Determining meat freshness using electrochemistry: Are we ready for the fast and furious? Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-12-10 Joel Johnson, Dianne Atkin, Kyunghee Lee, Marie Sell, Shaneel Chandra
Electrochemistry is providing a variety of sensors at an extremely rapid pace. Many of these sensors offer powerful attributes like a multitude of platforms like voltammetry, impedimetry, amperometry and conductometry, as well as sensor-related gains like high sensitivity, selectivity and low cost. It is natural that their applications to food, especially meat freshness determination, are also increasing. Novel methods for rapidly assessing meat freshness are vital for meeting the increasing worldwide demand for meat products. Therefore, we present a short and succinct review of the most promising electrochemical sensor types, including those based on conductive polymers, nanocomposites and metal nanoparticles. From the wide range of sensors that have been designed to detect microbial pathogens and chemical degradation, we have covered a basic snapshot to yield an impression of recent gains in the research genre of meat freshness.
Combined effects of aging and low temperature, long time heating on pork toughness Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-12-05 Shengjie Li, Renchao Ma, Jinfeng Pan, Xinping Lin, Xiuping Dong, Chenxu Yu
The combined effects of aging and low temperature, long time heating (LTLT) on meat toughness were investigated. Pork loins were heated at 53 or 58 °C for up to 20 h, and shear force values, cooking loss, moisture content, collagen solubility, electrophoresis of myofibrillar proteins were determined. Structural changes in perimysium were also observed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that aging and LTLT cooking independently affected meat toughness, and higher temperature or longer time were required to decrease toughness of one-day aged meat to the same level as in 10-day aged meat. Collagen solubilization is suggested as the main reason for the tenderization effect of LTLT. Myofibrillar proteolysis might not occur during LTLT cooking, and will not be contributing to meat tenderness.
Sensory quality control of dry-cured ham: A comprehensive methodology for sensory panel qualification and method validation Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-29 Antonio González-Casado, Ana María Jiménez-Carvelo, Luis Cuadros-Rodríguez
In this study, a specific sensory panel was created and qualified for sensory assessment of Spanish dry-cured ham. A strict control was carried out in order to recruit, select, train and qualify the assessors. At the beginning, 29 candidates to assessors were considered and at the end only 9 candidates satisfied the conditions required to be qualified as expert assessors of the sensory panel. Furthermore, the precision and trueness of each expert assessor were determined by the repeatability index (Ria), and intermediate precision index (IPia), and the deviation index (Dia). In the same way, the panel precision was also evaluated by a proper repeatability index (Rip) and an intermediate precision (IPip) index. The provided results were satisfactory and the sensory panel was correctly validated. Currently, the sensory panel continues performing sensory analysis of dry-cured ham.
Dry potato extracts improve water holding capacity, shelf life, and sensory characteristics of fresh and precooked beef patties1 Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-29 M.C. Colle, R.P. Richard, D.M. Smith, M.J. Colle, W.I. Loucks, S.J. Gray, Z.D. Reynolds, H.A. Sutton, J.A. Nasados, M.E. Doumit
The objective was to examine shelf stability, cooked product yield, and sensory characteristics of beef patties that had no binder (Control), incorporated soy flour (Textured Vegetable Protein; TVP) or one of three dry potato extracts: X-TRATOS™ (potato extract), X-TRATOS™ O (potato extract with mustard), or X-TRATOS™ W (potato extract with sodium acid pyrophosphate). In retail display patties, all binders decreased discoloration and lipid oxidation compared to Control, and X-TRATOS™ O was superior (P < 0.05) to all other treatments. Cooking yield was higher (P < 0.05) in patties containing potato extracts compared with patties containing TVP, which had higher yield than Control patties. Beef patties with potato extracts were juicier (P < 0.05) than Control and TVP patties and had higher (P < 0.05) overall acceptability than Control patties. We conclude that potato extracts are effective binders for use in fresh or precooked beef patties because they improve retail shelf life, cooked product yield, and sensory characteristics.
Discovering market segments for hunted wild game meat Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-29 Maria Elena Marescotti, Vincenzina Caputo, Anna Gaviglio, Eugenio Demartini
Recent years have seen a notable increase in the popularity of hunted wild game meat (HWGM) among consumers. This has led to a growing number of emerging markets for HWGM in many developed countries, including Europe. However, expansion of these markets is often hampered by the lack of a professional supply chain. The profitability of a supply chain would depend on consumer willingness to purchase HWGM products. This paper aims to (1) segment consumers based on their general attitudes towards HWGM, their perceptions of its safety, animal welfare, orientation concerning wildlife-related values, hunting activities, objective knowledge and socio-demographic factors and (2) assess whether these general attitudes affect consumer intentions to purchase HWGM products. To achieve our objective, a random sample of Italian consumers was recruited. Three different consumer segments were identified: pro-animal consumers, disoriented consumers, and hunted wild game meat eaters. Our findings highlighted an important lack of knowledge among consumers.
Fat replacement by oleogel rich in oleic acid and its impact on the technological, nutritional, oxidative, and sensory properties of Bologna-type sausages Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-28 Suelem Lima da Silva, Júlia Tomazzetti Amaral, Marcely Ribeiro, Elen Endler Sebastião, Carlos Vargas, Felipe de Lima Franzen, Gabrielle Schneider, José Manuel Lorenzo, Leadir Lucy Martins Fries, Alexandre José Cichoski, Paulo Cezar Bastianello Campagnol
Bologna-type sausages were made with 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement of pork back fat by oleogel made with pork skin, water, and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) (1.5, 1.5: 1). The technological, nutritional, oxidative, and sensory properties were evaluated. Emulsion stability increased and cooking loss decreased with increasing the pork back fat replacement by oleogel. The reformulation increased the proportion of oleic acid within the lipid fraction by up to 20% and decreased the proportion of linoleic acid by up to 10%, with no changes in the oxidative stability. The acceptance and the sensory profile of the samples were not affected by the substitution of up to 50% of pork back fat by oleogel. Thus, the results showed that it is possible to produce Bologna-type sausages with reduced fat (~16% fat, ~29% reduction), cholesterol (40 mg, ~10% reduction), and energy value (~210 kcal/100 g, ~21% reduction) and with healthier lipid profile using oleogel from HOSO.
The effect of different temperature-time combinations when ageing beef: Sensory quality traits and microbial loads Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-28 Ashleigh K. Kilgannon, Benjamin W.B. Holman, A. John Mawson, Michael Campbell, Damian Collins, David L. Hopkins
The ageing of beef is essential to provide a tender product which is deemed acceptable by consumers, with beef processors routinely ageing beef for ~ 14 d at 0–2 °C. The rate of tenderisation is directly affected by temperature, and as such the possibility of decreasing the required ageing time by increasing storage temperature could provide an opportunity to decrease associated costs. To test this, 320 beef M. longissimus lumborum portions were subjected to one of 72temperature-time combinations (TTC) incorporating temperatures of 3, 5 or 7 °C and ageing times of 6, 8, 10 or 12 d, with some temperature changes occurring during ageing. Controls (n = 32) were held at ~ 1 °C for 14 d. The application of TTCs did not affect beef quality, however longer storage at higher temperatures resulted in higher microbial loadings. Therefore, it can be concluded that shorter, cooler TTCs could be implemented to decrease ageing time requirements and maintain beef safety.
Effect of in-package high voltage dielectric barrier discharge on microbiological, color and oxidation properties of pork in modified atmosphere packaging during storage Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-22 Mingming Huang, Jiamei Wang, Hong Zhuang, Wenjing Yan, Jianying Zhao, Jianhao Zhang
The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of high voltage dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) treatments on microbial and physicochemical quality of fresh pork in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) during storage. Fresh pork loins were packaged in gas mixtures of 20:60:20, 40:40:20 or 60:20:20 (O2, N2, CO2), and treated with high voltage DBD at 85 kV for 60 s and stored at 4 °C for 12 days. The data seems to suggest that the total viable counts were lower in treated groups only for days 4 and 8, and only significant on day 12 for the 60% MAP. The 60% MAP+DBD-treated group induced a higher TBARS and carbonyl values (P < .05) than 60% MAP group at 8 and 12 day. These results indicate that the in-package DBD system may be used to improve microbial quality of pork loin during storage. However, a method to overcome deteriorating effects by the treatment on fresh pork color and oxidation should be developed to guarantee consumer's acceptance.
Emotional responses to the consumption of dry-cured hams by Spanish consumers: A temporal approach Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-22 Laura Lorido, Elisa Pizarro, Mario Estévez, Sonia Ventanas
The objective of this study was to describe for the first time the emotional responses during the consumption of three types of Spanish dry-cured hams, namely, ‘Iberian’, ‘Serrano’ and ‘Curado’. Moreover, dynamic sensory techniques such as Temporal Dominance of Emotions and Temporal Dominance of Sensations were applied to identify the dominant emotions and sensory attributes perceived during ham consumption. >50 emotional terms were generated during sample consumption including positive, negative and neutral terms. Noticeable differences were detected among the three types of dry-cured ham for their emotional profiles. The most dominant emotions evoked by Iberian dry-cured hams were “intense”, “authentic” and “pleasant” and could be associated with the domination of cured flavour and juiciness, with both attributes being closely related to their high intramuscular fat content. However, in Serrano and Curado dry-cured hams, the domination of saltiness attribute seemed to contribute to evoking negative emotions as “ordinary”, “indifferent” and “dissatisfied”. Finally, high duration of the domination of positive emotions as “desirable”, “intense”, “pleasant” and “authentic” contributed to high overall liking scores.
Relationship between quality and freshness traits and torrymeter value of beef loin during cold storage Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-23 Joko Sujiwo, Hye-Jin Kim, Sung-Ok Song, Aera Jang
In this study, we evaluated the relationship between quality and freshness traits and torrymeter value of beef loin during storage for 18 days at 4 °C to determine the torrymeter value that defines the maximum shelf life of the meat. The pH, total viable count (TVC), and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value increased, while the torrymeter value decreased during the storage. The torrymeter value highly correlated with VBN (P < 0.0001), pH (P < 0.0001), TVC (P < 0.0001), instrumental colour a* value (P < 0.0001), and overall acceptability (P < 0.001). Two linear equations were established as the result of stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. According to the equations, the beef loin is completely spoilt if the torrymeter value is 11.82 or less and if the VBN value and a* value are 20 mg/100 g and 18, respectively.
Understanding beef flavour and overall liking traits using two different methods for determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-23 Yimin Zhang, Benjamin W.B. Holman, Eric N. Ponnampalam, Matthew G. Kerr, Kristy L. Bailes, Ashleigh K. Kilgannon, Damian Collins, David L. Hopkins
Two extraction methods were applied to measure the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values of vacuum packaged grass-fed beef steaks that were aged under four temperatures and five different time interval combinations to capture a range in lipid oxidation. The relationships between TBARS values and consumer assessment of flavour liking, flavour intensity and overall liking, were examined. M1 values had a normal distribution (0.02 to 2.55 mg MDA/kg), whereas M2 had a skewed distribution with the majority of the values <1.0 mg MDA/kg and the maximum value being 10.72 mg MDA/kg. No relationship was found between these methods. Interestingly, there were no significant effects of TBARS value on the sensory results, irrespective of the method used. This suggests that untrained consumers cannot detect abnormal flavour development due to high levels of lipid oxidation (TBARS) as indicated by the TBARS test, and are therefore undiscouraged when tasting these beef samples.
Grilling temperature effects on tenderness, juiciness, flavor and volatile aroma compounds of aged ribeye, strip loin, and top sirloin steaks Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-23 Kayley R. Wall, Chris R. Kerth, Rhonda K. Miller, Christine Alvarado
Ribeye, top loin, and top sirloin steaks were assigned a grilling temperature setting (177°C, 205°C, or 232°C) and consumer panel, Warner-Bratzler shear force, trained sensory panel, and GC/MS – olfactory analyses were performed. No differences (P > 0.05) in consumer overall, tenderness, juiciness, appearance, and flavor liking were detected among steak type or grill temperature. Grill surface temperature had no effect (P > 0.05) on trained panel tenderness scores. Of the volatiles present during an aroma event, pyrazine compounds were most influenced by grill surface temperature. The tenderness and juiciness of steaks grilled at differing temperatures were not perceived to be different by consumers; however, grilling temperature impacted the flavor of the final product by generating more pyrazine compounds. Steaks in this study likely were too tender to have a grilling effect on tenderness, but selecting different grilling temperatures can be used to vary the amount of browning of steaks and/or to modify aroma volatile compounds.
Effect of a cauliflower (Brassica oleraceae var. Botrytis) leaf powder-enriched diet on performance, carcass and meat characteristics of growing rabbit Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-19 Annamaria Perna, Amalia Simonetti, Giulia Grassi, Emilio Gambacorta
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a cauliflower leaf powder (CLP)-enriched diet on the performance, quality and antioxidative potential of rabbit meat. No significant differences were found for live performance parameters between rabbits fed with standard (SD) and CLP diet. Dietary supplementation influenced the meat traits of rabbits: CLP meat showed significantly lower drip loss after 48 h, cooking loss, and a significantly higher lightness (L*) and redness (a*) values, vitamin A and vitamin E content, and oxidative stability, compared to SD meat. Moreover, the CLP supplementation caused a significant decrease in SFA and increase in PUFA percentage of rabbit intramuscular fat. The statistical analysis also showed a significant effect of dietary fortification on phenolic content and antioxidant activity of rabbit meat which resulted higher in meat of CLP group. This study highlighted that dietary fortification with CLP is a valid strategy to produce rabbit meat with better technological and functional quality.
Effect of superchilled storage on shelf life and quality characteristics of M. longissimus lumborum from Chinese Yellow cattle Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-17 Xiao Lu, Yimin Zhang, Lixian Zhu, Xin Luo, David L. Hopkins
The effect of superchilled storage (SC, −4 °C) on shelf life and quality characteristics of M. longissimus lumborum from Chinese Yellow cattle compared with traditional chilling (TC, 2 °C) and frozen storage (−18 °C) was studied. The shelf life of beef steaks held at −4 °C extended to 12 weeks based on the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) value, which was 2.4 times longer than steaks stored at 2 °C. As the storage time increased, SC samples showed a lower increase of the total aerobic count (TAC), pH and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values compared to TC samples. Further, L⁎ and a⁎ values of SC samples changed more slowly than that of TC samples. Beef steaks held frozen had a longer shelf life than SC steaks, however, the shear force of frozen steaks remained above 55 N throughout the storage time indicative of toughness. Consequently, SC offers an effective approach for maintaining better shelf life and quality of beef steaks.
Effect of new generation medium voltage electrical stimulation on the meat quality of beef slaughtered in a Chinese abattoir Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-14 Yimin Zhang, Xiaokai Ji, Yanwei Mao, Xin Luo, Lixian Zhu, David L. Hopkins
In this study, a medium voltage electrical stimulation (ES) system with three parameter combinations (A: 1A, 1.55 ms pulse width, 27 s; B: 0.55A, 1 ms pulse width, 34 s; C: 0.55A, 2 ms pulse width, 20s) were applied to beef carcases (n = 24; 319 ± 26.4 kg), in the context of a very slow pH decline rate in the abattoir. All the ES combinations significantly accelerated the rate of pH decline (reflected by temp@pH 6.0, i.e. temperature when pH drops to 6.0), resulting in a tenderness improvement even after 14 days ageing compared to the controls. Sarcomere length was not different between treatments and controls, and it was not a contributor to the tenderness improvement, instead, physical disruption revealed by transmission electron microscopic images may have led to the improvement. Retail colour was significantly improved by either combination B or C after 7 days of ageing. Combination B shows the most promise for commercial application, however, verification on more animals is required before commercial adoption.
Chemometric characterization of the trace element profile of raw meat from Rubia Gallega x Holstein Friesian calves from an intensive system Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-15 F. Gálvez, M. López-Alonso, C. Herrero-Latorre, M. Miranda, D. Franco, J.M. Lorenzo
This study was conducted to compare the essential and toxic element content of seven veal cuts: shoulder clod (SC), inside round (IR), eye of round (ER), bottom round (BR), heel of round (HR), knuckle (KK) and tenderloin (TL). Eighty-four meat samples were determined by ICP-MS. Overall, essential trace elements (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn), except Se, varied significantly between the different meat cuts. By contrast, there were no significant variations for the minor trace elements (Cr, Mo and Ni) or the toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb). Chemometric analysis of the data identified four clusters: (1) the main trace elements, except (2) Se, which was closely related to (3) the toxic elements, and finally (4) the minor trace elements. TL and ER cuts constituted two separated groups; most of the SC and KK samples were associated, and IR and BR samples overlapped. TL and SC contained the highest amounts of trace elements, whereas ER and KK the lowest.
Differential abundance of proteome associated with intramuscular variation of meat quality in porcine longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-15 Gap-Don Kim, Jin-Yeon Jeong, Han-Sul Yang, Sun Jin Hur
Intramuscular variation of meat quality in the porcine longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle was evaluated by assessing the differential abundance of proteome components. Twenty LTL muscles were individually divided into three regions (anterior, medial, and posterior) according to meat color. CIE L⁎ and b⁎ were higher (P < 0.05), but Warner–Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was lower (P < 0.05) in the anterior region, where myosin-1 and -2, TPM2, MLC1f, MLC2, Hsp27, and TPI1 were highly (P < 0.05) abundant. However, CIE a⁎, drip loss, and WBSF were higher (P < 0.05) in the medial region. Glycolysis enzymes including enolase 3, ALDOA, LDHA, PGM1, and TPI1 were highly abundant in the medial and posterior region, whereas GAPDH and myoglobin were overexpressed in the medial region (P < 0.05). Therefore, intramuscular variations in color, water-holding capacity, and tenderness were associated with differential abundance of the proteome, especially contractile, glycolysis enzymes, and Hsp27.
Efficacy of multi-stage sous-vide cooking on tenderness of low value beef muscles Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-10 B. Uttaro, S. Zawadski, B. McLeod
The efficacy of thermal activation of residual proteolytic enzymes on shear force and deformation of 72 beef supraspinatus (SS) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles was tested using multi-stage sous-vide cooking (M-SV; 1 h at 39 °C, 1 h at 49 °C, 4 h at 59 °C), single-stage sous-vide cooking (S-SV; 4 h at 59 °C), and waterbath cooking (22 min at 70 °C, to 59 °C). Two storage conditions (1 week at 2 °C; 2 weeks at −1.5 °C) followed, then meat was reheated to and tested at 55 °C. Shear force decreased by 17–21% with S-SV (P < 0.001) and appeared to affect both myofibrillar and collagen components, likely through heat activation of cathepsin B & L and 20S proteasome. A further 5–6% increase was realized with M-SV (P: SS = 0.006, RF = 0.12) affecting primarily the myofibrillar component, likely from calpain-2 activation. The degree of deformation increased with sous-vide cooking in general (P < 0.001). No meaningful effects of post-cooking storage were found (P > 0.05).
Detection of adulteration with duck meat in minced lamb meat by using visible near-infrared hyperspectral imaging Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-08 Xiaochun Zheng, Yongyu Li, Wensong Wei, Yankun Peng
This paper described a rapid and non-destructive method based on visible near-infrared (Vis-NIR) hyperspectral imaging system (400–1000 nm) for detection adulteration with duck meat in minced lamb. The multiple average of the reference spectral and a predicted relative spatial distribution coefficient were applied in this study to reduce the noise of the spectra. The PLSR model with selected wavelengths achieved better results than others with determination of coefficients (R2P) of 0.98, and standard error of prediction (RMSEP) of 2.51%. And the prediction map of the duck minced in lamb meat was generated by applying the prediction model. The results of this study indicate the great potential of the hyperspectral technology applying to rapidly and accurately detect the meat adulteration in minced lamb meat.
Differences in light scattering between pale and dark beef longissimus thoracis muscles are primarily caused by differences in the myofilament lattice, myofibril and muscle fibre transverse spacings Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-08 J. Hughes, F. Clarke, Y. Li, P. Purslow, R. Warner
Beef colour is essential to consumer acceptability with dark muscle colours being problematic. Dark meat has less light scattering but the mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesise that three mechanisms are responsible for decreased light scattering in dark meat, namely (i) larger lateral separation of myofilaments, (ii) decreased optical protein density in the I-band and (iii) decreased denaturation of sarcoplasmic proteins. Nineteen beef longissimus thoracis muscles, divided into ‘light’, ‘medium’ and ‘dark’ colour groups, were assessed for light scattering by reflectance confocal microscopy, sarcomere length, and myofilament lattice spacing by small-angle X-ray diffraction. Dark muscles had a longer lattice spacing, shorter sarcomeres and wider muscle fibre diameters compared to lighter colour groups, indicating that the transverse spacing of muscle fibres that occurs post-mortem, with pH decline, is central to light scattering development. Dark muscles also had more degradation of the Z-disc and higher sarcoplasmic protein activities, which could impact on the optical density and contribute to lower light scattering.
Effects of feeding endophyte-infected tall fescue seeds to stocker angus calves on retail quality attributes of beef strip steaks Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-08 Alexander J. Holtcamp, Anuraj T. Sukumaran, Abigail E. Schnedler, Brandon J. McClenton, Emery Kunze, Chris R. Calkins, Brandi B. Karisch, Derris D. Burnett, Thu T.N. Dinh
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding endophyte-infected tall fescue seeds to Angus steers during the stocker phase on quality attributes of beef strip steaks during retail display. Endophyte-infected tall fescue seeds had no effect on steak surface lean color, myoglobin forms, proximate composition, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, aerobic plate count, pH, activity of superoxide dismutase and metmyoglobin reductase, shear force, and sensory attributes (P ≥ 0.087). However, lightness, redness, oxymyoglobin percentage, and MRA decreased from 45.01, 32.60, 67.61%, and 9.54 μM/min/g, respectively on d 0 to 40.11, 21.83, 48.95%, and 2.30 μM/min/g, respectively on d 7 (P ≤ 0.001). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were increased by 30% by d 5 (P = 0.015) and APC was increased by 0.5 log CFU/g by d 7 (P ≤ 0.012).
Consumers' preferences for freezing of meat to prevent toxoplasmosis– A stated preference approach Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-05 Mattijs S. Lambooij, Jorien Veldwijk, Paul van Gils, Marie-Josee J. Mangen, Eelco Over, Anita Suijkerbuijk, Johan Polder, G. Ardine de Wit, Marieke Opsteegh
Consumption of raw or undercooked meat increases the risk of infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Freezing meat products can eliminate this risk. Freezing of meat may affect consumers' valuation of meat products in two different ways: it may be valued positively because of increased food safety or valued negatively because of (perceived) loss of quality. In a Discrete Choice Experiment on four different meat products we studied the difference in willingness to pay for frozen and non-frozen meat products in the Netherlands. Analyses revealed that most Dutch consumer groups prefer non-frozen meat. Price was the important in consumer decisions, whereas the meat being frozen appeared to play a minor role in the decision to purchase meat products. Even though it may seem obvious that people would prefer safe food to unsafe food, in a context where consumers presume food being safe, many consumers appear unwilling to pay for freezing of meat as additional measure to reduce the risk of food borne infections such as toxoplasmosis.
Understanding the consumer's perception of traditional frankfurters and frankfurters with healthy attributes through sorting task and hard laddering techniques Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-05 Yana Jorge Polizer Rocha, Regina Lucia F. de Noronha, Marco Antonio Trindade
This study evaluated the consumer's perception towards traditional frankfurters and frankfurters with healthy attributes through sorting task and hard laddering techniques. Images with descriptions of various frankfurter types (traditional, with natural antioxidants, reduced sodium, reduced fat, as a source of dietary fibre, with omega 3, no phosphate added, no nitrite added) were presented as stimuli to 164 previously recruited consumers. The lack of information, natural, flavour issues and not being appealing characterised the no phosphate and no nitrite frankfurter groups. The consequences mentioned by the consumers that justified the choice of frankfurters with reduced sodium and fat were to avoid high blood pressure, concern about the prevention of diseases, negative perception of sodium and fat in the diet and help in weight control. It can be concluded that consumers are willing to substitute a product in traditional frankfurter with a healthier option. Among the more promising prospects for the market, are the frankfurters with reduced sodium and reduced fat.
Supranutritional doses of vitamin E to improve lamb meat quality Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-05 Marc Bellés, María del Mar Campo, Pedro Roncalés, José Antonio Beltrán
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant, therefore, it can be stored in any fat depot in the body, where it exerts a potent chain-breaking antioxidant effect. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of vitamin E-like compounds is also present in meat post mortem. The deposition of tocopherol in the muscle depends on the dosage, the source, and the period of supplementation, so different dosage-time combinations have been developed. Vitamin E does not affect production parameters if minimum requirements for function and growth are satisfied, but it could influence lamb fatty acid profile. During display, it protects PUFA from degradation, reducing lipid oxidation and, therefore, delaying discolouration. Furthermore, vitamin E would indirectly affect the development of lamb aroma by reducing protein and lipid oxidation. To facilitate optimal supplementation rates by producers and retailers, the present paper reviews vitamin E chemistry, biochemistry, nutrition and its ability to maintain lamb quality.
Organogels use in meat processing – Effects of fat/oil type and heating rate Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-11-06 S. Barbut, A. Marangoni
The effects of fat/oil type (regular and rendered beef fat, canola, soy and flaxseed oils), form (native or organogel), and heating rate (0.7 and 3.5 °C/min) were investigated in a comminuted meat system. Converting beef fat to organogel resulted in higher hardness values of the cooked meat products, but the opposite was observed with the vegetable oils. Springiness was lower for all organogels compared to the native fat/oil used. Fat globule size was larger in the organogels prepared from vegetable oils compared to the native oils, but that was not the case for beef fat. Increasing heating rate reduced cooking loss, and while employing organogels did not affect the regular beef fat, it significantly increases losses from the vegetable oil treatments. Overall, using the organogel technology should be attractive to processors and consumers alike as products with high unsaturated fatty acids can be produced.
Natural antioxidants used in meat products: A brief review Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-10-30 Jéssica Souza Ribeiro, Maria José Missão Cordeiro Santos, Larissa Kauly Rosa Silva, Luíza Carla Lavinscky Pereira, Ingrid Alves Santos, Suzana Caetano da Silva Lannes, Marcondes Viana Silva
The lipoperoxidation and the oxidation of pigments and proteins reduces the quality and nutritional value of meat products. The use of antioxidants slows down this reaction, preserving the characteristics of the product during its storage and prolonging its useful life. The use of synthetic antioxidants in food products has been the subject of several toxicological studies. Currently, the call for antioxidants from natural sources stands out. Investigations in this sense should be conducted considering the complex mechanism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and interactions with cellular constituents to elucidate the mechanism of action of synthetic antioxidants and natural sources. Although natural additives appear as an alternative to meet the various market niches and associate natural antioxidants to active packaging as they are progressively released into the product. In this review, we present research with natural antioxidants that could be used satisfactorily in meat products, in addition to recent studies that use them in active packaging.
Contrasting the quality traits of aged bolar blade, topside and striploin cuts sourced from dark cutting and control Australian beef carcasses Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-10-24 Benjamin W.B. Holman, David L. Hopkins
The bolar blade, striploin and topside cuts from dark cutting (DC) and normal (nDC) beef carcasses were compared in terms of their eating quality, oxidation and colour traits. Carcass grades were assigned so that striploins assessed to have pH > 5.7 were classified DC. Cuts were aged (14 and 28 d) before their shear force, sarcomere length, ultimate pH, particle size, TBARS, drip and cooking losses, and colour stability traits were analysed. DC effects on tenderness traits were not uniform across all cuts. Only TBARS was influenced by grade and ageing period interactions. Colorimetric variation due to grade was more evident in the striploin than the other cuts, although this was independent to ageing or display. Cuts themselves differed and were impacted by ageing and display periods. It was concluded that unlike the topside and striploin, the bolar blade from DC carcasses had comparable quality to nDC and could therefore retain its value if priced independent to the entire carcasses.
Volatile compounds and sensory profile of burgers with 50% fat replacement by microparticles of chia oil enriched with rosemary Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-10-25 Rosane Teresinha Heck, Mariane Bittencourt Fagundes, Alexandre José Cichoski, Cristiano Ragagnin de Menezes, Juliano Smanioto Barin, José Manuel Lorenzo, Roger Wagner, Paulo Cezar Bastianello Campagnol
Direct incorporation of rosemary leaves into chia oil (CO) was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional maceration extraction (CME). CO was microencapsulated and used in burgers, as follows: control (20% pork back fat (PBF)); HCO (10% PBF + 7.5% water +2.5% unencapsulated CO); HM1 (10% PBF + 10% CO microparticles); HM2 (10% PBF + 10% CO microparticles enriched by UAE) and HM3 (10% PBF + 10% CO microparticles enriched by CME). The volatile compounds and the sensory properties (Check-All-That-Apply and overall acceptability) of burgers were evaluated at days 1 and 120 of frozen storage. The control, HCO, and HM1 groups were characterized for volatile compounds produced by lipid and protein oxidation, and sensory descriptors related to lipid oxidation. HM2 and HM3 groups presented an increase in terpenic volatiles and were characterized by the descriptors herbal and pleasant aroma and ideal texture. In addition, liking scores were positively correlated to the descriptors that characterized the HM2 and HM3 groups.
Use of MRI as a predictive tool for physicochemical and rheologycal features during cured ham manufacturing Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-10-24 A.B. García-García, M.E. Fernández-Valle, D. Castejón, R. Escudero, M.I. Cambero
Comparison of a grain-based diet supplemented with synthetic vitamin E versus a lucerne (alfalfa) hay-based diet fed to lambs in terms of carcass traits, muscle vitamin E, fatty acid content, lipid oxidation, and retail colour of meat Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-10-20 G. Baldi, S.S. Chauhan, N. Linden, F.R. Dunshea, D.L. Hopkins, C.A. Sgoifo Rossi, V. Dell'Orto, E.N. Ponnampalam
Dietary supplementation of vitamin E (VitE) in a synthetic or natural form was examined. Forty-eight lambs were assigned (n = 16) to either a grain-based diet at moderate (MOD, 42 mg∙kg−1 VitE as all-rac α-tocopheryl acetate) or supranutritional (SUP, 285 mg∙kg−1 of vitE) levels of synthetic VitE or a lucerne hay-based diet (LUC; 37 mg∙kg−1 VitE) for 8 weeks. Meat from the LUC group had lower muscle n-6 and PUFA levels compared to meat from the MOD and SUP groups. Despite a similar VitE intake, muscle VitE was higher for LUC compared to MOD, while SUP lambs showed the highest VitE. Lipid oxidation did not differ between groups. For fresh meat, redness tended to be higher in LUC fed lambs than the other two groups, but brownness formation was only lower than the SUP group. For aged meat colour stability, redness tended to be higher in lambs fed SUP and LUC, whereas highest browning occurred in the MOD group.
Preservation of previously frozen black wildebeest meat (Connochaetes gnou) using oregano (Oreganum vulgare) essential oil Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-10-17 Nompumelelo Shange, Thandeka Makasi, Pieter Gouws, Louwrens C. Hoffman
The effect of oregano essential oil (1% v/v) on the shelf-life of black wildebeest Biceps femoris (BF) muscles stored aerobically at 2.6 ± 0.6 °C was investigated by evaluating changes in pH, lipid oxidation, microbial counts and colour over 9 days of storage. Treatment group had lower pH values than control group, for most of storage. Lipid oxidation was stabilized at <9 mgMDA/kg throughout storage for the treatment, whilst instability was seen for the control. The treatment group had significantly lower total viable counts (TVC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coliform counts throughout storage. TVC and LAB reached spoilage limit of 7 log cfu/g ≥ 3 days later compared to the control group. Furthermore, bacterial growth rates for TVC and LAB were > 1.4-fold slower in the treatment group. No overall improvements were seen in colour parameters, however b* values significantly decreased in the treatment group, whilst b* values from the control group did not experience any changes during storage.
Traditional halal slaughter without stunning versus slaughter with electrical stunning of sheep (Ovis aries) Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-10-15 M. Kiran, B.M. Naveena, M. Smrutirekha, P. Baswa Reddy, Banerjee Rituparna, Y. Praveen Kumar, Ch. Venkatesh, Srikanth Rapole
Thirty Nellore crossbred male sheep (Ovis aries) were divided into two groups of 15 animals each and subjected to either pre-slaughter electrical stunning followed by slaughter (ST) or traditional halal slaughter without stunning (NST) to investigate the changes in blood biochemical parameters, meat quality and proteomic profile. Higher (P < .05) pH, water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear force were observed in meat from stunned sheep. Quantitative proteomic approach using DIGE was employed to find a panel of protein markers that could differentiate ST and NST muscle proteome. Comparison of muscle proteome of ST and NST samples by 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis revealed 46 significant (P < .05) differentially expressed proteins. Our analysis revealed changes in the abundance of proteins involved in catalytic, structural, and stress related process. Current study has demonstrated variation meat quality and identified important proteins that correlate with meat texture and pre-slaughter stress in sheep that are slaughtered without and with electrical stunning.
Effects of oxygen concentration in modified atmosphere packaging on water holding capacity of pork steaks Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-10-16 Ce Wang, Hang Wang, Xia Li, Chunhui Zhang
The pork steaks were stored at 4 °C for 7 days to investigate the effect of oxygen concentrations (0%, 20%, 50% and 80%) in modified atmosphere packaging and air packaging on water holding capacity (WHC) of raw meat and cooked meat. The ultrastructure of muscle, and oxidation of lipids and proteins were also studied. The results showed that purge loss of meat increased with increasing oxygen concentration (P < .05). The extent of oxidation of lipids and proteins was greater in meat packaged under 50% and 80% oxygen. It suggested that the decreased WHC of meat was closely associated with oxidation degree during postmortem storage. Notable sarcomere shortening was consistent with the decreased WHC of meat packaged with 50% and 80% oxygen. It is plausible that the higher drip loss of meat in air packaging was induced by other factors other than the oxidation of protein.
Effect of sex and sub-zero storage temperature on the microbial and oxidative stability of beef packed in a high-oxygen atmosphere after different vacuum ageing times Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-10-12 Pedro Henrique Imazaki, Mahmoud Elansary, Marie-Louise Scippo, Georges Daube, Antoine Clinquart
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sex and sub-zero storage temperature on the microbial and oxidative stability of Belgian Blue beef packed in a high-oxygen atmosphere after different ageing times. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum from Belgian Blue young bulls and cull cows were aged at −1 or 4 °C for 80 days in vacuum. Every 20 days, samples were repackaged in a high-oxygen atmosphere (70/30% O2/CO2) and stored for 7 days (2 days at 4 °C + 5 days at 8 °C). Ageing at −1 °C had a protective effect against the growth of lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae and myoglobin oxidation. Brochothrix thermosphacta was the limiting parameter for ageing longer than 20 days at −1 °C, permitting a subsequent 7-day shelf-life in a high-oxygen atmosphere. Meat from young bulls was more sensitive to oxidation than meat from cull cows. Extending Belgian Blue meat ageing for >20 days had a negative impact on retail shelf-life.
The influence of sonication on the oxidative stability and nutritional value of organic dry-fermented beef Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-10-12 Karolina M. Wójciak, Dariusz M. Stasiak, Karolina Ferysiuk, Elżbieta Solska
Organic beef was dry fermented in sea salt (C) or acid whey (W). In order to test the effect of ultrasound, the W sample was subjected to sonication (U10) in an ultrasonic bath (10 min, 40 kHz, 480 W). The effect of sonication on fatty acid (FA) composition (%) and atherogenicity, thrombogenicity, hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic, peroxidistability indexes (AI, TI, h/H, and PI, respectively), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, and color parameters were investigated during ripening period (31, 62, and 93 days). The 10 min sonication did not have influence on AI, TI, and h/H indexes compared with C sample. However, we observed healthy improvements of AI (P < 0.05), TI (P < 0.01), h/H (P < 0.001), and PI (P < 0.001) indexes in W sample. Nevertheless, U10 fermented beef showed the lowest redness parameter in 93 day of ripening. The processes of lipid oxidation were found to be accelerated by the US treatment, however only after 31 days of ripening.
Ultrasound: A promising technology to improve the technological quality of meat emulsions Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Alexandre José Cichoski, Marianna Stefanello Silva, Yasmim Sena Vaz Leães, Carla Cristina Bauermann Brasil, Cristiano Ragagnin de Menezes, Juliano Smanioto Barin, Roger Wagner, Paulo Cezar Bastianello Campagnol
The use of ultrasound (US) has proven to be an effective tool in the preparation of emulsions. However, the cavitation phenomenon leads to an increase in temperature, which can affect the emulsion stability and the texture. Thus, different US operating modes (degas, normal, and sweep) were applied in meat emulsions for 5.5 min, at 25 kHz frequency and 60% amplitude, and the temperature behavior, yield, emulsion stability, texture, and lipid and protein oxidation were evaluated. The results showed that the wave propagation mode in the US bath exerts a great influence on the increase of temperature of meat emulsions. The distribution of cavitation in normal operating mode significantly favored (P < .001) a higher yield (88.7%) and emulsion stability, with good values of cohesiveness (0.76), hardness (26.9 N), and chewiness (26.1 N), not increasing lipid and protein oxidation. Therefore, this study has proven that that the use of normal US operating mode improved the technological quality of meat emulsions.
Influence of glycated nitrosohaemoglobin prepared from porcine blood cell on physicochemical properties, microbial growth and flavour formation of Harbin dry sausages Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Pengxue Liu, Shouwei Wang, Huan Zhang, Haitang Wang, Baohua Kong
Glycated nitrosohaemoglobin (G-NO-Hb) prepared from porcine blood cells was used in natural fermented Harbin dry sausages to evaluate their possible as an alternative for sodium nitrite (SN). The results show that the G-NO-Hb had no significant effect on the pH, water activity, and growth of total bacteria and lactic acid bacteria counts (P > 0.05). G-NO-Hb inhibited Enterobacteriaceae growth (P < 0.05), but this inhibition was lower than SN. The redness of sausages with 2 g/kg G-NO-Hb were almost the same as SN sausages (P > 0.05). The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances of G-NO-Hb samples had no differences when compared to SN samples except at 12 days. Residual nitrite in G-NO-Hb sausages was lower than SN samples. The content of individual volatile compounds, such as hexanal (lipid oxidation marker), was nearly three times lower for SN than for G-NO-Hb samples. Overall, G-NO-Hb reduced nitrite residue and inhibited lipid oxidation and Enterobacteriaceae growth of sausages, demonstrating great potential as a substitute for sodium nitrite in meat products.
Does protein oxidation affect proteolysis in low sodium Chinese traditional bacon processing? Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-10-10 Xiao Gan, Hongjun Li, Zhaoming Wang, A.M. Emara, Dong Zhang, Zhifei He
This work investigated protein oxidation, proteolysis and their interrelationship during the manufacturing process of low-sodium Chinese traditional bacon. The bacons were prepared by four different salting treatments: substituting sodium chloride (NaCl) using 0, 30, 50, and 70% of potassium chloride (KCl). Protein oxidation was evaluated by total carbonylation, thiol oxidation, and tryptophan fluorescence changes. Proteolysis was detected by non-protein nitrogen, free amino acid, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In the manufacturing process of low-sodium Chinese bacon, protein oxidation and protein proteolysis were simultaneously observed. Electrophoresis pattern showed that 70% substitution of KCl could promote proteolysis, meanwhile, protein oxidation possibly facilitated by 70% KCl replacement resulted in reduced tryptophan fluorescence and increased total carbonyl content. Additionally, a good correlation between protein oxidation and proteolysis was observed.
Potential use of interesterified palm kernel oil to replace animal fat in frankfurters Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-10-10 Birol Kılıç, Cem Okan Özer
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of replacing beef fat with interesterified palm kernel oil (IPKO) on the quality characteristics and storage stability of frankfurters. Five treatment groups were: control (C) and four levels of IPKO replacements; 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Study results revealed that replacement of beef fat with IPKO resulted in a significant increase in caprylic (C8:0), capric (C10:0), lauric (C12:0) and miristic acid (C14:0) levels and a decrease in palmitic (C16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1), stearic (C18:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) levels in frankfurters (P < 0.05). Higher TBARS values were determined in frankfurters manufactured with IPKO compared to the control group after the manufacturing and storage periods (P < 0.05). A 75% and 100% beef fat replacement with IPKO had significantly lower hardness values compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). The use of IPKO increased pH in frankfurters (P < 0.05). However, replacing beef fat with IPKO did not affect moisture, fat, protein, ash contents and sensory properties.
A review of productive parameters, nutritive value and technological characteristics of farmed nutria meat (Myocastor coypus) Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-10-09 A. Saadoun, M.C. Cabrera
The nutria (Myocastor coypus) is a prolific herbivorous rodent originating from southern South America. The nutria is farmed in many countries mainly for its pelt through selected animals called nutria “mutations”, with different kinds of fur color and, up until now, nutria meat has been considered as a by-product. However, taking into account the growing interest of consumers to access novel and exotic meat, nutria meat could be proposed as an attractive and nutritional delicacy. The data presented in this review shows that the nutritional value of nutria meat is adequate for human nutrition, taking into account the protein content and amino acids composition. The fatty acids present in nutria meat are in line with health concerns for lipids nutrition in humans. Furthermore, the mineral composition of farmed nutria makes it a good source of iron, zinc, copper and selenium, all needed for human nutrition, especially iron when it comes to children and women.
Multifractal analysis application to the study of fat and its infiltration in Iberian ham: Influence of racial and feeding factors and type of slicing Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-10-05 S. Serrano, F. Perán, E. Gutiérrez de Ravé, A. Cumplido, F.J. Jiménez-Hornero
This paper explores the multifractal features of different commercial designations of Iberian ham (acorn 100% Iberian ham, acorn Iberian ham, feed/pasture Iberian ham and feed Iberian ham). This study has been done by taking as input the fatty infiltration patterns obtained from digital image analysis of ham cuts comparing mechanic and manual slicing. The yielded results show the multifractal nature of fatty connective tissue in Iberian ham, only when knife cutting is applied, confirming the differences between the designations according to their genetics and feeding. Thus, the multifractal parameters presented in this work could be considered as additional information for checking Iberian ham quality by using non-destructive methods based on the combination of image analysis and predictive techniques. Meat industry can take advantage of these methods to evaluate meat products, especially when fat-connective tissue with complex pattern distribution is involved.
Assessing the accuracy of measurements obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry on pig carcasses and primal cuts Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-10-05 M. Kipper, M. Marcoux, I. Andretta, C. Pomar
Accuracy, trueness, and precision of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessment of pig carcasses and primal cuts dissected tissues were evaluated using available region of interests (ROI) and Total Body and Small Animal software modes. Fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC) DXA values were compared to dissected tissue weights (fat, muscle, and bones). Used ROI influenced (P < 0.05) DXA measurements of BMC, fat mass, and lean mass. Configuration modes influenced (P < 0.05) DXA fat mass in shoulders and bellies, whereas BMC estimates differed (P < 0.05) among configuration modes. Equations predicting dissected composition on the basis of DXA measurements showed high coefficients of determination, particularly for fat and lean masses. DXA is able to accurately evaluate the composition of pig carcasses and primal cuts. From a methodological viewpoint, and considering the variations observed in this study, the method for image acquisition and analysis should be chosen on the basis of the item to be evaluated.
Association between the splice mutation g.8283C>A of the PHKG1 gene and meat quality traits in Large White pigs Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-10-03 Martina Zappaterra, Dalal Sami, Roberta Davoli
Pork technological and sensory qualities are greatly affected by water-holding capacity (WHC), pH, color, tenderness, and chemical composition, and the identification of genetic markers affecting these traits is regarded as a primary goal in pig selection. Phosphorylase Kinase Catalytic Subunit Gamma 1 (PHKG1) gene has been reported in the literature to be a candidate gene for meat drip loss, ultimate pH, color and glycolytic potential. This study was mainly aimed at testing whether PHKG1 g.8283C>A SNP was associated with meat quality traits in heavy pigs. The associations between PHKG1 g.8283C>A SNP, WHC, meat color and pH measurements were evaluated in 250 Italian Large White pigs. The marker showed an additive effect on WHC (P = .008) and a dominant effect on a* color parameter (P = .004). Further studies are needed to elucidate the effects of this polymorphism on heavy pig meat quality traits before this mutation could be considered a marker of interest for heavy pig selection schemes.
The identification of dark cutting beef carcasses in Australia, using Nix Pro Color Sensor™ colour measures, and their relationship to bolar blade, striploin and topside quality traits Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-10-04 Benjamin W.B. Holman, Matthew J. Kerr, Stephen Morris, David L. Hopkins
Within 24 h post-mortem, loin surfaces of Australian beef carcasses (n = 436) were evaluated using the Nix Pro Colour Sensor™ (NIX). The potential for colorimetrics (L*, a*, b*, hue and chroma) to discriminate between dark cutting (DC) and non-dark cutting (nDC) carcasses was compared. For this purpose, a chroma threshold of 30.5 delivered maximum total sensitivity and specificity. The bolar blade, striploin and topside from a selection of DC and nDC carcasses were also removed, aged for 14 d and tested for shear force, drip loss, cooking loss, ultimate pH, colour change over 3 d display (ΔE), and sarcomere length. Association between chroma values and these quality traits were investigated by linear models. The hypothesis of zero slope was rejected (P < .05) for pH on striploin and topside, but the models had poor predictive ability (R2 = 0.23). The NIX was found to be a viable grading tool, with limited capacity to provide additional insights into beef quality.
Cooked color of precooked ground beef patties manufactured with mature bull trimmings Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-10-01 Jace J. Hollenbeck, Jason K. Apple, Janeal W.S. Yancey, Tim M. Johnson, Kaleigh N. Kerns, Ashley N. Young
Lean (80%) ground beef was formulated with 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100% mature bull trimmings, formed into patties, cooked to 71 °C in an air-impingement oven, and stored at −20 °C until reheating to 71 °C either in a microwave oven or on a gas-fired chargrill. Instrumental color of raw patties was not (P ≥ .080) affected by levels of bull trim. After initial cooking, internal cooked redness values were not affected (P ≥ .202) by the proportion of bull trim; however, the internal reheated patty redness increased (greater a* values and lesser HA; P ≤ .001) with increasing proportions of bull trimmings. Formulating ground beef with high levels (>50%) of mature, bull trimmings had minimal effects on raw ground beef color, but patties formulated with the highest proportions of bull trimmings appeared undercooked even after cooking twice to 71 °C.
Meat quality of Santa Inês lamb chilled-then-frozen storage up to 12 months Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-26 Rafael S.B. Pinheiro, Caroline L. Francisco, Diego M. Lino, Hirasilva Borba
Frozen lamb meat storage is widely used to extend its shelf life. However, it is scarcely known whether this practice changes the quality of lamb meat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the meat quality at five frozen storage periods (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after slaughter) of 30 Santa Inês male lambs (hair sheep) finished in feedlot. Samples of M. longissimus lumborum (LL) were used for the analyses of pH, color, cooking loss, fluid loss, water holding capacity, shear force, and lipid oxidation. The storage time influenced (P < 0.01) the meat quality trait values except for the values of luminosity, pH and shear force. The lipid oxidation increased over time during frozen storage. The frozen practice can be used to preserve the Santa Inês lamb meat. However, there are some changes in the meat traits which deserve attention, mainly regarding lipid oxidation, meat color and cooking losses, since these modification types are undesirable and can cause consumer rejection during the purchase, preparation and subsequent product consumption.
Special-Fed Veal: Separable components, proximate composition, and nutrient analysis of selected raw and cooked, wholesale and retail cuts Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-22 C.C. Perham, C.L. Gifford, D.R. Woerner, T.E. Engle, K.S. Sellins, R.J. Acheson, L.W. Douglass, J.D. Tatum, R.J. Delmore, A. Cifelli, S.H. McNeill, K.E. Belk
Nutrition research continues to be important for consumers to make informed food purchasing decisions and is used in nutrition policy decisions. The objective of this study was to analyze the nutrient concentration of raw and cooked cuts from special-fed veal calves to update nutrient data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) Release 27. Packages of wholesale (whole loin roasts, center-cut hindshanks and ground veal) and retail veal cuts (osso buco foreshanks, loin chops, leg cutlets and shoulder blade chops) were randomly collected in original vacuum packaging from six U.S. suppliers. Packages were shipped to the Colorado State University Meat Laboratory for cut dissection, cooking, and nutrient analysis. Composites of lean, external fat and seam fat were formed for analysis of proximate, fatty acid, vitamin and mineral composition. Results from this study identified additional fatty acids, established choline concentration, and provided updated veal nutrient composition information for inclusion in USDA SR 27.
A CT-image based pig atlas model and its potential applications in the meat industry Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-21 H. Ho, H.B. Yu, L.E. Gangsei, J. Kongsro
In this communication we present a novel pig atlas model which is represented by a parametric linear Lagrange or cubic Hermite mesh. The model is developed from data points digitized from a 3D pig CT image. In total 84 muscles and 121 bones are included in the atlas, representing the tissue structures most relevant to the industry. We discuss its potential applications in virtual meat cuts and statistical shape analysis for pig breeding and genetics companies.
Genomic selection for meat quality traits in Nelore cattle Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-20 Ana Fabrícia Braga Magalhães, Flavio Schramm Schenkel, Diogo Anastácio Garcia, Daniel Gustavo Mansan Gordo, Rafael Lara Tonussi, Rafael Espigolan, Rafael Medeiros de Oliveira Silva, Camila Urbano Braz, Gerardo Alves Fernandes Júnior, Fernando Baldi, Roberto Carvalheiro, Arione Augusti Boligon, Henrique Nunes de Oliveira, Luis Arthur Loyola Chardulo, Lucia Galvão de Albuquerque
The objective of this study was to present heritability estimates and accuracy of genomic prediction using different methods for meat quality traits in Nelore cattle. Approximately 5000 animals with phenotypes and genotypes of 412,000 SNPs, were divided into two groups: (1) training population: animals born from 2008 to 2013 and (2) validation population: animals born in 2014. A single-trait animal model was used to estimate heritability and to adjust the phenotype. The methods of GBLUP, Improved Bayesian Lasso and Bayes Cπ were performed to estimate the SNP effects. Accuracy of genomic prediction was calculated using Pearson's correlations between direct genomic values and adjusted phenotypes, divided by the square root of heritability of each trait (0.03–0.19). The accuracies varied from 0.23 to 0.73, with the lowest accuracies estimated for traits associated with fat content and the greatest accuracies observed for traits of meat color and tenderness. There were small differences in genomic prediction accuracy between methods.
Influence of extending the pre-slaughter interval after second vaccination on the carcass cutting yield and the quality of meat from immunocastrated lambs Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-20 Tersia Needham, Helet Lambrechts, Louwrens Hoffman
The influence of extending the vaccination-to-slaughter interval of immunocastrated lambs on carcass cutting yield and meat quality of the Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle was investigated in forty Dohne Merino lambs (8.5 months old; 53.7 ± 4.8 kg). Immunocastration booster vaccination intervals of six (ICS6; n = 10) and four (ICS4; n = 10) weeks prior to the slaughter age were used, with two weeks between primary and secondary vaccinations. A further 10 lambs were Burdizzo-castrated at 6.5 months old (B). The control treatment remained intact (R; n = 10). Prime cutting yields, LT muscle area, LT subcutaneous fat thickness and instrumental meat quality were accessed. Both castration methods increased LT fat thickness and decreased meat CIE a* (redness) values. Extending the vaccination-to-slaughter interval of immunocastrates increased the gastrointestinal tract fat and decreased meat redness. Immunocastration of male lambs can thus be used to manipulate backfat without negatively influencing carcass weight, cutting yield or meat quality.
Prediction of lamb body composition using in vivo bioimpedance analysis Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-20 Anderson B. Moro, Cleber C. Pires, Leila P. da Silva, Ana M.O. Dias, Robson R. Simões, Verônica M. Pilecco, Renius de O. Mello, Luis K. de Aguiar
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of in vivo bioimpedance analysis (BIA) as a method to estimate body composition in lambs. Thirty-one Texel x Ile de France crossbreed ram lambs were slaughtered at pre-determined intervals of average weights of 20, 26, 32, and 38 kg. Before the slaughter of the animals, their body weight (BW) and body length (BL) were measured. The values for resistance (Rs) and reactance (Xc) were collected using a single-frequency BIA equipment (Model RJL Quantum II Bioelectrical Body Composition Analyzer). The BIA main variables such as body bioelectrical volume (V), phase angle (PA), resistive density (RsD), and reactive density (XcD) were then calculated. The soft tissue mass of the right-half cold carcass was analyzed in order to determine its chemical composition. Multiple regression analyses were performed using the lamb body composition as dependent variables and the measurements related to bioimpedance as independent variables. The best regression models were evaluated by cross-validation. The predictive model of moisture mass, which was developed by using XcD and V, accounted for 84% of its variation. Resulting models of percentage moisture (R2 = 0.79), percentage lean mass (R2 = 0.79), percentage fat (R2 = 0.79), and fat mass (R2 = 0.87) were obtained using RsD and V. Furthermore, the values of RsD regarding V, and PA in the prediction models accounted for 91% and 89% of variation in protein mass and lean mass, respectively. Bioimpedance analysis proved to be an efficient method to estimate the body composition of lambs slaughtered at different body mass stages.
A comparison of the Nix Colour Sensor Pro™ and HunterLab MiniScan™ colorimetric instruments when assessing aged beef colour stability over 72 h display Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-14 Benjamin W.B. Holman, David L. Hopkins
We compared the capacity for the Nix Colour Sensor Pro™ (NIX) and HunterLab MiniScan™ (HUNTER) to detect colour variation using aged (0, 3 and 5 weeks) and then displayed (0, 1, 2 and 3 d) beef M. longissimus lumborum samples (n = 8). NIX L* and hue values were found to be respectively higher and lower than for the HUNTER. No significant interactions between instrument and display or ageing periods were identified for a* – unlike for b* and chroma where NIX measures were observed to be lower than those from the HUNTER. Both instruments identified ageing and display period effects on colorimetric traits. Based on these results, the NIX cannot be considered comparable to the HUNTER when measuring beef colour – albeit captured similar colorimetric trends over display and ageing periods which suggest its independent usefulness to beef colour assessment.
Effect of oxidized lipids stored under different temperatures on muscle protein oxidation in Sichuan-style sausages during ripening Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-13 Binbin Li, Ye Xu, Jing Li, Shuhui Niu, Chengtao Wang, Nan Zhang, Min Yang, Kang Zhou, Shujuan Chen, Li He, Shuliang Liu, Sheng Yin, Yong Yang
This study was conceived to research muscle protein oxidation under the influence of four different degrees of oxidized lipids during the ripening of Sichuan-style sausages. Lipids were stored at different temperatures to obtain different oxidation degrees. To elucidate the relationship between lipid oxidation and protein oxidation, the indicators of lipid oxidation, protein oxidation and protein degradation were analysed. During ripening, the carbonyl, SH, SS and free amino acid contents changed significantly. The carbonyl and SS contents increased first in all samples, then decreased, whereas the SH content showed the opposite results. These results showed a positive correlation between protein oxidation and lipid oxidation. Lipids with a higher oxidation degree induced a stronger oxidation reaction to protein. Meanwhile, the results of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed that the influence of lipid oxidation on myofibrillar proteins was much more intense than on sarcoplasmic proteins.
Effect of partial replacement of fat with added water and tragacanth gum (Astragalus gossypinus and Astragalus compactus) on the physicochemical, texture, oxidative stability, and sensory property of reduced fat emulsion type sausage Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-10 Esmaeel Abbasi, Roghayeh Amini Sarteshnizi, Hassan Ahmadi Gavlighi, Mehdi Nikoo, Mohammad Hossein Azizi, Nushin Sadeghinejad
This study aimed to investigate the effect of partial fat replacement with two species of gum tragacanth (Astragalus gossypinus and Astragalus compactus) on physicochemical, textural, oxidative stability, and acceptability of reduced fat emulsion type sausages. Increasing the concentration of both gums to 1%, minimized extractable fat and cook loss. A. gossypinus at the concentration of 1% was the most effective in retardation of TBARS formation in sausages (p < 0.05). Reduced-fat sausages with 1% A. gossypinus showed the lowest carbonyls at the end of storage (28 days) (p < 0.05). Sausages with 1% A. gossypinus or A. compactus showed the lowest shear force (~6 and ~7 N respectively) and hardness (~21 N/cm2) among all treatments (p < 0.05). The results suggested that A. gossypinus (1%) enhanced oxidative stability and textural properties. Addition of 0.5% A. gossypinus showed an acceptable sensory score of the sausage formulation and as a potential fat replacer in the reduced fat sausages.
A dual-mode sensor for colorimetric and fluorescent detection of nitrite in hams based on carbon dots-neutral red system Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-09 Xuetao Hu, Jiyong Shi, Yongqiang Shi, Xiaobo Zou, Haroon Elrasheid Tahir, Mel Holmes, Wen Zhang, Xiaowei Huang, Zhihua Li, Yiwei Xu
Nitrite residue in hams was detected by a fluorescent and colorimetric sensor based on carbon dots (C-dots) and neutral red (NR). C-dots with green fluorescence was synthesized by a microwave-assisted method. This novel sensor was fabricated by C-dots as donors and NR as acceptors. The presence of nitrite led to decrease of absorbance and increase of fluorescence. Colorimetric and fluorescent methods for nitrite detection were developed with excellent correlation coefficients (R2 = 0.995 and 0.991) and low limits of detection (196 nM and 0.518 nM). Moreover, nitrite residue in seven types of ham was detected by the colorimetric and fluorescent methods which were verified by a standard method. The results obtained by the proposed method were comparable and agree with that of the Griess-based method (relative errors<5%). C-dots-NR system as a sensor has a potential application for nitrite detection in hams to monitor its quality and safety.
Changes in myofibrillar protein gel quality of porcine longissimus muscle induced by its stuctural modification under different thawing methods Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-08 Fangfei Li, Bo Wang, Qian Liu, Qian Chen, Hongwei Zhang, Xiufang Xia, Baohua Kong
The effects of thawing methods (refrigeration thawing (RT, 4 °C), water immersion thawing (WT, 18 °C), vacuum thawing (VT, 25 °C), ultrasonic thawing (UT, 20 °C) and microwave thawing (MT)) on the conformation and gel qualities of myofibrillar protein (MP) obtained from porcine longissimus muscle were investigated. The results showed that MP conformation and gel qualities of porcine longissimus muscles by VT and UT were insignificantly changed compared to fresh meat (FM). A significant decrease in free amino groups of MP from MT illustrated that MT induced protein aggregation and oxidation (P < 0.05). The results of circular dichroism (CD) spectra analysis and fluorescence spectroscopy indirectly proved that thawing can cause protein cross-linking and degradation, secondary structure destruction, non-hydrophilic domain exposed and conformational change of samples. The largest changes in solubility, surface hydrophobicity and particle size were obtained with MT. the effects on the conformation and gel quality of MP were verified during thawing process
Stability of vacuum-packed meat from finishing steers fed different inclusion levels of brewer's spent grain Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-08 Flávia Santi Stefanello, Ana Paula Burin Fruet, Francielle Trombetta, Patrícia Alves Franco da Fonseca, Mariana dos Santos da Silva, Simone Stefanello, José Laerte Nörnberg
Brewer's spent grain (BSG) as a partial substitute for corn silage (CS) was evaluated in finishing feedlot steers on the lipid, protein, color, and microbiological stability of vacuum-packed meat for 75 days under refrigerated storage. Twenty steers were distributed in four treatments in a completely randomized design with five replicates each: 50% concentrate +50% CS; + 35% CS + 15% BSG; + 25% CS + 25% BSG; and 15% CS + 35% BSG for 90 days. After the animals were slaughtered and the carcasses cooled, the Longissimus thoracis muscle was collected for analyzes. The lipid and protein oxidation, color parameters and microbiological stability of the beef although not affected by the diets (P > .05) oscillated throughout the storage time (P < .05). BSG can be included in the finishing diets of beef cattle by up to 35% (dry basis) and as a forage source without adverse effects on beef shelf life.
Differences between porcine longissimus thoracis and semitendinosus intramuscular fat content and the regulation of their preadipocytes during adipogenic differentiation Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-06 Fen-Fen Chen, Ying-Qian Wang, Guo-Rong Tang, Shu-Ge Liu, Rui Cai, Yun Gao, Sun Yun-Mei, Yang Gong-She, Wei-Jun Pang
Intramuscular fat (IMF) plays an important role in pork quality. However, differences in the adipogenic regulation of IMF content between pig longissimus thoracis (LT) and semitendinosus (ST) remain unclear. Here, we found that IMF content of 180-day-old pig LT was greater than that of pig ST. Furthermore, lipid accumulation was earlier and greater in LT intramuscular preadipocytes (L-IMA) than in ST intramuscular preadipocytes (S-IMA) during differentiation. Interestingly, glucose consumption was lower in L-IMA than in S-IMA. Moreover, monounsaturated fatty acid content was greater in L-IMA than in S-IMA, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acid content was lower. Levels of the expression of key adipogenic genes were higher in L-IMA than S-IMA. Compared with S-IMA, adipogenic signals were more activated in L-IMA after adipogenic induction. In conclusion, IMF deposition differences between pig LT and ST were due to different glucose consumption, fatty acid composition, expression of key adipogenic genes and level of activating adipogenic signals between S-IMA and L-IMA during adipogenesis.
Filling the out of season gaps for lamb and hogget production: Diet and genetic influence on carcass yield, carcass composition and retail value of meat Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-04 E.N. Ponnampalam, M.G. Kerr, K.L. Butler, J.J. Cottrell, F.R. Dunshea, J.L. Jacobs
This study investigated the use of camelina forage and meal supplementation to a finishing diet on carcass traits, composition and retail value of lamb and hoggets. The metabolisable energy and crude protein concentrations of all 3 diets were 10–11 MJ/kg DM and 14–15% CP. Thirty maternal Composite wether lambs (28–38 kg) and 30 Merino wether hoggets (37–43 kg) were used in a 3 × 2 factorial experiment. Animals were slaughtered after 10 weeks of feeding with carcasses classified as ‘Heavy lamb’ or ‘Heavy hogget’ (>22 kg carcass weight). Carcass traits, composition, meat mineral concentrations and retail colour were measured. Camelina diets increased liveweight (P < 0.02) and carcass weight (P < 0.002) for both sheep types. Carcass weight (P < 0.005) and dressing % (P < 0.01) were lower for Merino hoggets than Composite lambs. Mineral concentration and retail colour stability of fresh meat were unaffected by diet, with 72 h retail colour considered acceptable for consumers.
Evaluation of the bacterial diversity of Spanish-type chorizo during the ripening process using high-throughput sequencing and physicochemical characterization Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-03 Carmen Juárez-Castelán, Israel García-Cano, Alejandra Escobar-Zepeda, Alejandro Azaola-Espinosa, Yenizey Álvarez-Cisneros, Edith Ponce-Alquicira
Spanish-type chorizo is a fermented meat product that is highly appreciated by consumers. The physicochemical properties (pH, water activity (aw), total acidity (TA), and malonaldehyde content) were evaluated in the initial meat batter and at different ripening stages. Bacterial diversity and dynamics were also examined using high-throughput sequencing. A decrease in pH and aw was observed during ripening, while the TA and malonaldehyde contents increased significantly. This data correlated with the changes in lactic acid bacteria and enterobacteria populations. Total bacterial diversity in the initial samples was represented by Proteobacteria (44%) and Firmicutes (55%) phyla, where Pseudomonas (23%), Streptococcus (21%), Acinetobacter (14%), Bacillus (13%), and Brochothrix (11%) were the most abundant genera. In contrast, Firmicutes reached the highest frequency (~89%), with Lactobacillus and Streptococcus being the most represented at the end of ripening. Lactobacillus sakei, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Weissella thailandensis were identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis and were considered potentially responsible for the stability, microbiological safety, and sensory characteristics of this product.
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