present in rat intestines and livers (approximately 60 and 300 μmol/kg, respectively, 120 min after ingestion) in electrochemically reduced form, while all food-derived glutathione in the blood plasma was conjugated with proteins and low-molecular-weight thiol compounds. However, no significant amounts of NAC-derived glutathione were detected in the blood plasma. These findings indicate that food-derived glutathione is directly absorbed in its electrochemically reduced form in the intestine, is then transported in the blood in bound forms, and is finally deposited into the liver in reduced form. Therefore, upon entering the bloodstream, food-derived glutathione binds to thiol compounds and releases hydrogen atom; subsequently, it does the reverse upon incorporation into the liver, which might impact the physiological redox condition. With respect to food-derived glutathione and cysteine-containing peptides, this study provides new insights on their modes of transportation and mechanisms of action.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Effects of high-intensity ultrasound and oil type on the Maillard reaction of d-glucose and glycine in oil-in-water systems
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2018-01-22
    Hang Yu, Yi-Xin Seow, Peter K. C. Ong, Weibiao Zhou

    This study addresses the effect of high-intensity ultrasonic processing on four oil-in-water systems, using sunflower, peanut, olive and flaxseed oils, respectively, that contained an aqueous d-glucose and glycine Maillard reaction (MR) model system. The MR in the water phase was promoted as observed from higher depletion of reactants and higher amount of MR products (MRPs). A significantly higher amount of pyrazines was generated after ultrasonic processing, particularly in the sunflower and olive oil systems. These promotions were attributed to a well-mixing effect and a localised high temperature and pressure environment generated by the high-intensity ultrasound. However, upon 1 h of ultrasonic processing at 80 °C, a significant increase of oxidation was observed with high peroxide and p-anisidine values in the post-processed oils; meanwhile, the amount of unsaturated fatty acids decreased as well. As a result, some off-flavours were also detected in the post-processed oils, which affected the overall flavour profile of the MR systems.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Using chemical and DNA marker analysis to authenticate a high-value food, manuka honey
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 
    Claire M. McDonald, Suzanne E. Keeling, Mark J. Brewer, Steve C. Hathaway

    Using chemical and DNA marker analysis to authenticate a high-value food, manuka honey Using chemical and DNA marker analysis to authenticate a high-value food, manuka honey, Published online: 22 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41538-018-0016-6 High value speciality food products are threatened by mislabeling, fraud, and adulteration, which calls for practical authentication measures. Research led by the Ministry for Primary Industries in New Zealand was used to develop an analytical strategy that combines four chemicals and a DNA marker to authenticate mānuka honey, a speciality export from New Zealand. They found that a combination of chemicals from the mānuka plants nectar and species-specific DNA from mānuka pollen could be used as authenticity markers, when tested against a variety of plant and honey samples. Based on quantitative measurements of the markers, they used a classification modelling method to establish the identification criteria for both monofloral and multifloral mānuka honey. Combining multiple marker data and statistical classification analysis may also help develop other food authentication measures.

    更新日期:2018-05-22
  • The role of whistleblowers in protecting the safety and integrity of the food supply
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2018-05-08
    Gerald G. Moy

    The unsafe, illegal, and unethical practices, especially food fraud, by various actors along the food supply chain are old problems that have been made even more challenging by today’s international agri-food network. To combat these practices, the internal reporting to upper management or the external disclosure to regulators or media by persons who become aware of such practices is essential. These persons are colloquially known as whistleblowers. However, a number of impediments to whistleblowing, especially retribution by employers, have limited their contribution to ensuring the safety and integrity of the food supply. This paper presents recent examples of whistleblowing and legislation adopted by countries around the world to encourage and protect whistleblowers, especially from retaliation. Several impediments to whistleblowing are described and suggestions for overcoming them are proposed.

    更新日期:2018-05-08
  • Determination of triacylglycerol oxidation mechanisms in canola oil using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Shunji Kato, Naoki Shimizu, Yasuhiko Hanzawa, Yurika Otoki, Junya Ito, Fumiko Kimura, Susumu Takekoshi, Masayoshi Sakaino, Takashi Sano, Takahiro Eitsuka, Teruo Miyazawa, Kiyotaka Nakagawa

    Triacylglycerol (TG), the main component of edible oil, is oxidized by thermal- or photo- oxidation to form TG hydroperoxide (TGOOH) as the primary oxidation product. Since TGOOH and its subsequent oxidation products cause not only the deterioration of oil quality but also various toxicities, preventing the oxidation of edible oils is essential. Therefore understanding oxidation mechanisms that cause the formation of TGOOH is necessary. Since isomeric information of lipid hydroperoxide provides insights about oil oxidation mechanisms, we focused on dioleoyl-(hydroperoxy octadecadienoyl)-TG (OO-HpODE-TG) isomers, which are the primary oxidation products of the most abundant TG molecular species (dioleoyl-linoleoyl-TG) in canola oil. To secure highly selective and sensitive analysis, authentic OO-HpODE-TG isomer references (i.e., hydroperoxide positional/geometrical isomers) were synthesized and analyzed with HPLC-MS/MS. With the use of the method, photo- or thermal- oxidized edible oils were analyzed. While dioleoyl-(10-hydroperoxy-8E,12Z-octadecadienoyl)-TG (OO-(10-HpODE)-TG) and dioleoyl-(12-hydroperoxy-9Z,13E-octadecadienoyl)-TG (OO-(12-HpODE)-TG) were characteristically detected in photo-oxidized oils, dioleoyl-(9-hydroperoxy-10E,12E-octadecadienoyl)-TG and dioleoyl-(13-hydroperoxy-9E,11E-octadecadienoyl)-TG were found to increase depending on temperature in thermal-oxidized oils. These results prove that our methods not only evaluate oil oxidation in levels that are unquantifiable with peroxide value, but also allows for the determination of oil oxidation mechanisms. From the analysis of marketed canola oils, photo-oxidized products (i.e., OO-(10-HpODE)-TG and OO-(12-HpODE)-TG) were characteristically accumulated compared to the oil analyzed immediately after production. The method described in this paper is valuable in the understanding of oil and food oxidation mechanisms, and may be applied to the development of preventive methods against food deterioration.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Food-grade cationic antimicrobial ε-polylysine transiently alters the gut microbial community and predicted metagenome function in CD-1 mice
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 
    Xiaomeng You, Jonah E. Einson, Cynthia Lyliam Lopez-Pena, Mingyue Song, Hang Xiao, David Julian McClements, David A. Sela

    Food-grade cationic antimicrobial ε-polylysine transiently alters the gut microbial community and predicted metagenome function in CD-1 mice Food-grade cationic antimicrobial ε-polylysine transiently alters the gut microbial community and predicted metagenome function in CD-1 mice, Published online: 18 December 2017; doi:10.1038/s41538-017-0006-0 Despite the trend of ‘going green’, in modern societies food additives are inadvertently ingested by us on a daily basis. While these additives have all been tested for the lack of direct harm, whether they may indirectly affect our health is unclear. In the gut, a complex mixture of bacteria is finely maintained to promote beneficial immunity. Using mouse as a model, the team led by David Sela at University of Massachusetts studies shows that an anti-microbial food additive, cationic homopolymer ε-polylysine, that is meant for thwarting bacteria in packed food, can also alter the ‘balance’ of gut bacteria, and, interestingly, does so in a gender-independent manner. These findings pave the road for further studies associating food additives, gut bacteria and immune-related diseases.

    更新日期:2017-12-18
  • Food for thought: how nutrition impacts cognition and emotion
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2017-12-06
    Sarah J. Spencer, Aniko Korosi, Sophie Layé, Barbara Shukitt-Hale, Ruth M. Barrientos

    More than one-third of American adults are obese and statistics are similar worldwide. Caloric intake and diet composition have large and lasting effects on cognition and emotion, especially during critical periods in development, but the neural mechanisms for these effects are not well understood. A clear understanding of the cognitive–emotional processes underpinning desires to over-consume foods can assist more effective prevention and treatments of obesity. This review addresses recent work linking dietary fat intake and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid dietary imbalance with inflammation in developing, adult, and aged brains. Thus, early-life diet and exposure to stress can lead to cognitive dysfunction throughout life and there is potential for early nutritional interventions (e.g., with essential micronutrients) for preventing these deficits. Likewise, acute consumption of a high-fat diet primes the hippocampus to produce a potentiated neuroinflammatory response to a mild immune challenge, causing memory deficits. Low dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can also contribute to depression through its effects on endocannabinoid and inflammatory pathways in specific brain regions leading to synaptic phagocytosis by microglia in the hippocampus, contributing to memory loss. However, encouragingly, consumption of fruits and vegetables high in polyphenolics can prevent and even reverse age-related cognitive deficits by lowering oxidative stress and inflammation. Understanding relationships between diet, cognition, and emotion is necessary to uncover mechanisms involved in and strategies to prevent or attenuate comorbid neurological conditions in obese individuals.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Is nano safe in foods? Establishing the factors impacting the gastrointestinal fate and toxicity of organic and inorganic food-grade nanoparticles
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    David Julian McClements, Hang Xiao

    Nanotechnology offers the food industry a number of new approaches for improving the quality, shelf life, safety, and healthiness of foods. Nevertheless, there is concern from consumers, regulatory agencies, and the food industry about potential adverse effects (toxicity) associated with the application of nanotechnology in foods. In particular, there is concern about the direct incorporation of engineered nanoparticles into foods, such as those used as delivery systems for colors, flavors, preservatives, nutrients, and nutraceuticals, or those used to modify the optical, rheological, or flow properties of foods or food packaging. This review article summarizes the application of both inorganic (silver, iron oxide, titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide, and zinc oxide) and organic (lipid, protein, and carbohydrate) nanoparticles in foods, highlights the most important nanoparticle characteristics that influence their behavior, discusses the importance of food matrix and gastrointestinal tract effects on nanoparticle properties, emphasizes potential toxicity mechanisms of different food-grade nanoparticles, and stresses important areas where research is still needed. The authors note that nanoparticles are already present in many natural and processed foods, and that new kinds of nanoparticles may be utilized as functional ingredients by the food industry in the future. Many of these nanoparticles are unlikely to have adverse affects on human health, but there is evidence that some of them could have harmful effects and that future studies are required.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Four years post-horsegate: an update of measures and actions put in place following the horsemeat incident of 2013
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Stephanie Brooks, Christopher T. Elliott, Michelle Spence, Christine Walsh, Moira Dean

    Complexities in food supply chains were highlighted by the so called ‘horsegate’ crisis in 2013, where beef meat was fraudulently adulterated with horse meat causing widespread recalls and subsequent investigations across both retail and food service markets in the European Union (EU). The beef supply chain is a complex supply chain, with global (EU and Non EU) sourcing strategies in order to secure supply. However, managing these complex supply chains can be difficult and consequentially can expose vulnerabilities similar to that of horsemeat, where horsemeat was found in beef meat within EU supply chains. Six months after the crisis broke, an independent review into the integrity and assurance of food supply networks was commissioned by the UK government and undertaken by Professor Chris Elliott of Queen’s University, Belfast. The review recommended eight pillars of food integrity to industry and government: consumers first, zero tolerance, intelligence gathering, laboratory services, audit, government support, leadership and crisis management. This article examines the extent to which these recommendations have been implemented using personal communications from Professor Chris Elliott and relevant industry bodies. Following the review, industry attitudes have changed substantially, testing and surveillance systems have been integrated into normal industry practice and the government is more prepared for future incidents through the establishment of the National Food Crime Unit (NFCU). Horsegate raised the profile of food fraud and crime in supply chains and despite improvements to date, further collaboration between industry and government is required in order to align fully with the recommendations.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Direct interaction of food derived colloidal micro/nano-particles with oral macrophages
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Lijing Ke, Huiqin Wang, Guanzhen Gao, Pingfan Rao, Lei He, Jianwu Zhou

    Like any typical food system, bone soup (or broth), a traditional nourishing food in many cultures, contains a colloid dispersion of self-assembled micro/nano-particles. Food ingestion results in the direct contact of food colloidal MNPs with immune cells. Will they ever interact with each other? To answer the question, MNPs and NPs were separated from porcine bone soup and labeled with Nile Red, and their uptake by murine oral macrophages and its consequent effects were investigated. Colloidal particle samples of UF-MNPs and SEC-NP were prepared from porcine bone soup by ultrafiltration (UF) and size-exclusion chromatography, respectively. Their mean hydrodynamic diameters were 248 ± 10 nm and 170 ± 1 nm with dominant composition of protein and lipid. Particles in both samples were found to be internalized by oral macrophages upon co-incubation at particle/cell ratios of 14,000/1. In normal oral macrophages, the particle uptake exerted influence neither on the cellular cytosolic membrane potential (Vmem) nor mitochondrial superoxide level, as were indicated with fluorescent dyes of DiBAC4(3) and MitoSOX Red, respectively. However, when oral macrophages were challenged by peroxyl radical inducer AAPH, the engulfment of UF-MNPs and SEC-NPs mitigated the peroxyl radical induced membrane hyperpolarization effect by up to 70%, and the suppression on the oxygen respiration in mitochondria by up to 100%. Those results provide evidence of the direct interaction between food colloidal particles with immune cells, implying a possible new mode of food-body interaction.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Chemical messages from an ancient buried bottle: metabolomics for wine archeochemistry
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Chloé Roullier-Gall, Silke S. Heinzmann, Jean-Pierre Garcia, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Régis D. Gougeon

    Restoration works in the old Clunisian Saint-Vivant monastery in Burgundy revealed an unidentified wine bottle (SV1) dating between 1772 and 1860. Chemical evidence for SV1 origin and nature are presented here using non-targeted Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance analyses. The SV1 chemical diversity was compared to red wines (Pinot Noir) from the Romanée Saint Vivant appellation and from six different vintages spanning from 1915 to 2009. The close metabolomic signature between SV1 and Romanée Saint Vivant wines spoke in favor of a filiation between these wines, in particular considering the Pinot noir grape variety. A further statistical comparison with up to 77 Pinot noir wines from Burgundy and vintages from nearly all the 20th century, confirmed that SV1 must have been made more than one hundred years ago. The increasing number of detected high masses and of nitrogen containing compounds with the ageing of the wine was in accordance with known ageing mechanisms. Besides, resveratrol was shown here to be preserved for more than one hundred years in wine. For the first time, the age of an old unknown wine along with its grape variety have been assessed through non-targeted metabolomic analyses.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Message from the editors-in-chief
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Pingfan Rao, Sharon P. Shoemaker

    Message from the editors-in-chief Message from the editors-in-chief, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41538-017-0004-2 Message from the editors-in-chief

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Impact of diet-derived signaling molecules on human cognition: exploring the food–brain axis
    npj Sci. Food Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Raymond L. Rodriguez, John G. Albeck, Ameer Y. Taha, Kassandra M. Ori-McKenney, Gregg H. Recanzone, Tyler W. Stradleigh, Bronte C. Hernandez, Feng-Yao Vincent Tang, En-Pei Isabel Chiang, Lillian Cruz-Orengo

    The processes that define mammalian physiology evolved millions of years ago in response to ancient signaling molecules, most of which were acquired by ingestion and digestion. In this way, evolution inextricably linked diet to all major physiological systems including the nervous system. The importance of diet in neurological development is well documented, although the mechanisms by which diet-derived signaling molecules (DSMs) affect cognition are poorly understood. Studies on the positive impact of nutritive and non-nutritive bioactive molecules on brain function are encouraging but lack the statistical power needed to demonstrate strong positive associations. Establishing associations between DSMs and cognitive functions like mood, memory and learning are made even more difficult by the lack of robust phenotypic markers that can be used to accurately and reproducibly measure the effects of DSMs. Lastly, it is now apparent that processes like neurogenesis and neuroplasticity are embedded within layers of interlocked signaling pathways and gene regulatory networks. Within these interdependent pathways and networks, the various transducers of DSMs are used combinatorially to produce those emergent adaptive gene expression responses needed for stimulus-induced neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Taken together, it appears that cognition is encoded genomically and modified by epigenetics and epitranscriptomics to produce complex transcriptional programs that are exquisitely sensitive to signaling molecules from the environment. Models for how DSMs mediate the interplay between the environment and various neuronal processes are discussed in the context of the food–brain axis.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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