Pork ham and belly quality can be estimated from loin quality measurements? Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-06-22 Damian Knecht, Kamil Duziński, Anna Jankowska-Mąkosa
The aim of the study was to determine the relationships between the quality evaluation of loin and the quality evaluation of ham and belly from the same carcasses for trying to predict the quality parameters of ham and belly based on measurements made on the loin. The research material consisted of 105 pork carcasses, from which three elements were cut and marked: loin, ham and belly. Quality evaluation included: pH, color, water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss (CL), and sensory analysis. All designated quadratic equations were characterized by low R2 values from 0.06 to 0.43 for ham and from 0.00 to 0.28 for belly. However, it is possible to predict the quality parameters of ham or belly with different levels of accuracy (R2 from 0.50 to 0.92 - depending on the measurement and the element), using measurements selected from all those tested on the loin. Those loin quality measurements most frequently used in equations were chewiness and CL.
Postmortem glycolysis and glycogenolysis: insights from species comparisons Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Surinder S. Chauhan, Eric M. England
After an animal is harvested for meat, the skeletal muscle initiates a complex series of biochemical reactions in an attempt to maintain energy homeostasis. In order to maintain energy homeostasis, enzymes within the skeletal muscle metabolize stored carbohydrate into energy under predominantly anaerobic conditions in a process known as postmortem energy metabolism. Because these biochemical reactions have the potential to affect meat quality attributes either positively or negatively, evaluating their regulation postmortem is fundamental to understanding meat quality. In this review, the regulation of postmortem glycolytic enzymes will be evaluated. Special consideration will be given to species-specific quality defects in pigs, poultry, and fish as a means to further discuss similarities and differences in postmortem glycolysis and glycogenolysis.
Case studies of packaging and processing solutions to improve meat quality and safety Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-06-21 Mari Ann Tørngren, Mianne Darré, Annemarie Gunvig, Alexander Bardenshtein
A significant amount of the meat is wasted due to spoilage or safety risks. Active packaging systems have a great potential to reduce waste through chemical and microbial control of the product and/or the storage environment. Although commercial products are already available, active packaging is far from being fully developed. In contrast, passive packaging, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and vacuum packaging, have been fully implemented. Research conducted at the Danish Meat Research Institute (DMRI), demonstrates that it is possible to create new opportunities for the meat industry by modifying MAP or combining microwave treatment with vacuum packaging. Predictive shelf life models can be used to estimate the shelf life in MAP or vacuum under dynamic temperature conditions. Using the tri-gas guidelines, the industry can benefit from the increased eating quality, and the in-package decontamination process using vacuum packaging in combination with 5.8 GHz microwaves eliminates C. botulinum spores, resulting in increased food safety and an extended shelf life.
On farm factors increasing dark cutting in pasture finished beef cattle Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-06-21 K.M.W. Loudon, I.J. Lean, D.W. Pethick, G.E. Gardner, L.J. Grubb, A.C. Evans, P. McGilchrist
The on-farm factors increasing the incidence of dark cutting were studied in 3145 pasture raised cattle consigned in 66 lots. Animal, environmental and farm management factors were recorded and pasture quantity, quality and mycotoxin concentrations were measured. The relative risk of dark cutting decreased by 26% in cattle grazing pastures with magnesium concentrations exceeding 0.24%. There was a 50% increase in relative dark cutting risk of cattle drinking from dams compared to drinking from troughs. Feeding supplements (hay/silage) in the last 7 days prior to slaughter reduced the relative risk of dark cutting by 25%. A high prevalence of mycotoxins was detected in pastures across all farms. In this case pasture ergot alkaloid concentrations above 600PPB increased the relative risk of dark cutting by 45%, while the presence of FumonisinB1 increased risk by 58%. In contrast the presence of 3acetyldeoxynivalenol reduced the relative dark cutting risk by 37%. Sex also affected the incidence of dark cutting, with heifers less likely to cut dark than steers by 47%.
Influence of a gel emulsion containing microalgal oil and a blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) branch extract on the antioxidant capacity and acceptability of reduced-fat beef patties Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-06-21 Marta Alejandre, Diana Ansorena, María Isabel Calvo, Rita Yolanda Cavero, Iciar Astiasarán
The addition of a blackthorn branch extract (Prunus spinosa L.) to a gel emulsion system containing microalgal oil was examined in order to obtain a functional ingredient (APG), for use as fat replacer in beef patties. Chromatographic analysis indicated that catechins were the major polyphenols present in the Prunus spinosa L. extract. The antioxidant capacity increased as a result of the extract addition, as shown by the comparison of the gel emulsions, with and without it (APG and AG, respectively). Beef patties containing APG as fat replacer (modified patties) had a lower fat content (5.3% versus 10.75%), doubled the antioxidant activity and the DHA content, and improved the stability against oxidation by reducing the peroxide content more than two fold when compared to control patties. In addition, instrumental color measured by the CIE L*a*b* system showed no significant difference between control and modified raw patties. Moreover, the sensory acceptability of the new formulation was confirmed by a like/dislike hedonic test.
Dietary meat and protection against sarcopenia Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-06-19 Gordon S. Lynch, René Koopman
Sarcopenia describes the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and associated muscle weakness. Sarcopenia is a major global health problem given that the number and proportion of older people in the population is escalating worldwide and represent the fastest growing segment of society. The loss of muscle mass compromises physical capacity, increases susceptibility to falls, and impacts on an individual's functional independence and quality of life. Tackling sarcopenia sensibly and effectively will identify strategies that will enable older adults to age well and age productively. The underlying causes of sarcopenia are complex and multifactorial and will likely require combinatorial therapies to address its symptoms. Nutrition, particularly protein intake, is a more easily modifiable factor, especially when combined with structured (resistance) exercise programs. The relative success of protein feeding strategies for sarcopenia, is limited by a so-called anabolic resistance in older people. Meat contains essential amino acids and nutritive compounds of high quality, and even a moderate intake can increase muscle protein synthesis in older men and women. However, health risks have been identified with the consumption of different meats, with high intake of processed meats increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and different cancers. Risks for fresh white and red meat are considerably less and modest consumption is encouraged as part of a healthy eating plan for many older adults to ensure adequate protein intake. Other nutritive strategies of relevance for sarcopenia involve fortifying the nutrient value of different meats. Studies on muscle cells and animal models of muscle wasting, have identified the therapeutic potential of the amino acid, glycine, to reduce inflammation, attenuate muscle atrophy, and re-sensitize muscle to anabolic stimuli. Glycine supplementation or feeding animal products with a high glycine content (e.g. gelatin), could represent simple and effective nutritional strategies as part of a suite of therapies to attenuate sarcopenia.
Effect of the housing system (free-range vs. open air cages) on growth performance, carcass and meat quality and antioxidant capacity of rabbits Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-06-18 Rosa Loponte, Giulia Secci, Simone Mancini, Fulvia Bovera, Valentina Panettieri, Antonino Nizza, Carmelo Di Meo, Giovanni Piccolo, Giuliana Parisi
Growth performances and meat quality of free-range or cage raised rabbits were compared in 36 male animals. Rabbits were raised in free-range areas (2000 cm2/head) or in open-air cages (800 cm2/head) from weaning to 99 days old. Daily weight gain and final live weight were higher (P < 0.05) for the rabbits raised in cages which presented a more favourable feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05) than in the free-range group. The average feed intake, liver and empty gastro-intestinal tract weights were higher (P < 0.05) in the free-range group, while the interscapular fat percentage was higher (P < 0.05) in the caged rabbits. Loins of free-range rabbits had higher amount of PUFA n-6 in neutral lipids (P < 0.05) whereas their polar lipids were richer in PUFA n-6 and n-3 than in those of the cage group. Muscular fat of free-raised rabbits was found to be less susceptible to be oxidized, having a higher antioxidant capacity than the caged group.
Drying kinetics, adsorption isotherms and quality characteristics of vacuum-dried beef slices with different salt contents Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Elif Aykın-Dinçer, Mustafa Erbaş
In this study, the effect of salt content (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/100 g dry basis) on the drying kinetics, adsorption isotherms, and quality characteristics of beef slices were investigated. Beef slices were salted and vacuum-dried at 70 °C, until a moisture content of 32% (dry basis). The adsorption isotherms of the dried beef slices were described at 25 °C. The drying time for beef slices at the salt contents of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g NaCl/100 g d.b. were 212, 207, 194, 160 and 137 min respectively. Modified Henderson and Pabis, and Page models exhibited a better fit for the drying kinetics of beef slices than the other drying models tested. The adsorption isotherm of dried beef slices is typical Type-II, but the addition of salt led to this behavior to change to type III. The BET model (R2 > 0.98 and %E ≤ 13.40) for all samples exhibited a good fit to the experimental data.
Oxidative stability of beef from steers finished exclusively with concentrate, supplemented, or on legume-grass pasture Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-06-14 A.P.B. Fruet, A. De Mello, F. Trombetta, F.S. Stefanello, C.S. Speroni, D.P. De Vargas, A.N.M. De Souza, A.G. Rosado Júnior, C.J. Tonetto, J.L. Nörnberg
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of three finishing systems based on concentrate and legume-grass pasture on beef. Steers were finished for 91 days with an exclusively whole corn grain-based (GRAIN) diet, grazed on legume-grass pasture plus 1.4% of body weight of whole corn grain supplementation (SUPP), or grazed on legume-grass pasture (PAST) only. Lipid and myoglobin oxidation, pH, objective color, and α-tocopherol concentrations were evaluated on M. longissimus thoracis steaks. Dietary treatments did not affect pH and minimally affected protein carbonylation. Steaks from steers fed GRAIN were less red, showed higher lipid oxidation during retail display, and higher metmyoglobin formation from day 7 to 13 when compared to PAST. Levels of α-tocopherol were higher in steaks from steers fed diets containing legume and grass. Inclusion of roughage in finishing diets is essential to maintain retail color and prevent lipid and myoglobin oxidation.
A brief history of meat in the human diet and current health implications Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-06-13 Neil J. Mann
Anthropological investigations have confirmed many times over, through multiple fields of research the critical role of consumption of animal source foods (ASF) including meat in the evolution of our species. As early as four million years ago, our early bipedal hominin ancestors were scavenging ASFs as evidenced by cut marks on animal bone remains, stable isotope composition of these hominin remains and numerous other lines of evidence from physiological and paleo-anthropological domains. This ASF intake marked a transition from a largely forest dwelling frugivorous lifestyle to a more open rangeland existence and resulted in numerous adaptations, including a rapidly increasing brain size and altered gut structure. Details of the various fields of anthropological evidence are discussed, followed by a summary of the health implications of meat consumption in the modern world, including issues around saturated fat and omega-3 fatty acid intake and discussion of the critical nutrients ASFs supply, with particular emphasis on brain function.
The effect of combining tenderstretching and electrical stimulation on alpaca (Vicugna pacos) meat tenderness and eating quality Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-06-09 Tamara E. Biffin, Melanie A. Smith, Russell D. Bush, Damian Collins, David L. Hopkins
The effect of combining tenderstretching (TS; carcase suspension by the pelvic bone) with medium voltage electrical stimulation (ES) during processing on the tenderness of alpaca muscles was investigated. Thirty-six split alpaca carcases were randomly allocated to treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (Achilles hung/TS and ES/non-ES). Samples were collected from the m. longissimus thoracis (LT), m. adductor femoris (AF), m. semimembranosus (SM), m. semitendinosus (ST) and m. psoas major (TL) at 24h post slaughter for shear force, sarcomere length, collagen and myofibre (particle size) measurement. Additional samples were taken from the m. longissimus lumborum (LL) for sensory assessment using an untrained consumer panel. Tenderstretching reduced shear force and variability within the alpaca AF, without negatively affecting the TL, while ES significantly improved TL and LT tenderness. Consumers were able to detect ES treated LL, rating ES samples higher for all sensory traits. Combining ES and TS maximizes alpaca carcase tenderness when considered on a multiple muscle basis.
Dried tomato pomace supplementation to reduce lamb concentrate intake: Effects on growth performance and meat quality Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-06-09 Bernardo Valenti, Giuseppe Luciano, Mariano Pauselli, Simona Mattioli, Luisa Biondi, Alessandro Priolo, Antonio Natalello, Luciano Morbidini, Massimiliano Lanza
The effect of dried tomato pomace (DTP) was tested on lamb performances, meat fatty acids and oxidative stability. For 36 days, one group of lambs (n = 7; CON) was fed a commercial concentrate, while the other group (n = 7; DTP) received DTP in addition to CON diet. The administration of DTP reduced (P < .05) concentrate intake, with no effect on animal performances. The DTP treatment tended to increase total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; P = .075), PUFA n-6 (P = .071), α-linolenic acid (P = .096) and increased linoleic acid (P < .05), γ-tocopherol (P < .001) and retinol (P < .001) in meat. In raw meat, DTP treatment increased L* (P = .059), b* (P < .05), C* (P = .052) and H* (P < .05) values compared to CON, while lipid oxidation was not affected. In meat homogenates incubated with pro-oxidants, DTP tended to reduce 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances TBARS (P = .088). Therefore, DTP supplementation decreased the consumption of commercial concentrate without detrimental effects on animal performances and meat quality traits.
Novel techniques to understand consumer responses towards food products: A review with a focus on meat Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-06-08 Damir Dennis Torrico, Scott Hutchings, Minh Ha, Evan P. Bittner, Sigfredo Fuentes, Robyn D. Warner, Frank R. Dunshea
Consumer evaluation has been used extensively over the past decades to evaluate acceptability and quality of food products. New methods have been developed to overcome some biases of traditional techniques. Testing with meat is challenging due to the high variability of the meat samples. This review outlines (a) the traditional consumer-based techniques for assessing food, and available methods to link consumer responses to sensory properties (b) qualitative measurements, (c) past and current methods for evaluating meat sensory characteristics and the development of the Meat Standard Australia (MSA) protocol, and (d) psychological and physiological factors affecting consumers. Conclusions from this review are: (1) Traditional consumer testing provides important information regarding acceptability but may miss important unconscious responses of consumers (2) Qualitative methods can obtain more holistic responses from consumers, (3) The Meat Standard Australia (MSA) protocol delivers consistent scores of meat's juiciness/tenderness/flavour and overall acceptability from consumers, and (4) Physiological responses may help to understand the unbiased emotions of consumers.
Importance of breed aptitude (beef or dairy) in determining trace element concentrations in bovine muscles Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-06-07 Marta Miranda, Victor Pereira, Paloma Carbajales, Marta López-Alonso
The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of various trace elements in muscles with different oxidative/glycolytic profiles (cardiac [CA]; diaphragm [DI], as oxidative; trapezius [TR], as intermediate oxidative/glycolytic; and semimembranosus [SM], as glycolytic muscle) of ten dairy-aptitude (Holstein-Friesian, HF), ten beef-aptitude (Galician Blonde, GB) and ten cross-breed (GBxHF) calves. The type of muscle was a highly significant factor in relation to the concentrations of all elements, whereas breed was only significant for Fe, Mn and Zn in the SM muscle. The concentrations of the main trace elements (Cu, Fe, Se and Zn) were significantly lower in GB and GBxHF than in HF, that were mainly associated with differences in the oxidative/glycolytic profile, probably due to the muscular hypertrophy characteristic of heavily muscled breeds. The pattern of distribution was similar in all breeds, with significantly higher concentrations in the CA muscle, followed by the DI; trace element concentrations in the SM and TR muscles were very similar.
Technological characteristics of pre- and post-rigor deboned beef mixtures from Holstein steers and quality attributes of cooked beef sausage Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-06-07 Anuraj T. Sukumaran, Alexander J. Holtcamp, Yan L. Campbell, Derris Burnett, Mark W. Schilling, Thu T.N. Dinh
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of deboning time (pre- and post-rigor), processing steps (grinding - GB; salting - SB; batter formulation - BB), and storage time on the quality of raw beef mixtures and vacuum-packaged cooked sausage, produced using a commercial formulation with 0.25% phosphate. The pH was greater in pre-rigor GB and SB than in post-rigor GB and SB (P < .001). However, deboning time had no effect on metmyoglobin reducing activity, cooking loss, and color of raw beef mixtures. Protein solubility of pre-rigor beef mixtures (124.26 mg/kg) was greater than that of post-rigor beef (113.93 mg/kg; P = .071). TBARS were increased in BB but decreased during vacuum storage of cooked sausage (P ≤ .018). Except for chewiness and saltiness being 52.9 N-mm and 0.3 points greater in post-rigor sausage (P = .040 and 0.054, respectively), texture profile analysis and trained panelists detected no difference in texture between pre- and post-rigor sausage.
Effect of supplementation with fresh orange pulp (Citrus sinensis) on mortality, growth performance, slaughter traits and sensory characteristics in meat guinea pigs Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-06-05 C. Mínguez, A. Calvo
The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) with fresh orange pulp (Citrus sinensis) in a diet fed to guinea pigs on their mortality, growth performance, slaughter traits and sensory characteristics during the fattening period. A total of 450 guinea pigs were housed in collective pens of ~10 animals. Animals were divided into three groups: Control group (CG), supplied with fresh alfalfa as forage and treatment groups (G15 and G30), in which 15 and 30% of alfalfa was replaced by orange pulp, respectively. No significant differences were found between CG and G15 for traits studied. However, G30 showed the lowest values for growth and carcass traits. No significant differences were found for sensory characteristics. In conclusion, a moderate inclusion of orange pulp could contribute to diminishing dependence of alfalfa on guinea pig meat production.
Impact of blade tenderization, marinade and cooking temperature on oral comfort when eating meat in an elderly population Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-06-05 Mathilde Vandenberghe-Descamps, Claire Sulmont-Rossé, Chantal Septier, Claire Follot, Gilles Feron, Hélène Labouré
Several studies demonstrated that oral health impairment, such as tooth loss or a decrease in salivary flow might lead elderly people to reduce their meat intake. The present study assessed the impact of culinary processes liable to improve meat texture and smooth down meat oral processing, in order to fulfil the oral capacities of elderly people. Four culinary processes were selected: cooking bag, blade tenderizer, marinade and low-temperature cooking. A panel of 40 elderly participants with good and poor dental status were asked to assess 5 chicken breast samples, 5 roast beef samples and 4 beefsteak samples prepared according to different process conditions by using an “oral comfort” questionnaire. Results highlighted the fact that oral impairment may alter food bolus formation as well as texture perception while eating meat in elderly people. Furthermore, they revealed that easy-to-do culinary processes may improve meat tenderness and juiciness as well as smooth down food bolus formation, in particular for the roast beef.
Improving sensory acceptance and physicochemical properties by ultrasound application to restructured cooked ham with salt (NaCl) reduction Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-06-05 Tiago Luis Barretto, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues Pollonio, Javier Telis Romero, Andrea Carla da Silva Barretto
The objective of this research was to study the effects of salt reduction and the application of ultrasound (nominal current of 600 W cm−2 for 10 min) on the physicochemical properties, the microstructure and the sensory acceptance of restructured cooked ham. Four treatments with reduced salt including one with the application of ultrasound (1.5, 1.12, 0.75 and 0.75% salt + ultrasound) were produced. The treatment with 0.75% salt provided a reduction of about 30% in the sodium content. The use of ultrasound decreased the Total Fluid Release and increased the hardness. For lightness, the sample with 0.75% salt with the application of ultrasound did not differ from the control at day zero of storage. The use of ultrasound increased redness too. The ultrasound treatment caused micro fissures on the myofibrils. The sensory acceptance of restructured cooked ham with 0.75% of salt was improved with ultrasound applied. The ultrasound showed good potential for use in the production of healthier meat products.
Prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in street vended ready-to-eat meats in Windhoek, Namibia Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-31 Daphney Shiningeni, Percy Chimwamurombe, Renatus Shilangale, Jane Misihairabgwi
To determine the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in street vended ready-to-eat meats in Windhoek, Namibia, a total of 96 street vended ready to eat meat samples were evaluated. Prevalences of 42%, 52%, 15%, 6% and 83% were observed for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella and Enterobacteriaceae respectively, while the highest aerobic plate counts were 7.74 Log10 cfu/g, 5.67 Log10 cfu/g, 5.12 Log10 cfu/g, 4.56 Log10 cfu/g, 3.3 Log10 cfu/g, 5.75 Log10 cfu/g respectively. Unsatisfactory microbial levels were 32% for aerobic plate count, 26% for Enterobacteriaceae, 35% for Escherichia coli, 11% for Listeria monocytogenes, 7% for Staphylococcus aureus and 6% for Shigella. Salmonella was detected in 11% and 40% of samples from two suburbs. The unsatisfactory microbiological quality of some ready-to-eat meats necessitates the provision of training on food safety and hygiene to street vendors for consumer protection.
Chemometrics and hyperspectral imaging applied to assessment of chemical, textural and structural characteristics of meat Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-30 Marlon M. Reis, Robbe Van Beers, Mahmoud Al-Sarayreh, Paul Shorten, Wei Qi Yan, Wouter Saeys, Reinhard Klette, Cameron Craigie
Spectroscopy in the visible near-infrared spectral (Vis-NIRS) range combined with imaging techniques (hyperspectral imaging, HSI) allows assessment of chemical composition, texture, and meat structure. The use of HSI in the meat and food industry has observed a significant growth in the last decade, yet its use for assessment of meat it is not optimal yet. The application of HSI for assessment of meat is reviewed with focus on its ability to capture meat unique chemical and structural characteristics. While HSI is widely used for assessment of chemical composition, a limited number of evidences on its ability to handle the effect of different sources of variation on the assessment is found. The use of spatially resolved spectroscopy has been able to detect structural information related to animal background, muscle type, rigor process and ageing. Similarly the use of texture features seem to capture unique characteristics of meat.
Meat provenance: Authentication of geographical origin and dietary background of meat Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-30 Frank J. Monahan, Olaf Schmidt, Aidan P. Moloney
The authenticity of meat is now an important consideration in the multi-step food chain from production of animals on farm to consumer consumption of the final meat product. A range of techniques, involving analysis of elemental and molecular constituents of meat, fingerprint profiling and multivariate statistical analysis exists and these techniques are evolving in the quest to provide robust methods of establishing the dietary background of animals and the geographical origin of the meat derived from them. The potential application to meat authentication of techniques such as stable isotope ratio analysis applied to different animal tissues, measurement in meat of compounds directly derived from the diet of animals, such as fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins, and spectroscopy is explored. Challenges pertaining to the interpretation of data, as they relate to assignment of dietary background or geographical origin, are discussed.
Predicting aged pork quality using a portable Raman device Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-29 C.C. Santos, J. Zhao, X. Dong, S.M. Lonergan, E. Huff- Lonergan, A. Outhouse, K.B. Carlson, K.J. Prusa, C.A. Fedler, C. Yu, S.D. Shackelford, D.A. King, T.L. Wheeler
The utility of Raman spectroscopic signatures of fresh pork loin (1 d & 15 d postmortem) in predicting fresh pork tenderness and slice shear force (SSF) was determined. Partial least square models showed that sensory tenderness and SSF are weakly correlated (R2 = 0.2). Raman spectral data were collected in 6 s using a portable Raman spectrometer (RS). A PLS regression model was developed to predict quantitatively the tenderness scores and SSF values from Raman spectral data, with very limited success. It was discovered that the prediction accuracies for day 15 post mortem samples are significantly greater than that for day 1 postmortem samples. Classification models were developed to predict tenderness at two ends of sensory quality as “poor” vs. “good”. The accuracies of classification into different quality categories (1st to 4th percentile) are also greater for the day 15 postmortem samples for sensory tenderness (93.5% vs 76.3%) and SSF (92.8% vs 76.1%). RS has the potential to become a rapid on-line screening tool for the pork producers to quickly select meats with superior quality and/or cull poor quality to meet market demand/expectations.
Reduced contamination of pig carcasses using an alternative pluck set removal procedure during slaughter Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-26 W. Biasino, L. De Zutter, J. Woollard, W. Mattheus, S. Bertrand, M. Uyttendaele, I. Van Damme
This study compared the current pig slaughter procedure where the pluck set is completely removed with a procedure where the pluck set is partially removed, leaving the highly contaminated oral cavity, tonsils and tongue untouched. The effect on carcass contamination was investigated by enumerating hygiene indicator bacteria (total aerobic count, Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli) and cefotaxime-resistant E. coli (CREC) as well as assessing Salmonella and Yersinia enterocolitica presence on the sternum, elbow and throat of pig carcasses. Using the alternative pluck set removal, significantly lower mean numbers of hygiene indicator bacteria on throat samples and E. coli on elbow samples were found. Less pig carcasses were highly contaminated and a lower presence and level of CREC was observed. No difference in Salmonella or Yersinia enterocolitica presence was seen. The data in this study can help to assess the effect of this alternative procedure on the safety of pork and subsequently public health.
Long-term effects of castration, chronic intermittent social stress, provision of grass silage and their interactions on performance and meat and adipose tissue properties in growing-finishing pigs Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-24 M. Holinger, B. Früh, P. Stoll, V. Pedan, M. Kreuzer, J. Bérard, E. Hillmann
In order to assess chronic stress in entire and castrated male pigs and to describe effects of a provision of grass silage in those pigs, a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment comprising the factors castration, chronic intermittent social stress and provision of grass silage was carried out with 147 growing-finishing pigs from 25.6 to 102.1 kg body weight. The experimental design allowed investigating interactions between the three factors, but only few were statistically significant. Stress exposure consisted of repeated short-term confrontations with unfamiliar pigs and short-term separations. Carcasses of stress-exposed pigs had thicker backfat, lower lean meat percentage and a different fatty acids composition of the adipose tissue. While entire males differed strongly from castrates in performance, carcass characteristics and adipose tissue properties, we found no evidence for an increased level of chronic stress in entire males compared to castrates. Provision of grass silage increased stomach weight and reduced dressing percentage, but did not impair performance, adipose tissue properties or meat quality.
Development of a novel sample reuse approach to measure the impact of lean meat, bone and adipose tissue on the development of volatiles in vacuum-packed chilled lamb stored at 2 °C for 15 days Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-24 Lena Schuster, Corinna Franke, Patrick Silcock, Jonathan Beauchamp, Phil J. Bremer
The impact of different ratios of lean meat, adipose tissue (fat) and bone on the volatile organic compound (VOC) profile of vacuum-packed (VP) lamb stored at 2 °C for up to 15 days was investigated using two sampling approaches. Individual samples were followed over time using either a traditional sampling regime where replicate samples were sampled (single-use) at a given time or a novel approach where replicate samples were resampled (reuse) over time. VOCs present in the headspace of the packaged samples were detected using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) with complementary solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) analysis on a subset of samples. Bacteria numbers were determined using standard microbiological methods. Meat packaged with 20% added adipose tissue contained slightly higher numbers of bacteria at the start of the trial with correspondingly higher VOC levels compared to lean meat alone. Storage time (as a proxy for microbial numbers) was the main driver for VOC production. Differences between the reuse and the single-use sample sets were minimal, suggesting that resampling of VP lamb samples may be a useful approach to study the development of low frequency spoilage patterns overtime.
The effect of temperature during retail display on the colour stability of CO pretreated vacuum packaged beef steaks Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-24 Lauren Anne Van Rooyen, Paul Allen, Eimear I. Gallagher, David I. O'Connor
The effect of CO pretreatments applied to beef striploin steaks (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum, LTL) prior to vacuum packaging and display temperature on colour stability, shelf life and tenderness was determined. Steaks were exposed to 5% CO, 60% CO2 and 35% N2 for 3 (CO3), 5 (CO5) or 7 (CO7) h, followed by 28 days display at 2 °C (good industry practice) or 6 °C (mild abuse). CO5 was the optimum exposure time as it induced the desirable colour while not retaining the bright colour, irrespective of display temperature. K/S ratios confirmed that CO pretreatment did not mask spoilage and could be more sensitive than colour parameters at monitoring discoloration as colour was not retained. Exposure to CO did not have any negative effect on meat quality attributes, while mild temperature abuse (6 °C) increased purge loss and decreased pH.
Development of antioxidant food packaging materials containing eugenol for extending display life of fresh beef Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-23 Vesta Navikaite-Snipaitiene, Liudas Ivanauskas, Valdas Jakstas, Nadine Rüegg, Ramune Rutkaite, Evelyn Wolfram, Selçuk Yildirim
In this study, clove essential oil (CL) or eugenol (EU) containing cellulose acetate (CA) or acrylic component/hydrophobically modified starch (AC/S) coatings on corona treated oriented polypropylene film (OPP) were designed and investigated for their possible applications as antioxidant packaging materials for fresh meat. The antioxidant properties of the coatings were investigated by Vapour Phase-DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. The CA coatings containing CL or EU showed 43–92% and 43–94% inhibition against DPPH free radicals through the vapour phase, respectively, whereas AC/S/CL and AC/S/EU coatings resulted in DPPH inhibition of 21–65% and 25–84%, respectively. AC/S/EU and CA/EU coatings on OPP containing from 0.32 ± 0.03 to 6.40 ± 0.14 g/m2 of EU were used to prepare packaging for fresh beef (Longissimus thoracis). After 14 days, the lipid oxidation in beef steaks kept in control and antioxidant packages was 3.33 and 1.00–1.22 mg of malondialdehyde per kilogram of meat, respectively. Moreover, red colour of beef in antioxidant packages was retained.
Growth of Clostridium perfringens in sous vide cooked ground beef with added grape seed extract Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Serap Cosansu, Vijay K. Juneja
The growth of Clostridium perfringens from spore inocula was studied in sous vide cooked ground beef with added 0 to 3% grape seed extract (GSE). C. perfringens did not grow at 4 °C with or without GSE present. Lag time (LT) was 95 h in control samples at 15 °C, whereas 1–3% GSE addition significantly (p < .05) extended LT to 244 h or longer. Generation time (GT) in 3% GSE added beef was similar to that of control (19 h, 3% GSE versus 18 h, control) at 15 °C. At 20 °C, GT was 1.5 h in samples without GSE; however, 1–3% GSE addition extended GT about 2–3 folds (p < .05). Lag time at 20 °C was 23 h in control samples, while LT was 40–59 h in samples containing GSE. Interestingly, GSE did not affect LT at 25 °C; however, significantly (p < .05) longer GT was observed in 3% GSE added samples than the other sample groups. Additionally, GSE from 1 to 3% in beef extended the period needed to reach 6 log cfu/g at 15 or 20 °C, while 3% GSE was required at 25 °C. The findings suggest that GSE exhibits concentration and temperature dependent inhibitory effect on growth of C. perfringens in sous vide cooked ground beef. Grape seed extract can be used to extend the shelf-life and ensure the microbiological safety of sous vide cooked meat products.
Predictability of lean product, bone, and fat trim in beef carcasses from Costa Rica Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-21 Nelson Huerta-Leidenz, Oscar Atencio-Valladares, Julio Rodriguez, Nancy Jerez-Timaure, Gerardo Vargas, Argenis Rodas-González
Data from 292 hot fat trimmed carcasses derived from Costa Rican cattle were used to predict yield of fabricated boneless, closely-trimmed, high-valued cuts (BVS, by weight and percentage); yield of total saleable product (TSP, by weight and percentage); and percentage yields of bone and trim fat. Backfat thickness was not significantly associated with weight of BVS or TSP. Carcass weight explained 93.7% and 95.9% of the total variation in weight of BVS and TSP, respectively. Equations for predicting percentage yields of BVS and TSP showed little predictive efficacy. Conversely, the greater precision of the equations selected to predict the quantity (kg) of BVS or TSP, offers a practical alternative of using them in hot fat trimmed carcasses.
A high rigor temperature, not sarcomere length, determines light scattering properties and muscle colour in beef M. sternomandibularis meat and muscle fibres Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-18 J. Hughes, F. Clarke, P. Purslow, R. Warner
Beef meat colour is impacted by both myoglobin status and the light scattering properties of the muscle, and the specific causative scattering elements of the latter are still unknown. We hypothesize that stretching muscles during rigor will generate a structure which favours light scattering, by increasing the length of the I-band (longer sarcomeres) and that a high rigor temperature will cause protein reconfiguration, changing the muscle structure and promoting light scattering. Muscle fibre fragments were isolated from four beef M. sternomandibularis and subjected to stretching (plus, minus) and three incubation temperatures (5, 15, 35 °C). Reflectance confocal laser scanning microscopy (rCLSM) revealed sarcomere stretching alone was not solely responsible for light scattering development. A high rigor temperature (35 °C) was more favourable for light scattering. Stretching and taking muscle into rigor at 35 °C promoted transverse shrinkage of muscle fibres and increased light scattering and could be applied post-mortem (PM) to reduce the occurrence of problematic dark meat.
Immune-spaying as an alternative to surgical spaying in Iberian x Duroc females: Effect on the sensory traits and volatile organic compound profile of dry-cured shoulders and dry-cured loins Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-09 Rafael Gamero-Negrón, Carmen García, Raquel Reina, José Sánchez del Pulgar
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of immune-spaying on sensory characteristics and the volatile organic compound (VOC) profile of dry-cured shoulders and loins by comparing Iberian × Duroc surgically spayed females, immune-spayed females and entire females. VOC profile of dry-cured shoulders was not significantly affected by the reproductive status, probably due to the large heterogeneity of dry-cured shoulders as a product. Correspondingly, dry-cured shoulders showed little differences among treatment groups, with better scores for marbling, hardness and chewiness attributes in the immune-spayed females. Dry-cured loin sensory traits such as brightness, marbling, chewiness and juiciness, presented better scores in immune-spayed females. Moreover, dry-cured loins showed a higher homogeneity that allowed the effects of spaying to be observed, thus the Principal Component Analysis performed on VOC profile data indicated a better separation of samples among treatment groups. Consequently, immune-spaying could be a viable alternative to surgical spaying from the point of view of meat quality.
Effect of homogenisation speed and centrifugation on particle size analysis of beef and the relationship with shear force Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-08 Douglas R.G. Silva, Benjamin W.B. Holman, Matthew J. Kerr, Stephen Morris, Eduardo M. Ramos, David L. Hopkins
This study aimed to investigate the effect of homogenisation speed and centrifugation on particle size (PS) evaluation, and examine its relationship with shear force. Beef Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle portions were randomly assigned to different ageing periods (0, 3 or 5 weeks), and tested for PS and shear force. The PS analysis was conducted at different homogenisation speeds (11,000, 16,000 and 19,000 rpm) with and without a centrifugation step prior to measurement. Samples homogenised at 11,000 rpm and not centrifuged gave PS results significantly different at each ageing time as did samples homogenised at 19,000 rpm and centrifuged. Overall samples homogenised at 11,000 rpm produced the lowest coefficient of variation for PS results. There was a significant correlation between PS and shear force across the different homogeniser speeds and centrifugation statuses. It is concluded that best practice when measuring PS in beef includes a homogeniser speed of 11,000 rpm with no centrifugation prior to measurement.
Quality of meat from sheep fed diets containing spineless cactus (Nopalea cochenillifera Salm Dyck) Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-08 Karen Santos Félix de Abreu, Antonia Sherlânea Chaves Véras, Marcelo de Andrade Ferreira, Marta Suelly Madruga, Maria Inês Sucupira Maciel, Sabrina Carla Rodrigues Félix, Ana Caroline Cerqueira de Melo Vasco, Stela Antas Urbano
It was aimed to evaluate the effects of replacement of wheat bran in lambs' diets with spineless cactus (0, 33, 66, and 100%) in a lamb's diet on the physicochemical parameters, fatty acids and sensory analyasis of meat. The evaluation utilized 36 loins and legs from F1 ½ Dorper × ½ Santa Inês lambs, with an average initial body weight of 19.5 ± 1.6 kg, were slaughtered after 70 days of confinement. Were found average values of 5.70, 11.27 N, 55.44 mg/100 g, of meat pH, shear force, and cholesterol, respectively. However, stearic acid, linoleic, linolenic, eicosatrienoic and eicosapentaenoic which linearly decreased. The color, aroma, texture, flavor, juiciness and global acceptance of meat were acceptable by the evaluators, additionally, they said they would buy meat coming of animals fed with 100% replacement. It is recommended that wheat bran is replaced by spineless cactus in the diet of lambs when this shows to be an ingredient with better cost-benefit ratio compared to wheat bran.
Consumer profile and acceptability of cooked beef steaks with edible and active coating containing oregano and rosemary essential oils Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-04 Ana Carolina Pelaes Vital, Ana Guerrero, Emília Maria Barbosa Carvalho Kempinski, Jessica de Oliveira Monteschio, Cesar Sary, Tatiane Rogelio Ramos, María del Mar Campo, Ivanor Nunes do Prado
Fresh animal products are highly perishable and characterized by a short shelf-life. Edible coatings with natural antioxidants (essential oils: EOs) could improve stability, ensure quality, and increase the shelf-life of fresh products. Due to the strong flavor of EOs, their use should consider consumer preferences and sensory acceptability. This study evaluated the effects of edible coating (with oregano and rosemary essential oil) on beef in relation to consumer preferences, besides the determination of habits of consumption and buying intentions of consumers. Acceptability scores from three clusters of consumers was described. Coating with oregano was the preferred. The higher consumer acceptance and willingness to buy this product indicate a great potential and possibility of using coatings with essential oils in fresh animal products.
Understanding postmortem biochemical processes and post-harvest aging factors to develop novel smart-aging strategies Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-04 Yuan H. Brad Kim, Danyi Ma, Derico Setyabrata, Mustafa M. Farouk, Steven M. Lonergan, Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Melvin C. Hunt
Postmortem aging is a value-adding process and has been extensively practiced by the global meat industry for years. The rate and extent of aging impacts on meat quality characteristics are greatly affected by various biochemical/physiological changes occurring during the pre-rigor phase through post-rigor aging processes. This should also mean that the positive aging impacts on eating quality attributes can be further maximized through establishing specific post-harvest aging strategies. In this review, we propose the smart-aging concept, which is to develop innovative template strategies through identifying optimal aging regimes to maximize positive aging impacts on meat quality and value. The concept requires a good understanding of the physical, biochemical and post-harvest factors that affect the aging of beef. This knowledge coupled with the ability to non-invasively determine muscle composition early postmortem will create opportunities to tailor the process of muscle conversion to meat and the subsequent aging processes to deliver meat with consistent and improved eating qualities and functionality.
Electrical stimulation or moisture infusion improves the eating quality attributes of loin and silverside cuts from female and immunocastrated male pigs Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-03 H.A. Channon, D.N. D'Souza, F.R. Dunshea
This study validated the effect of gender (female, immunocastrated male; n = 50), electrical stimulation (none or 150 mA constant current for 30 s at 2 min post-slaughter) and ageing period (2 or 14 d) on the eating quality of pork roast and stir fry sourced from the loin (M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum) and silverside (M. biceps femoris) and steak from the loin only. Moisture infusion was applied to 2 d aged, non-stimulated primals as a positive control treatment. Neither gender nor ageing period influenced (P > 0.05) eating quality. Electrical stimulation and moisture infusion were each effective interventions in improving pork eating quality, but their effects were inconsistent between the five cuts evaluated. No interventions achieved the fail rate target of <10% for quality grade for all cuts, indicating that additional interventions are needed to enable industry to consistently deliver high quality pork.
Combination of garlic essential oil, allyl isothiocyanate, and nisin Z as bio-preservatives in fresh sausage Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-03 Monyque Kais Araújo, Aline Marzaleck Gumiela, Keliani Bordin, Fernando Bittencourt Luciano, Renata Ernlund Freitas de Macedo
The effects of natural antimicrobial compounds (garlic essential oil [GO], allyl isothiocyanate [AITC], and nisin Z [NI]) on microbiological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fresh sausage were assessed. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) towards Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Lactobacillus plantarum were determined in vitro. Sausages inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, were treated with different combinations of antimicrobials and assessed for microbiological and physicochemical parameters during storage (6C for 20 d). Treatments that presented the greatest antimicrobial effects were subjected to sensory evaluation. Combinations of 20 mg/kg NI + 125 μL/kg GO + 62.5 μL/kg AITC or 20 mg/kg NI + 62.5 μL/kg GO + 125 μL/kg AITC were effective in reducing E. coli O157H7 and spoilage lactic acid bacteria, and maintained the physicochemical characteristics of fresh sausage. Combinations of NI, GO and AITC were effective to improve the safety and the shelf life of fresh sausage, with no impact on its sensory acceptance.
Evaluation of different captive bolt lengths and breed influence upon post-stun hind limb and forelimb activity in fed cattle at a commercial slaughter facility Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-03 Miriam S. Martin, Helen C. Kline, Dana R. Wagner, Lacey R. Alexander, Lily N. Edwards-Callaway, Temple Grandin
The objective of this study was to assess the effects of captive bolt length and breed type on post-stun leg activity in cattle. A total of 2850 Holstein (HOL) and non-Holstein British/Continental bred (NHOL) steers and heifers were observed post-stunning at a large commercial slaughter facility. A pneumatically powered penetrating captive bolt stunner was used with three different bolt lengths: CON, 15.24 cm; MED, 16.51 cm; and LON, 17.78 cm. Hind limb kicking, forelimb activity, take away belt stops, carcass swing and number of knife sticks during exsanguination were recorded for each animal from video recording. Hind limb and forelimb kicks observed ranged from 0 to 25 and 0 to 8, respectively. Analysis of post-stun hind limb and forelimb activity indicated that increasing pneumatically powered penetrating captive bolt length does not decrease post-stun leg activity. There was a higher percentage of cattle experiencing take away belt stops and carcass swing in HOL as compared with NHOL.
Impact on the physical and sensory properties of salt-and fat-reduced traditional Irish breakfast sausages on various age cohorts acceptance Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-02 Paula M. Conroy, Maurice G. O'Sullivan, Ruth M. Hamill, Joseph P. Kerry
The properties of varying salt and fat levels in traditional breakfast sausages were investigated. Sausages were produced with fat levels of: 30%, 20% and 15%. Fat was replaced with pea extract. Salt levels employed were: 2.5%, 1.1% and 0.0%. A reduced sodium salt which contains 45% less sodium than standard salt was used. Sensory analysis was conducted on consumers (n = 228): 18–40 yrs., 41–64 yrs. and 65–85 yrs. The 18–40 yr. olds preferred sausages containing 20% fat, 41–64 yr. olds preferred sausages with 15% fat, 65+ age group preferred sausages containing 30% fat. The 18–40 yr. olds preferred high salt samples, 41–64 yr. olds displayed no salt preference, while the 65+ age group preferred high salt sausages. Sausage formulation choice was found to be driven by texture for the younger age cohort, flavour for the middle age cohort and visual aspects from the oldest age cohort. There is a need to understand how meat products might be reformulated different age palates.
Meat packaging solutions to current industry challenges: A review Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-04-30 Benjamin W.B. Holman, Joseph P. Kerry, David L. Hopkins
Many advances have occurred in the field of smart meat packaging, and the potential for these to be used as tools that respond to challenges faced by industry is exciting. Here, we review packaging solutions to several immediate concerns, encompassing dark cutting, purge and yield losses, product traceability and provenance, packaging durability, microbial spoilage and safety, colour stability, environmental impacts, and the preservation of eating quality. Different active and intelligent packaging approaches to each of these were identified and are discussed in terms of their usefulness – to processors, retailers and/or consumers. From this, it became apparent that prior to selecting a packaging solution, industry should first define their criteria for success (e.g. How much purge is too much? What is a reasonable shelf-life to facilitate product turnover? Is the customer willing to pay for this?), and understand that packaging is not the sole solution, but acts as part of a holistic response to these issues.
Contribution of nitric oxide and protein S-nitrosylation to variation in fresh meat quality Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-01 Rui Liu, Robyn Dorothy Warner, Guanghong Zhou, Wangang Zhang
As a primary source of reactive nitrogen species, nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule playing multiple roles in physiological processes. NO exerts these pleiotropic effects mainly through the covalent attachment to the sulfhydryl group of protein cysteines to form S-nitrosothiol (protein S-nitrosylation). It has been two decades since NO was first investigated for its role in meat tenderization. Progress has been made, including studies by manipulating the NO levels in muscle cells, suggesting possible effects in the pre-slaughter and post-slaughter environment. NO has potential effects on the meat quality of beef, lamb, chicken and pork muscles. However, it has been difficult to determine the exact mechanism(s) of NO action as it has variable effects on meat quality including tenderness, water holding capacity and color. It is speculated that NO and protein S-nitrosylation may be involved in muscle to meat conversion through the regulation of postmortem biochemical pathways including glycolysis, Ca2+ release, proteolysis and apoptosis.
Application of winter mushroom powder as an alternative to phosphates in emulsion-type sausages Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-01 Jeehwan Choe, Juri Lee, Kyung Jo, Cheorun Jo, Minho Song, Samooel Jung
This research evaluated the utilization of winter mushrooms as a replacement for phosphate in emulsion-type sausages. Winter mushroom powder (WMP) was added to the sausages at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% (w/w), and phosphate was added at 0.3% as a positive control. The WMP additions above 1.0% increased the pH of meat batter and efficiently inhibited the exudation of fat from the sausages (p < 0.05). Lipid oxidation of sausages was inhibited by the addition of WMP (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the addition of phosphate and WMP provided different instrumental texture properties. However, no adverse effects were observed with respect to the color and sensory properties of the sausages containing WMP, except for that containing 2.0% WMP. Therefore, this research indicates that WMP can effectively replace phosphate in meat products, and that the most effective addition level may be 1.0% WMP.
The effect of gelatin-based edible coating enriched with sage and hemp oils on the quality of pork loin during refrigerated storage Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-05-01 M. Marcinkowska-Lesiak, A. Onopiuk, I. Wojtasik-Kalinowska, M. Zalewska, A. Półtorak, A. Wierzbicka
Edible coatings with bioactive components could be an interesting technological solution of extending shelf-life of pork meat. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the effect of gelatin coatings enriched with sage essential oil and/or hemp oil on chosen quality parameters of stored pork loins. Physical (pH, color parameters), chemical (proximate composition, percentage contents of metmyoglobin (MetMb), thiobarbitric acid reactive substance (TBARS)) and microbiological (total aerobic plate count (TAPC)) analysis, as well as meat quality evaluation were carried on within twelve days of storage. The obtained results showed that incorporation of 2% sage oil or 1% sage oil and 1% hemp oil incorporation into gelatin coatings were the most suitable for preservation of pork loins. Nevertheless, an excess of sage oil can have a negative effect on overall acceptance of meat.
Effects of contrasting concentrate feeding strategies on meat quality of growing and finishing dairy bulls offered grass silage and barley based diets Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-04-30 Katariina Manni, Marketta Rinne, Arto Huuskonen, Pekka Huhtanen
The objective was to examine the effects of concentrate level (barley grain 39 and 74 g dry matter/kg0.60 live weight) and allocation regime (steady, increased, decreased) on meat quality of growing dairy bulls fed grass silage ad libitum. Chemical, instrumental and sensory analyses were used for measuring quality of longissimus lumborum (LL). Greater concentrate level increased fat content (P = 0.035) and tenderness of sensory analysis (P = 0.009) of LL but did not affect pH, colour, drip loss, sarcomere length, shear force, juiciness or flavour. Periodic concentrate allocation reduced drip loss (P = 0.046) and tenderness (P = 0.001) compared to steady feeding. Observed effects on meat quality were minor and one explanation for this might be low carcass and meat fat content in all treatments. The experiment demonstrated the ability of growing bulls to adapt to different feeding regimes without major effects on meat quality, but simultaneously highlighted the challenge to affect beef quality by practically feasible diets.
Rabbit meat production and consumption: State of knowledge and future perspectives Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-04-28 Marco Cullere, Antonella Dalle Zotte
Since the 1970s, in some European countries rabbit meat production has progressively become a highly specialized industry, which has made Europe the second (after China) largest rabbit meat producer in the world. However, the industry is currently facing a critical period due to structural weaknesses, progressive and constant reductions in consumption, and raising criticism related to welfare conditions and other ethical issues. This trend is questioning the future of the rabbit meat industry, which could lead to the loss of knowledge and technical expertise acquired over decades of major investments and research efforts (a valuable cultural and professional heritage for future generations). In the present review, we provide an overview of the rabbit meat industry, market and value chain, we depict consumer's attitude towards rabbit meat, highlighting strengths and weaknesses, and factors driving their current purchase behavior. Finally, we will attempt to outline possible strategies to ensure a sustainable future for the production of rabbits for commercial meat purposes.
Guaranteeing the quality and integrity of pork – An Australian case study Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-04-27 H.A. Channon, D.N. D'Souza, R.G. Jarrett, G.S.H. Lee, R.J. Watling, J.Y.C. Jolley, F.R. Dunshea
The Australian pork industry is strongly committed to assuring the integrity of its product, with substantial research investment made over the past ten years to develop and implement systems to assure the consistency and quality of fresh pork and to enable accurate tracing of unpackaged fresh pork back to property of origin using trace elemental profiling. These initiatives are pivotal to allow Australian pork of guaranteed eating quality to be successfully positioned as higher value products, across a range of international and domestic markets, whilst managing any threats of product substitution. This paper describes the current status of the development of a predictive eating quality model for Australian pork, utilizing eating quality datasets generated from recent Australian studies. The implementation of trace elemental profiling, by Physi-Trace™, to verify and defend provenance claims and support the supply of consistently high eating quality Australian pork to its customers, is also discussed.
Unsaturated fat fraction from lard increases the oxidative stability of minced pork Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-04-25 Miao Liu, Anna-Maija Lampi, Per Ertbjerg
Lard from pork back fat was dry fractionated based on crystallization temperature, resulting in fractions with a ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids of 1.10 and 0.61. Lean minced pork was mixed with the saturated and unsaturated fat fraction and stored in modified atmosphere (80% O2 and 20% CO2) at 5 °C for 2, 5, 7, 9, and 12 days under light to investigate the effect on oxidative stability of lipids and proteins. The saturated fat group developed higher TBARS values and lower levels of free thiol groups during storage, indicating that the unsaturated fat fraction in minced pork promoted increased oxidative stability of both lipids and proteins. A higher content of α-tocopherol in the unsaturated fat fraction suggests that the differences in oxidative stability is causatively linked to the balance between the fatty acid composition and content of antioxidants. The TBARS values and free thiol content were negatively correlated, suggesting a relationship between lipid and protein oxidation.
Genetics and microbiology of meat Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-04-25 Margaret D. Weinroth, Brianna C. Britton, Keith E. Belk
Detection, reduction, and public health monitoring of foodborne pathogens has advanced in precision and efficiency as technology has progressed. Here, we look back on the evolution of food safety management and public health, and attempt to provide a view of how the technology and tools have changed, and how emerging technologies and tools may impact how we manage food safety and public health in the future. With the revolution of gene editing techniques (e.g. CRISPR-Cas9, etc.), Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and “omics”-based technologies, along with the bioinformatics tools that go with them, we now have a very new array of tools that can impact foodborne disease management. In addition to overall improvement in food safety, these tools have helped understand antibiotic resistance and virulence factors in meat to a higher degree than ever before. These technological advancements will allow food safety to move beyond strain-level characterization and control of pathogens to pinpointing genes of public health concern.
The physical and biochemical effects of pre-rigor high pressure processing of beef Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-04-24 James D. Morton, Hannah Y.-Y. Lee, R. Grant Pearson, Roy Bickerstaffe
High pressure processing (HPP) of pre-rigor longissimus thoracis (strip loin) from prime and bull animals substantially decreased the shear force and improved consumer eating attributes of the final meat product. The improved tenderness in both prime and bull meat was associated with a lower myofibrillar fragmentation index and reduced calpain 1 activity which indicated the mechanism of tenderisation was different from that which occurred in chill aged meat. Light microscopy showed disruption to the fibre packing within the muscle and electron microscopy confirmed significant disruption of the Z discs and M lines and disappearance of the A lines. Thus, HPP is associated with a reduction in the structural integrity and strength of the sarcomeres. These effects were consistent in strip loins sourced from prime and bull stock. HPP also led to the movement of glycogen phosphorylase from the sarcoplasmic fraction to the insoluble myofibrillar fraction in all animals and this was associated with a higher pH at 24 h.
Toward the enhancement of sensory profile of sausage “Merguez” with chickpea protein concentrate Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-04-24 Abir Mokni Ghribi, Amal Ben Amira, Ines Maklouf Gafsi, Massara Lahiani, Marwa Bejar, Mehdi Triki, Ahmed Zouari, Hamadi Attia, Souhail Besbes
The influence of different Chickpea Protein Concentrates (CPC) addition at different levels (CPC: 1.5, 2.5 and 5% (w/w)) on physico-chemical, textural and hedonic properties of formulated and cooked sausage “Merguez” were investigated. The obtained results exhibited that CPC addition increased protein content of “Merguez” sausage and improved the process yield. Significant differences were noticed on the cooking loss and textural properties for “Merguez” sausages formulated with 5% of CPC compared to the control (p < 0.05). Hedonic analysis showed that protein addition had no significant effect on sausages taste. However, sausage texture and global acceptability were markedly improved (p < 0.05). These results suggest that CPC could be an important alternative source of protein additive for the improvement of the physico-chemical, textural and sensorial properties of meat sausages.
Postmortem role of calpain-11 in ostrich skeletal muscle Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-04-24 Ya-Shiou Chang, Man-Jung Hsu, Rong-Ghi R. Chou
The postmortem calpain-11 role in ostrich muscle was investigated. Pairs of ostrich muscle (Iliotibialis cranialis) were excised from 32 ostrich carcasses in 3-h postmortem and randomly assigned into four treatments. The muscle was cut into 2.5-cm thick meat cores. The cores were incubated in 30 mM CaCl2, 30 mM EDTA, 90 mM NaCl, or control. The cores from the left-side carcasses were sampled after 0, 1, 2, and 3 days of incubation at 5 °C, while the right-side meat cores were taken at 1-day and 3-day incubation for shear force measurements. The results showed that the decrease in unautolyzed and total activities of calpain-11, desmin content and shear force was more rapid in CaCl2-incubated samples than in control, NaCl- and EDTA-incubated samples. Thus, present results suggest that in the absence of calpain-1, calpain-11 with an extensive activation by adding exogenous Ca2+ could enhance the postmortem proteolysis and tenderization of ostrich muscle.
Antimicrobial effect of different peroxyacetic acid and hydrogen peroxide formats against spores of Clostridium estertheticum Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-04-23 John Mills, Kylie Marree Horváth, Gale Brightwell
“Blown pack” spoilage is primarily caused by Clostridium estertheticum. The primary source of contamination is probably pelts, faeces and soil during opening cuts and de-hiding. Peroxyacetic acid (POAA) based fogs are commonly included in an abattoir's routine cleaning process. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a powerful oxidizing agent that penetrates microbe cell walls causing cell death. In this study, we compared the ability of H2O2 and OXYSAN ZS (POAA containing 1-hydroxyethylidine-1,1-diphosphonic acid as a stabilizer) in different formats to inactivate C. estertheticum spores. Hydrogen peroxide treatment using Phytagel™ gel as carrier was effective on fleece against both naturally contaminating microflora and C. estertheticum spores. This is the first time an antimicrobial treatment has been shown to inactivate C. estertheticum spores on such a complex and highly contaminated matrix. Both H2O2 and OXYSAN ZS treatments inactivated C. estertheticum spores on stainless steel indicating their potential use as an in-plant decontamination procedure or inclusion in routine in-process cleaning.
Effects of breeds, tissues and genders on purine contents in pork and the relationships between purine content and other meat quality traits Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-04-23 Min Zheng, Yizhong Huang, Jiuxiu Ji, Shijun Xiao, Junwu Ma, Lusheng Huang
The purine contents of animal foods are becoming widely concerned because excess intake of purine increases the risk of hyperuricemia and gout. In this study, we investigated the impacts of breed, tissue and sex on pork purine content and its correlations with multiple meat quality traits. Among six pig breeds, the average value of total purine contents (TP) in longissimus lumborum muscle was lowest in Chinese Laiwu pigs (114.2 mg/100 g) while highest in Chinese Bamaxiang mini pigs (139.3 mg/100 g). Considerable variations in TP were observed within most breeds, as well as among twelve pork organs with the range from 7 to 245 mg/100 g. However, no significant differences in TP were found between barrows and gilts. Intriguingly, lower purine content in meat was significantly associated with higher ultimate pH, better meat color and more abundant intramuscular fat content and marbling. The results thus suggest that the selection of low-purine pig species is available, which may simultaneously improve other meat quality traits.
Beef meat preferences of consumers from Northwest Italy: Analysis of choice attributes Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-04-23 V.M. Merlino, D. Borra, V. Girgenti, A. Dal Vecchio, S. Massaglia
In this research the importance of several choice attributes of beef for Piedmontese consumers was examined. The survey was conducted on a sample of consumers in sixteen meat stores in Piedmont, Northwest Italy. A choice experiment (Best-Worst scaling methodology) was used to identify consumer preferences and five clusters of purchaser. The responses were also analyzed on the basis of two variables, the frequency of meat consumption and the place of purchase. Piedmontese consumers considered “price” as the most important factor in meat purchasing, but “animal welfare” considerations played some part too.
The use of synthetic and natural vitamin D sources in pig diets to improve meat quality and vitamin D content Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-04-22 Sarah K. Duffy, Alan K. Kelly, Gaurav Rajauria, Jette Jakobsen, Louise C. Clarke, Frank J. Monahan, Kirsten G. Dowling, George Hull, Karen Galvin, Kevin D. Cashman, Aoife Hayes, John V. O'Doherty
This study investigated the effects of synthetic and natural sources of vitamin D biofortification in pig diets on pork vitamin D activity and pork quality. One hundred and twenty pigs (60 male, 60 female) were assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 55 d feeding period. The dietary treatments were (1)50 μg vitamin D₃/kg of feed; (2)50 μg of 25-hydroxvitamin D₃/kg of feed (25-OH-D₃); (3)50 μg vitamin D₂/kg of feed; (4)50 μg vitamin D₂-enriched mushrooms/kg of feed (Mushroom D₂). The pigs offered the 25-OH-D₃ diet exhibited the highest (P < 0.001) serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and subsequently exhibited the highest (P < 0.05) Longissimus thoracis (LT) total vitamin D activity. Mushroom D2 and 25-OH-D3 supplementation increased pork antioxidant status. The vitamin D₂-enriched mushrooms improved (P < 0.05) pig performance, carcass weight, LT colour. In conclusion, 25-OH-D₃ is the most successful source for increasing pork vitamin D activity, while Mushroom D2 may be a new avenue to improve animal performance and pork quality.
Effects of dietary ramie powder at various levels on carcass traits and meat quality in finishing pigs Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-04-21 Yinghui Li, Yingying Liu, Fengna Li, Qian Lin, Qiuzhong Dai, Jianbang Sun, Xingguo Huang, Xiao'an Chen, Yulong Yin
This study investigated the effects of ramie (0, 3, 6, 9, or 12%) included in finishing diets on carcass traits and meat quality of Xiangcun black pigs. Results showed that ramie decreased (linear, P < .05) backfat depth while it increased (linear, P < .05) loin-eye area. A quadratic effect of shear force in longissimus thoracis (LT) was observed, and the lowest value was noted in the 6% ramie group. Protein content in LT was linearly increased by ramie (linear, P < .01). Meanwhile, dietary ramie linearly decreased lipogenic genes mRNA levels and fiber cross-sectional area, but it linearly increased total fiber number of LT. These results suggest that ramie included in the diet <9% is an effective feed crop to partly improve carcass trait and muscle chemical composition without negatively affecting growth performance, and the underlying mechanism may be due to the changed lipogenic potential and myofiber characteristics induced by ramie.
Understanding the implications of current health trends on the aroma of wet and dry cured meat products Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-04-20 Mónica Flores
Meat product aroma is affected by various meat processing factors. In this review the main biochemical reactions involved in the development of meat product aroma (wet, dry cured and fermented) are fully described. Moreover, the different techniques used for key aroma elucidation in meat products are defined. The aroma compounds present in wet, dry cured and fermented meat products (sausage and whole piece) have been summarized. The mechanisms of aroma formation during the manufacture of cooked and dry/fermented meat products are described. In wet meat products the main reactions described are lipid degradation (oxidative reactions), Maillard reactions, Strecker degradation, and thiamine degradation while in dry meat products are; lipid degradation (oxidative reactions), thiamine degradation, microbial carbohydrate fermentation and microbial metabolism including complex interactions among them such as the amino acid degradation produced by lipid oxidation products. Finally, the effect of current health trends such as salt, fat and nitrifying content reduction on the development of meat product aroma is explained.
The role of meat in foodborne disease: Is there a coming revolution in risk assessment and management? Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-04-20 Narelle Fegan, Ian Jenson
Meat has featured prominently as a source of foodborne disease and a public health concern. For about the past 20 years the risk management paradigm has dominated international thinking about food safety. Control through the supply chain is supported by risk management concepts, as the public health risk at the point of consumption becomes the accepted outcome based measure. Foodborne pathogens can be detected at several points in the supply chain and determining the source of where these pathogens arise and how they behave throughout meat production and processing are important parts of risk based approaches. Recent improvements in molecular and genetic based technologies and data analysis for investigating source attribution and pathogen behaviour have enabled greater insights into how foodborne outbreaks occur and where controls can be implemented. These new approaches will improve our understanding of the role of meat in foodborne disease and are expected to have a significant impact on our understanding in the next few years.
Pink slimed: Media framing of novel food technologies and risk related to ground beef and processed foods in the U.S. ☆ Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-04-17 Kristin K. Runge, Jennifer H. Chung, Leona Yi-Fan Su, Dominique Brossard, Dietram A. Scheufele
In March 2012 ABC World News Report aired a series of reports on lean finely textured beef (LFTB) that resulted in a 10-year low for beef prices and the bankruptcy of a major firm that produced LFTB. Using a random sample survey, we tested the effects of the media frame “pink slime” and industry frame “lean finely textured beef,” alongside media use, food-related knowledge, trust in food-related institutions and preference for local, fresh, organic and GMO-free foods on perceptions of risk related to ground beef containing pink slime/LFTB, processed foods and red meat. The “pink slime” frame was strongly and positively associated with risk related to ground beef, but not risk related to red meat or processed foods. Attention to news stories about pink slime/LFTB was strongly associated with risk related to ground beef and processed foods, but not red meat. We found varying effects of food values, knowledge and trust on all three dependent variables. Implications are discussed.
Origin discrimination of defatted pork via trace elements profiling, stable isotope ratios analysis, and multivariate statistical techniques Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-04-16 Yu Min Park, Cheong Mi Lee, Joon Ho Hong, Nargis Jamila, Naeem Khan, Jong-Hyun Jung, Young-Chul Jung, Kyong Su Kim
This study verified the origin of 346 defatted Korean and non-Korean pork samples via trace elements profiling, and C and N stable isotope ratios analysis. The analyzed elements were 6Li, 7Li, 10B, 11B, 51V, 50Cr, 52Cr, 53Cr, 55Mn, 58Ni, 60Ni, 59Co, 63Cu, 65Cu, 64Zn, 66Zn, 69Ga, 71Ga, 75As, 82Se, 84Sr, 86Sr, 87Sr, 88Sr, 85Rb, 94Mo, 95Mo, 97Mo, 107Ag, 109Ag, 110Cd, 111Cd, 113Cd, 112Cd, 114Cd, 116Cd, 133Cs, 206Pb, 207Pb, and 208Pb. Content (mg/kg) of 51V (0.012), 50Cr (0.882), 75As (0.017), 85Rb (57.7), and 87Sr (46.3) were high in Korean pork samples whereas 6Li, 7Li, 59Co, 55Mn, 58Ni, 84Sr, 86Sr, 88Sr, 111Cd, and 133Cs were found higher in non-Korean samples. The results of discriminant analysis showed that the trace elements content and stable isotope ratios were significant for the discrimination of geographical origins with a perfect discrimination rate of 100%.
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