Special-Fed Veal: Separable components, proximate composition, and nutrient analysis of selected raw and cooked, wholesale and retail cuts Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-22 C.C. Perham, C.L. Gifford, D.R. Woerner, T.E. Engle, K.S. Sellins, R.J. Acheson, L.W. Douglass, J.D. Tatum, R.J. Delmore, A. Cifelli, S.H. McNeill, K.E. Belk
Nutrition research continues to be important for consumers to make informed food purchasing decisions and is used in nutrition policy decisions. The objective of this study was to analyze the nutrient concentration of raw and cooked cuts from special-fed veal calves to update nutrient data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) Release 27. Packages of wholesale (whole loin roasts, center-cut hindshanks and ground veal) and retail veal cuts (osso buco foreshanks, loin chops, leg cutlets and shoulder blade chops) were randomly collected in original vacuum packaging from six U.S. suppliers. Packages were shipped to the Colorado State University Meat Laboratory for cut dissection, cooking, and nutrient analysis. Composites of lean, external fat and seam fat were formed for analysis of proximate, fatty acid, vitamin and mineral composition. Results from this study identified additional fatty acids, established choline concentration, and provided updated veal nutrient composition information for inclusion in USDA SR 27.
A CT-image based pig atlas model and its potential applications in the meat industry Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-21 H. Ho, H.B. Yu, L.E. Gangsei, J. Kongsro
In this communication we present a novel pig atlas model which is represented by a parametric linear Lagrange or cubic Hermite mesh. The model is developed from data points digitized from a 3D pig CT image. In total 84 muscles and 121 bones are included in the atlas, representing the tissue structures most relevant to the industry. We discuss its potential applications in virtual meat cuts and statistical shape analysis for pig breeding and genetics companies.
Genomic selection for meat quality traits in Nelore cattle Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-20 Ana Fabrícia Braga Magalhães, Flavio Schramm Schenkel, Diogo Anastácio Garcia, Daniel Gustavo Mansan Gordo, Rafael Lara Tonussi, Rafael Espigolan, Rafael Medeiros de Oliveira Silva, Camila Urbano Braz, Gerardo Alves Fernandes Júnior, Fernando Baldi, Roberto Carvalheiro, Arione Augusti Boligon, Henrique Nunes de Oliveira, Luis Arthur Loyola Chardulo, Lucia Galvão de Albuquerque
The objective of this study was to present heritability estimates and accuracy of genomic prediction using different methods for meat quality traits in Nelore cattle. Approximately 5000 animals with phenotypes and genotypes of 412,000 SNPs, were divided into two groups: (1) training population: animals born from 2008 to 2013 and (2) validation population: animals born in 2014. A single-trait animal model was used to estimate heritability and to adjust the phenotype. The methods of GBLUP, Improved Bayesian Lasso and Bayes Cπ were performed to estimate the SNP effects. Accuracy of genomic prediction was calculated using Pearson's correlations between direct genomic values and adjusted phenotypes, divided by the square root of heritability of each trait (0.03–0.19). The accuracies varied from 0.23 to 0.73, with the lowest accuracies estimated for traits associated with fat content and the greatest accuracies observed for traits of meat color and tenderness. There were small differences in genomic prediction accuracy between methods.
Influence of extending the pre-slaughter interval after second vaccination on the carcass cutting yield and the quality of meat from immunocastrated lambs Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-20 Tersia Needham, Helet Lambrechts, Louwrens Hoffman
The influence of extending the vaccination-to-slaughter interval of immunocastrated lambs on carcass cutting yield and meat quality of the Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle was investigated in forty Dohne Merino lambs (8.5 months old; 53.7 ± 4.8 kg). Immunocastration booster vaccination intervals of six (ICS6; n = 10) and four (ICS4; n = 10) weeks prior to the slaughter age were used, with two weeks between primary and secondary vaccinations. A further 10 lambs were Burdizzo-castrated at 6.5 months old (B). The control treatment remained intact (R; n = 10). Prime cutting yields, LT muscle area, LT subcutaneous fat thickness and instrumental meat quality were accessed. Both castration methods increased LT fat thickness and decreased meat CIE a* (redness) values. Extending the vaccination-to-slaughter interval of immunocastrates increased the gastrointestinal tract fat and decreased meat redness. Immunocastration of male lambs can thus be used to manipulate backfat without negatively influencing carcass weight, cutting yield or meat quality.
Prediction of lamb body composition using in vivo bioimpedance analysis Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-20 Anderson B. Moro, Cleber C. Pires, Leila P. da Silva, Ana M.O. Dias, Robson R. Simões, Verônica M. Pilecco, Renius de O. Mello, Luis K. de Aguiar
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of in vivo bioimpedance analysis (BIA) as a method to estimate body composition in lambs. Thirty-one Texel x Ile de France crossbreed ram lambs were slaughtered at pre-determined intervals of average weights of 20, 26, 32, and 38 kg. Before the slaughter of the animals, their body weight (BW) and body length (BL) were measured. The values for resistance (Rs) and reactance (Xc) were collected using a single-frequency BIA equipment (Model RJL Quantum II Bioelectrical Body Composition Analyzer). The BIA main variables such as body bioelectrical volume (V), phase angle (PA), resistive density (RsD), and reactive density (XcD) were then calculated. The soft tissue mass of the right-half cold carcass was analyzed in order to determine its chemical composition. Multiple regression analyses were performed using the lamb body composition as dependent variables and the measurements related to bioimpedance as independent variables. The best regression models were evaluated by cross-validation. The predictive model of moisture mass, which was developed by using XcD and V, accounted for 84% of its variation. Resulting models of percentage moisture (R2 = 0.79), percentage lean mass (R2 = 0.79), percentage fat (R2 = 0.79), and fat mass (R2 = 0.87) were obtained using RsD and V. Furthermore, the values of RsD regarding V, and PA in the prediction models accounted for 91% and 89% of variation in protein mass and lean mass, respectively. Bioimpedance analysis proved to be an efficient method to estimate the body composition of lambs slaughtered at different body mass stages.
A comparison of the Nix Colour Sensor Pro™ and HunterLab MiniScan™ colorimetric instruments when assessing aged beef colour stability over 72 h display Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-14 Benjamin W.B. Holman, David L. Hopkins
We compared the capacity for the Nix Colour Sensor Pro™ (NIX) and HunterLab MiniScan™ (HUNTER) to detect colour variation using aged (0, 3 and 5 weeks) and then displayed (0, 1, 2 and 3 d) beef M. longissimus lumborum samples (n = 8). NIX L* and hue values were found to be respectively higher and lower than for the HUNTER. No significant interactions between instrument and display or ageing periods were identified for a* – unlike for b* and chroma where NIX measures were observed to be lower than those from the HUNTER. Both instruments identified ageing and display period effects on colorimetric traits. Based on these results, the NIX cannot be considered comparable to the HUNTER when measuring beef colour – albeit captured similar colorimetric trends over display and ageing periods which suggest its independent usefulness to beef colour assessment.
Effect of oxidized lipids stored under different temperatures on muscle protein oxidation in Sichuan-style sausages during ripening Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-13 Binbin Li, Ye Xu, Jing Li, Shuhui Niu, Chengtao Wang, Nan Zhang, Min Yang, Kang Zhou, Shujuan Chen, Li He, Shuliang Liu, Sheng Yin, Yong Yang
This study was conceived to research muscle protein oxidation under the influence of four different degrees of oxidized lipids during the ripening of Sichuan-style sausages. Lipids were stored at different temperatures to obtain different oxidation degrees. To elucidate the relationship between lipid oxidation and protein oxidation, the indicators of lipid oxidation, protein oxidation and protein degradation were analysed. During ripening, the carbonyl, SH, SS and free amino acid contents changed significantly. The carbonyl and SS contents increased first in all samples, then decreased, whereas the SH content showed the opposite results. These results showed a positive correlation between protein oxidation and lipid oxidation. Lipids with a higher oxidation degree induced a stronger oxidation reaction to protein. Meanwhile, the results of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed that the influence of lipid oxidation on myofibrillar proteins was much more intense than on sarcoplasmic proteins.
Effect of partial replacement of fat with added water and tragacanth gum (Astragalus gossypinus and Astragalus compactus) on the physicochemical, texture, oxidative stability, and sensory property of reduced fat emulsion type sausage Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-10 Esmaeel Abbasi, Roghayeh Amini Sarteshnizi, Hassan Ahmadi Gavlighi, Mehdi Nikoo, Mohammad Hossein Azizi, Nushin Sadeghinejad
This study aimed to investigate the effect of partial fat replacement with two species of gum tragacanth (Astragalus gossypinus and Astragalus compactus) on physicochemical, textural, oxidative stability, and acceptability of reduced fat emulsion type sausages. Increasing the concentration of both gums to 1%, minimized extractable fat and cook loss. A. gossypinus at the concentration of 1% was the most effective in retardation of TBARS formation in sausages (p < 0.05). Reduced-fat sausages with 1% A. gossypinus showed the lowest carbonyls at the end of storage (28 days) (p < 0.05). Sausages with 1% A. gossypinus or A. compactus showed the lowest shear force (~6 and ~7 N respectively) and hardness (~21 N/cm2) among all treatments (p < 0.05). The results suggested that A. gossypinus (1%) enhanced oxidative stability and textural properties. Addition of 0.5% A. gossypinus showed an acceptable sensory score of the sausage formulation and as a potential fat replacer in the reduced fat sausages.
A dual-mode sensor for colorimetric and fluorescent detection of nitrite in hams based on carbon dots-neutral red system Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-09 Xuetao Hu, Jiyong Shi, Yongqiang Shi, Xiaobo Zou, Haroon Elrasheid Tahir, Mel Holmes, Wen Zhang, Xiaowei Huang, Zhihua Li, Yiwei Xu
Nitrite residue in hams was detected by a fluorescent and colorimetric sensor based on carbon dots (C-dots) and neutral red (NR). C-dots with green fluorescence was synthesized by a microwave-assisted method. This novel sensor was fabricated by C-dots as donors and NR as acceptors. The presence of nitrite led to decrease of absorbance and increase of fluorescence. Colorimetric and fluorescent methods for nitrite detection were developed with excellent correlation coefficients (R2 = 0.995 and 0.991) and low limits of detection (196 nM and 0.518 nM). Moreover, nitrite residue in seven types of ham was detected by the colorimetric and fluorescent methods which were verified by a standard method. The results obtained by the proposed method were comparable and agree with that of the Griess-based method (relative errors<5%). C-dots-NR system as a sensor has a potential application for nitrite detection in hams to monitor its quality and safety.
Changes in myofibrillar protein gel quality of porcine longissimus muscle induced by its stuctural modification under different thawing methods Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-08 Fangfei Li, Bo Wang, Qian Liu, Qian Chen, Hongwei Zhang, Xiufang Xia, Baohua Kong
The effects of thawing methods (refrigeration thawing (RT, 4 °C), water immersion thawing (WT, 18 °C), vacuum thawing (VT, 25 °C), ultrasonic thawing (UT, 20 °C) and microwave thawing (MT)) on the conformation and gel qualities of myofibrillar protein (MP) obtained from porcine longissimus muscle were investigated. The results showed that MP conformation and gel qualities of porcine longissimus muscles by VT and UT were insignificantly changed compared to fresh meat (FM). A significant decrease in free amino groups of MP from MT illustrated that MT induced protein aggregation and oxidation (P < 0.05). The results of circular dichroism (CD) spectra analysis and fluorescence spectroscopy indirectly proved that thawing can cause protein cross-linking and degradation, secondary structure destruction, non-hydrophilic domain exposed and conformational change of samples. The largest changes in solubility, surface hydrophobicity and particle size were obtained with MT. the effects on the conformation and gel quality of MP were verified during thawing process
Stability of vacuum-packed meat from finishing steers fed different inclusion levels of brewer's spent grain Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-08 Flávia Santi Stefanello, Ana Paula Burin Fruet, Francielle Trombetta, Patrícia Alves Franco da Fonseca, Mariana dos Santos da Silva, Simone Stefanello, José Laerte Nörnberg
Brewer's spent grain (BSG) as a partial substitute for corn silage (CS) was evaluated in finishing feedlot steers on the lipid, protein, color, and microbiological stability of vacuum-packed meat for 75 days under refrigerated storage. Twenty steers were distributed in four treatments in a completely randomized design with five replicates each: 50% concentrate +50% CS; + 35% CS + 15% BSG; + 25% CS + 25% BSG; and 15% CS + 35% BSG for 90 days. After the animals were slaughtered and the carcasses cooled, the Longissimus thoracis muscle was collected for analyzes. The lipid and protein oxidation, color parameters and microbiological stability of the beef although not affected by the diets (P > .05) oscillated throughout the storage time (P < .05). BSG can be included in the finishing diets of beef cattle by up to 35% (dry basis) and as a forage source without adverse effects on beef shelf life.
Differences between porcine longissimus thoracis and semitendinosus intramuscular fat content and the regulation of their preadipocytes during adipogenic differentiation Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-06 Fen-Fen Chen, Ying-Qian Wang, Guo-Rong Tang, Shu-Ge Liu, Rui Cai, Yun Gao, Sun Yun-Mei, Yang Gong-She, Wei-Jun Pang
Intramuscular fat (IMF) plays an important role in pork quality. However, differences in the adipogenic regulation of IMF content between pig longissimus thoracis (LT) and semitendinosus (ST) remain unclear. Here, we found that IMF content of 180-day-old pig LT was greater than that of pig ST. Furthermore, lipid accumulation was earlier and greater in LT intramuscular preadipocytes (L-IMA) than in ST intramuscular preadipocytes (S-IMA) during differentiation. Interestingly, glucose consumption was lower in L-IMA than in S-IMA. Moreover, monounsaturated fatty acid content was greater in L-IMA than in S-IMA, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acid content was lower. Levels of the expression of key adipogenic genes were higher in L-IMA than S-IMA. Compared with S-IMA, adipogenic signals were more activated in L-IMA after adipogenic induction. In conclusion, IMF deposition differences between pig LT and ST were due to different glucose consumption, fatty acid composition, expression of key adipogenic genes and level of activating adipogenic signals between S-IMA and L-IMA during adipogenesis.
Filling the out of season gaps for lamb and hogget production: Diet and genetic influence on carcass yield, carcass composition and retail value of meat Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-04 E.N. Ponnampalam, M.G. Kerr, K.L. Butler, J.J. Cottrell, F.R. Dunshea, J.L. Jacobs
This study investigated the use of camelina forage and meal supplementation to a finishing diet on carcass traits, composition and retail value of lamb and hoggets. The metabolisable energy and crude protein concentrations of all 3 diets were 10–11 MJ/kg DM and 14–15% CP. Thirty maternal Composite wether lambs (28–38 kg) and 30 Merino wether hoggets (37–43 kg) were used in a 3 × 2 factorial experiment. Animals were slaughtered after 10 weeks of feeding with carcasses classified as ‘Heavy lamb’ or ‘Heavy hogget’ (>22 kg carcass weight). Carcass traits, composition, meat mineral concentrations and retail colour were measured. Camelina diets increased liveweight (P < 0.02) and carcass weight (P < 0.002) for both sheep types. Carcass weight (P < 0.005) and dressing % (P < 0.01) were lower for Merino hoggets than Composite lambs. Mineral concentration and retail colour stability of fresh meat were unaffected by diet, with 72 h retail colour considered acceptable for consumers.
Evaluation of the bacterial diversity of Spanish-type chorizo during the ripening process using high-throughput sequencing and physicochemical characterization Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-03 Carmen Juárez-Castelán, Israel García-Cano, Alejandra Escobar-Zepeda, Alejandro Azaola-Espinosa, Yenizey Álvarez-Cisneros, Edith Ponce-Alquicira
Spanish-type chorizo is a fermented meat product that is highly appreciated by consumers. The physicochemical properties (pH, water activity (aw), total acidity (TA), and malonaldehyde content) were evaluated in the initial meat batter and at different ripening stages. Bacterial diversity and dynamics were also examined using high-throughput sequencing. A decrease in pH and aw was observed during ripening, while the TA and malonaldehyde contents increased significantly. This data correlated with the changes in lactic acid bacteria and enterobacteria populations. Total bacterial diversity in the initial samples was represented by Proteobacteria (44%) and Firmicutes (55%) phyla, where Pseudomonas (23%), Streptococcus (21%), Acinetobacter (14%), Bacillus (13%), and Brochothrix (11%) were the most abundant genera. In contrast, Firmicutes reached the highest frequency (~89%), with Lactobacillus and Streptococcus being the most represented at the end of ripening. Lactobacillus sakei, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Weissella thailandensis were identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis and were considered potentially responsible for the stability, microbiological safety, and sensory characteristics of this product.
Inhibitory effect of Chrysanthemum morifolium flower extract on the formation of heterocyclic amines in goat meat patties cooked by various cooking methods and temperatures Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-02 Iftikhar Ali Khan, Dongmei Liu, Mingjun Yao, Arif Memon, Jichao Huang, Ming Huang
The effect of Chrysanthemum morifolium flower extract (CME) was investigated on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in goat meat patties cooked at different temperatures by different cooking methods. In patties without CME, the level of total HCAs increased analogously with the increase in cooking temperature. The inhibitory effect of CME on HCAs ranged from 14% to 82%. The total HCAs content were reduced by 46%, 40% and 35% in pan fried, deep fat fried and oven roasted goat meat patties, respectively, at 175 °C. While, at 225 °C, the amount of total HCAs was decreased by 52%, 47% and 32% in deep fat fried, pan fried and oven roasted patties respectively, whereas, in barbecue patties the reduction was 36%. Hence, it is concluded that the effect of CME was more prominent in deep fat frying and pan frying cooking methods and increase in temperature enhance the efficacy of CME in both cooking methods.
Microbial changes and aroma profile of nitrate reduced dry sausages during vacuum storage Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-09-01 Laura Perea-Sanz, Rebeca Montero, Carmela Belloch, Mónica Flores
Slow fermented sausages with reduced ingoing amounts of sodium nitrate (control, 15% and 25% reduction) were stored under vacuum up to three months. Changes in microbiology, chemical parameters and volatile compounds were studied. Residual nitrate was not affected by vacuum storage and its reduction resulted in a reduction of sausage redness. General microbial counts decreased during vacuum storage, though nitrate reduction increased the growth of total mesophilic bacteria and Gram positive cocci. Long storage time and 25% nitrate reduction affected microbial activity and sausage aroma profile. Short vacuum storage times and moderate nitrate reduction (15%) were related to compounds producing pleasant odours (3-hydroxy-2-butanone, ethyl octanoate, ethyl-3-methylbutanoate and 2,3-pentanedione) and cheesy/buttery odour (2,3-butanedione and ethyl-2-hydroxypropanoate). In contrast, 25% nitrate reduction increased compounds like heptanal (green, unpleasant odour) and those related to unpleasant odours, methanethiol (rotten odour) and methional (cooked potato).
Suggestion for a subdivision of processed meat products on the Danish market based on their content of carcinogenic compounds Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-30 Heddie Mejborn, Max Hansen, Anja Biltoft-Jensen, Tue Christensen, Karin Hess Ygil, Pelle Thonning Olesen
Carcinogenic effects in humans are ascribed to processed meat by organisations such as International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research. However, the term ‘processed meat’ covers a heterogenic group of products whose content of potential hazards differ considerably. To improve estimates of associations between processed meat intake and cancer risk we investigated ways to divide processed meat into subgroups that more precisely reflects its carcinogenic characteristics.We collected ingredient lists and declarations of salt content for >1000 processed meat products on the Danish market and combined the information with knowledge related to processing parameters. Some compounds that could affect the products' carcinogenic characteristics, alone or in combination, were evaluated and compared for 12 types of processed meat products, and we suggest subgrouping of processed meat with similar level of carcinogenic potential, which could improve the understanding of the cancer risk associated with processed meat intake in scientific human studies.
Age-related changes in the carcass composition and meat quality of fallow deer (DAMA DAMA L.) Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-29 J. Żochowska-Kujawska, M. Kotowicz, M. Sobczak, K. Lachowicz, J. Wójcik
The present study investigated the possible differences in carcass composition as well as texture, structure and percentage of different muscle types of the most valuable muscles (BF – biceps femoris, SM – semimembranosus, and L – longissimus) from fallow deer (Dama dama L.) bucks shot in the forest farm in north-western Poland at four different ages: 18, 30, 42 and 54 months. It was found that carcasses of young fallow deer (18–30 months), compared to older animals, were characterised by a higher dressing proportion, a higher percentage of the most valuable commercial cuts (the saddle, haunch and shoulder), high meat yield with the lowest percentage of bones and a lower percentage of skin and head. Their muscles, compared with older animals, were characterised by a lower percentage of red fibres, lower muscle fibre area, thinner perimysium and endomysium, lower amount of intramuscular fat and as a consequence lower hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, as well as a higher pH and lower thermal drip.
Descriptive and hedonic sensory perception of Brazilian consumers for smoked bacon Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-28 Erick Saldaña, Luiz Saldarriaga, Jorge Cabrera, Jorge H. Behrens, Miriam Mabel Selani, Juan Rios-Mera, Carmen J. Contreras-Castillo
The descriptive and hedonic sensory perception of bacon manufactured using different smoking processes was studied. Six bacon samples were evaluated: three manufactured with woods, two with liquid smokes, and a commercial bacon. Consumers rated their overall liking (OL) and responded the check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions coupled with ideal profile method (IPM).1 The preliminary result showed that LS2 and Bamboo were the best-rated bacons. However, data analysis indicated two segments of consumers (both n = 50), with significant differences in the OL. The first segment liked fatty and smoked bacons, while the second valued the texture and appearance. The drivers of liking in both segments were the attributes related to texture, juiciness and the smoky aroma. The use of different woods in the bacon smoking process modified the descriptive and hedonic sensory perception of consumers.
Grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage) supplementation in lamb diets: Effects on growth performance, carcass and meat quality Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-28 Obert C. Chikwanha, Voster Muchenje, Joubert E. Nolte, Michael E.R. Dugan, Cletos Mapiye
This study investigated the effects of feeding graded levels of sun-dried red grape pomace (GP; 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) on growth, carcass and meat physico-chemical quality attributes of Dohne Merino lambs for 42 days. Dry matter intake increased quadratically with a critical value (i.e., optimum inclusion level) of 11.3% GP (P ≤ 0.05). Diet exhibited similar quadratic responses for average daily gain, live, hot and cold carcass weights with optimum inclusion levels at 9.6, 9.7, 12, 2 and 12.1, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). Overall, meat quality traits were not negatively affected by GP inclusion (P > .05). Gross profit was influenced by diet, with an optimum inclusion level at 12.2% (quadratic; P ≤ 0.05). Overall, inclusion of 12.2% GP in lamb finishing diets at the expense of oat bran and wheat bran middlings improved lamb productivity, without compromising meat quality.
Profile of cabanossi made with exotic meats and olive oil Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-28 L.C. Hoffman, K. Schoon, M. Rudman, T.S. Brand, A. Dalle Zotte, M. Cullere
The effect of olive oil inclusion on the chemical and sensory characteristics in cabanossi made with ostrich and warthog meat was investigated. Ostrich meat from soybean oilcake (SBOC) and cottonseed oilcake dietary inclusion levels (CSOC), and olive oil were included at three levels (0%, 1% and 2%) resulting in six treatments. The fat content in the cabanossi increased with increasing levels of oil inclusion but were all <10%, which allows it to be classified as a low fat meat product. Total monounsaturated fatty acids in the cabanossi increased whilst total saturated fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased as olive oil increased. The SBOC cabanossi had a lower fat and higher crude protein content. The inclusion of olive oil at 2% resulted in a cabanossi with increased tenderness, juiciness and cured red meat colour, all factors that appeal to the consumer, while the overall flavour descriptors were not adversely affected by the inclusion of olive oil.
Partial replacement of meat and fat with hydrated wheat fiber in beef burgers decreases caloric value without reducing the feeling of satiety after consumption Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-27 Larissa Tátero Carvalho, Manoela Alves Pires, Juliana Cristina Baldin, Paulo Eduardo Sichetti Munekata, Francisco Allan Leandro de Carvalho, Isabela Rodrigues, Yana Jorge Polizer, Juliana Lolli Malagoli de Mello, Judite Lapa-Guimarães, Marco Antonio Trindade
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of hydrated wheat fiber replacing meat and fat in beef burgers on technological characteristics, sensory acceptance and hunger satisfaction. The different levels of hydrated wheat fiber (1 g fiber: 6 g water) were 0, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5.0 g of fiber/80 g burger portion. Results showed that the greater the addition of hydrated wheat fiber, the lower the protein (P < .0001) and lipid (P = .0006) content and consequently the greater the reduction in caloric value. Burgers with up to 3.75 g fiber/80 g portion showed the same (P > .05) sensory acceptance as the Control burgers (those without added fiber). Sandwiches comprised of burgers with 2.5 and 5.0 g fiber/80 g portion caused the same (P > .05) hunger satisfaction (satiety feeling) as those comprised of Control burgers for up to 3 h after consumption. Burgers containing 3.75 g fiber/80 g burger may represent an interesting alternative for people who want to reduce caloric intake and/or increase the proportion of insoluble fiber in their diet.
Influence of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on quality characteristics of beef semimembranous muscle: With emphasis on water status and distribution by LF-NMR and MRI Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-27 Shasha Cheng, Xiaohui Wang, Ranran Li, Huimin Yang, Huihui Wang, Haitao Wang, Mingqian Tan
Influences of multiple freeze-thaw (F-T) cycles on water status and distribution, microstructure and physicochemical properties of beef were investigated. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) relaxation showed three water components were assigned to bound, immobilized and free water in beef matrix. With the increase of F-T cycles, the relaxation time and peak area of immobilized water decreased significantly (P < 0.05), which suggested the freedom and population of immobilized water decreased. T1 and T2 magnetic resonance images displayed a continuous decrease of water intensity in beef during multiple F-T cycles. The cryo-scanning electron microscopy results revealed repeated F-T cycles resulted in more and more large holes in the beef muscle fiber. The repeated F-T cycles also led to decrease of pH value, WHC, L* and a* values, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and resilience, and the increase of thawing loss, cooking loss, b* and TBARS value. Partial least-squares regression models stated the potential of LF-NMR to predict the quality of beef as a non-destructive method.
Effects of Portulaca oleracea L. extract on lipid oxidation and color of pork meat during refrigerated storage Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-27 Xiao-Jing Fan, Shan-Zhi Liu, Huan-Huan Li, Jun He, Jun-Tao Feng, Xing Zhang, He Yan
The study explored the preservation effect of Portulaca oleracea L. extract (POE) on pork meat under refrigerated conditions for 9 days. POE was tested for antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity in vitro and the results showed that POE has strong antioxidant activity and has antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus to some extent. Effect of POE in different levels (0.25%, 0.50% and 1.0%) on quality and shelflife of pork meat storage were evaluated. Results showed that the treatments of POE significantly inhibited microbial growth,delayed lipids oxidation, reduced values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total volatile base‑nitrogen (TVB-N), increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and in a dose-dependent manner (P < .05). Concomitantly, 1.0%POE and 0.50%POE treatments had better appearance compared with control after 9 days storage. All results confirmed that POE could effectively maintain the quality of chilled pork compared to control.
Application of tension to prerigor goat carcasses to improve cooked meat tenderness Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-25 Kelsey L. Basinger, Bruce C. Shanks, Jason K. Apple, James D. Caldwell, Janeal W.S. Yancey, Elizabeth A. Backes, Luke S. Wilbers, Tim M. Johnson, Amy L. Bax
In two separate experiments, carcasses of intact Kiko × Boer male kids were assigned randomly to tension treatments applied 30 min postmortem: 1) suspended by the Achilles tendon (AT); 2) suspended from the pelvic bone with front and hind legs tied together (TS); or 3) suspended by the Achilles tendon, and the fore- and hindsaddle were separated at the 12th/13th thoracic intervertebral disk, external fat, accessory muscles and epimysium surrounding the longissimus muscle (LM) were cut (TC), and a 2.3-kg weight attached to the neck (TC + W). Warner-Bratzler shear force values for the LM were reduced (P < 0.05) 24.4 to 35.9 N in TS carcasses compared to AT carcasses, and WBSF values of SM from TS carcasses were 25.0 and 20.3 N less (P < 0.05) than those for AT and TC + W carcasses, respectively. Results indicated that cooked goat meat tenderness, particularly the LM and SM, may be improved greatly by suspending goat carcasses by the pelvic bone.
Identification of meat from yak and cattle using SNP markers with integrated allele-specific polymerase chain reaction–capillary electrophoresis method Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-25 Jie Zhao, Zhenzhen Xu, Ailiang Chen, Xinyong You, Yan Zhao, Wenjing He, Luyao Zhao, Shuming Yang
Correct species identification is necessary for meat product quality assurance. Genetic markers are useful tools to accurately determine the animal source of meat products. To better protect yak meat and products, ten SNP loci from bovine meat-related genes and one positive control primer set were selected to discriminate meat sourced from yak or cattle. A multiplex allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and capillary electrophoresis method was employed for SNP genotyping. The samples were identified as coming from yak or cattle based on the number of amplicons. Yak samples generally produced one to three amplicon peaks, and the cattle samples yielded five or more peaks in the electropherogram. This method could be useful to distinguish yak meat from cattle beef, and would contribute to the protection of consumers and meat producers.
Changes in pH, colour and the microbiology of black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou) longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle with normal and high (DFD) muscle pH Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-25 Nompumelelo Shange, Pieter Gouws, Louwrens C. Hoffman
The effect of pH and the spoilage of black wildebeest Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscles with normal (pH > 6.06) and high pH (DFD; pH < 6.06) was investigated for 12 days under refrigerated (5 ± 1 °C) aerobic conditions. Results showed that pH affected colour, as initial values from Normal samples (L* = 33.08, a* = 13.60, b* = 10.29, C* = 17.10 and Hab = 36.85) were greater than values for DFD meat (L* = 27.21, a* = 11.10, b* = 6.97, C* = 13.12 and Hab = 32.08). Initial bacterial counts from DFD and Normal pH samples did not differ significantly. Over time, pH decreased for Normal and DFD samples until the 6th and 9th day, respectively, whilst both samples showed a significant decrease in redness and colour intensity. Aerobic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae reached 7 log cfu/g > 4 days earlier than Normal pH samples and bacterial growth rate was >1.09-fold faster in DFD than Normal meat.
Effect of dietary neutral detergent fibre source on lambs growth, meat quality and biohydrogenation intermediates Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-25 José Santos-Silva, Alexandra Francisco, Susana P. Alves, Paula Portugal, Teresa Dentinho, João Almeida, David Soldado, Eliana Jerónimo, Rui J.B. Bessa
With this trial we have tested the effects of structural and chemical composition of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) of the diet on lamb fatty acid composition of meat and subcutaneous fat. Twenty lambs, were fed complete diets with low starch and similar NDF content of different origin (ground alfalfa or soybean hulls). Animal performance and product quality were not affected by treatments. Rumen pH increased and parakeratosis intensity decreased with the level of alfalfa in the diet. Increasing the alfalfa proportion in the diet decreased t10–18:1 (P = .023), increased t11–18:1 (P = .003) and decreased the t10/t11 ratio according to a quadratic pattern (P = .020). Chemical composition and structure of the diet's fibrous fraction influenced the BI pattern of the final product. Forty percent of alfalfa in diet reduced the severity of t10-shift, but for its full resolution, other factors should be considered including forage particle size and buffering capacity of the diet.
Influence of oxidative damage to proteins on meat tenderness using a proteomics approach Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-23 Jessica Moraes Malheiros, Camila Pereira Braga, Ryan Albert Grove, Felipe Azevedo Ribeiro, Chris Richard Calkins, Jiri Adamec, Luis Artur Loyola Chardulo
The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between oxidative damage to proteins (represented by protein carbonylation) and beef tenderness. Three experimental groups were selected by shear force (SF): tender (38.2 ± 2.9 N), intermediate (51.9 ± 6.8 N), and tough meat (74.5 ± 7.8 N). Two-dimensional electrophoresis with hydrazide fluorophore derivatization was used. The structural proteins actin (ACTA1), myosin (MYL1 and MYL3), desmin (DES) and troponin T (TNNT1 and TNNT3), antioxidant proteins (PRDX1, PRDX2 and PARK7) and heat shock proteins (HSPB1, CRYAB and HSPB6) showed an increase in the oxidative damage in tender meat when compared to the intermediate and tough meat (P < .05). Decrease in oxidative damage of the metabolic enzymes (TPI1, GAPDH and ENO3) were observed in tender meat group (P < .05). The present results suggest that oxidation act on the proteins of different metabolic pathways and consequently affect meat tenderness in Angus crossbred cattle.
A whole-genome sequence based association study on pork eating quality traits and cooking loss in a specially designed heterogeneous F6 pig population Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-23 Jiuxiu Ji, Lisheng Zhou, Yizhong Huang, Min Zheng, Xianxian Liu, Yifeng Zhang, Cong Huang, Song Peng, Qingjie Zeng, Liepeng Zhong, Bin Yang, Wanbo Li, Shijun Xiao, Junwu Ma, Lusheng Huang
To determine the genetic basis of pork eating quality traits and cooking loss, we herein performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for tenderness, juiciness, oiliness, umami, overall liking and cooking loss by using whole genome sequences of heterogeneous stock F6 pigs which were generated by crossing 4 typical western pig breeds (Duroc, Landrace, Large White and Pietrain) and 4 typical Asian pig breeds (Erhualian, Laiwu, Bamaxiang and Tibetan). We identified 50 associated loci (QTLs) and most of them are novel. Seven loci also showed pleiotropic associations with different traits. In addition, we identified multiple promising candidate genes for these traits, including PAK1 and AQP11 for cooking loss, EP300 for tenderness, SDK1 for juiciness, FITM2 and 5-linked MYH genes for oiliness, and TNNI2 and TNNT3 for overall liking. Our results provide not only a better understanding of the genetic basis for meat quality, but also a potential application in future breeding for these complex traits.
Effects of partial replacement of pork back fat by a camellia oil gel on certain quality characteristics of a cooked style Harbin sausage Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-21 Xiaoxi Wang, Yangyang Xie, Xingmin Li, Yi Liu, Wenjie Yan
Various portions of pork fat in Harbin sausage were replaced by a camellia oil gelled emulsion during the process, and the subsequent effects were studied in order to improve their quality characteristics and fatty acid composition. Percentages of pork back fat replacement were 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%. Proximate composition, instrumental color and texture, pH, TBARS and fatty acid composition of the sausages were studied after substituting portion of the pork fat with camellia oil gelled emulsion. The replacement of pork back fat by camellia oil gels did not affect the cohesiveness, resilience, springiness and protein content, while it increased moisture content, lightness and yellowness. TBARS values was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by the pork back fat substitution. Addition of camellia oil gels significantly (P < 0.05) affected the fatty acid profile. The study suggests that a substantial reduction in SFA can be achieved by incorporating camellia oil gels in Harbin sausage without clearly affecting the studied sausage properties.
Oxidative stability of burgers containing chia oil microparticles enriched with rosemary by green-extraction techniques Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-18 Rosane Teresinha Heck, Bruna Nichelle Lucas, Daniele Jorge Paiva Dos Santos, Mariana Basso Pinton, Mariane Bittencourt Fagundes, Mariana de Araújo Etchepare, Alexandre José Cichoski, Cristiano Ragagnin de Menezes, Juliano Smanioto Barin, Roger Wagner, Paulo Cezar Bastianello Campagnol
In the first part of this study, the oxidative stability of chia oils enriched with rosemary by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and by a conventional maceration extraction (CME) was evaluated. In the second part, chia oil enriched with rosemary by UAE or CME was microencapsulated and used to replace 50% fat in burgers. The oxidative and sensory quality of burgers were evaluated during 120 days of storage at −18 °C. Chia oil enriched with rosemary by UAE presented a higher oxidative stability compared to CME. Higher Eh and TBARS values were found in burgers containing chia oil microparticles without rosemary. The burgers produced with chia oil microparticles enriched with rosemary by UAE showed greater oxidative stability than other treatments, mainly after cooking. Furthermore, the incorporation of rosemary antioxidants to chia oil reduced the sensory defects caused by the lipid reformulation.
Effects of USDA quality grade and cooking on water-soluble precursors of beef flavor Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-10 T.T.N. Dinh, J.F. Legako, M.F. Miller, J.C. Brooks
The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of three USDA quality grades and cooking on the water-soluble flavor precursors of beef Longissimus lumborum. Raw and cooked steaks from beef strip loins of USDA Prime (PR; n = 8), Low-Choice (LC; n = 8), and Standard (ST; n = 8) were analyzed for extractable free amino acids, reducing sugars, and other nitrogenous organic compounds (NOCs). Overall, two-way quality grade × cooking interactions were found for the contents of most water-soluble precursors (Pquality grade × cooking < 0.05), which were greater in raw LC and ST and were changed more in ST and LC steaks by cooking. The magnitude of those changes suggested that cystine, a dimer of cysteine, glucose, and glucose 6-phosphate might play more important roles in beef flavor development than previously thought.
Supplementing growing rabbit diets with chestnut hydrolyzable tannins: Effect on meat quality and oxidative status, nutrient digestibilities, and content of tannin metabolites Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-11 Antonella Dalle Zotte, Marco Cullere, Giulia Tasoniero, Zsolt Gerencsér, Zsolt Szendrő, Enrico Novelli, Zsolt Matics
The study investigated the effect of dietary inclusion of chestnut hydrolyzable tannin (CHT) in growing rabbit diets on nutrients digestibility, quality and oxidative status of meat, and content of tannin metabolites. At weaning, rabbits were assigned to 5 dietary groups (n = 72 rabbits/diet): control medication-free (Co), control with coccidiostat (Cc), and T200, T400 and T600 (diets supplemented with 200, 400 and 600 g/100 kg CHT extract). Sixteen carcasses/treatment were considered and hindleg meat and Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle were used for analyses. L*a*b* color values, water holding capacity, Warner Bratzler shear force, haem iron content, oxidative status and nutritional quality were unaffected by dietary treatments. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated FA (MUFA) in LTL meat were higher in T600 than Cc rabbits (P < .05), even though no differences were found for SFA and MUFA digestibility. Contrarily, polyunsaturated FA digestibility was lower in T400 and T600 than Co rabbits. No tannin metabolites traces were found in rabbit meat. Results of the present study showed that feeding CHT did not improve rabbit meat quality.
Interrelationship among ferrous myoglobin, lipid and protein oxidations in rabbit meat during refrigerated and superchilled storage Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-09 Zhaoming Wang, Zhifei He, Xiao Gan, Hongjun Li
This work investigated the interrelationship among myoglobin, lipid, and protein oxidations in rabbit meat during refrigerated and superchilled storage. Peroxide value gradually increased (p < 0.05) and decreased thereafter (p > 0.05) with increased storage time for both storage treatments. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) significantly increased (p < 0.05) throughout the storage time for the storage temperature considered. The metmyoglobin proportion markedly increased (p < 0.05) and remained constant thereafter (p > 0.05). For both storage temperature levels, the extractable heme iron content significantly declined (p < 0.05), whereas non-heme iron content considerably increased (p < 0.05). With prolonged storage time, the protein carbonyl content significantly increased (p < 0.05), along with significant loss in sulfhydryl content (p < 0.05). Superchilled samples maintained lower rates of increase in metmyoglobin content, TBARS, and protein carbonyl content compared with refrigerated samples. Moreover, principal component analysis presented good correlations between TBARS, protein carbonyls and metmyoglobin content. Taken together, myoglobin, lipid and protein oxidations occurred concurrently in rabbit meat during both storage treatments and each oxidation process seemed to promote the other.
Role of myofibers, perimysium and adipocytes in horse meat toughness Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-07 Bimol C. Roy, Brian Walker, Mohammad M. Rahman, Heather L. Bruce, Lynn McMullen
Horse meat is a good source of iron with low cholesterol but consumers consider tenderness most important when purchasing meat. Myofibers and intramuscular connective tissue, the main structural components of muscle, play major roles in meat toughness. The effects of myofibers and perimysium characteristics on Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF) values of horse semimembranosus were investigated on muscles previously assessed as tough (mean WBSF 68.87 ± 3.21 N, n = 8) or tender (mean WBSF 46.21 ± 2.27 N, n = 8). Mean Type IIA myofiber diameter was significantly greater in tender than in tough muscles. Secondary thick perimysium was thicker and collagen fibers more loosely arranged in tender muscles than in tough. A negative correlation was observed between WBSF values and perimysium thickness and a trend between WBSF and intramuscular fat. Adipocytes in perimysium of tender muscles may have contributed to thickening of perimysium and loosened collagen fibers thus contributing to tenderness of the meat.
Rabbit meat in need of a hat-trick: from tradition to innovation (and back) Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-07 Massimiliano Petracci, Francesca Soglia, Frédéric Leroy
Consumption of rabbit meat traces back to the ancient civilizations that prospered around the Mediterranean. Due to their small size, rabbits have mostly been included in traditional meals for direct consumption, with little historical urgency to develop preservation methods. Therefore, rabbit-based dishes are widespread throughout Europe, but few processed products are found. Despite its longstanding culinary value, an overall decline in the consumption of rabbit meat is discernible. As for all meat, this is related to a complex assemblage of contemporary anxieties about health, animal welfare, and the environment. Also, specific categorial dynamics are at play because rabbits have superimposed roles (e.g., livestock, game, vermin, and pets). For instance, their aspect of cuteness seems to interfere with their acceptability as a food. To counter the declining consumption of this valuable meat, reassuring discourses are required to point out its historical merit in health and culture (“story meat”). Also, its distinctive sensorial traits, nutritional profile, and technological properties should be valorized.
Incorporation of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens L.) larvae fat or extruded linseed in diets of growing rabbits and their effects on meat quality traits including detailed fatty acid composition Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-02 Antonella Dalle Zotte, Marco Cullere, Cátia Martins, Susana P. Alves, João P.B. Freire, Luísa Falcão-e-Cunha, Rui J.B. Bessa
The inclusion of Black Soldier Fly (BSF) fat or extruded linseed (LIN) in diets for growing rabbits on meat fatty acids (FA), dimethyl acetals (DMA), oxidative stability and color was evaluated. Forty-eight rabbits with 35 days of age were individually housed, fed one of 4 diets (LIN-Low, 30 g/kg of fat from LIN; LIN-High, 60 g/kg of fat from LIN; BSF-Low, 30 g/kg of BSF fat; BSF-High, 60 g/kg of BSF fat) and slaughtered after 5 weeks. Diets with BSF reduced the intramuscular FA but increased the 12:0 and 14:0 in meat compared to LIN, whereas LIN diets increased the 18:3n-3 deposition in meat. Regressions between FA intake and FA meat concentration indicate that the deposition of 12:0 and 14:0 in meat of BSF-fed rabbits was lower than the deposition of n-3 PUFA in meat of LIN-fed rabbits. Overall, lipid profiles of meat from BSF-fed rabbits were less healthy, but meat from LIN-fed rabbits was the more susceptible to oxidation.
Impact of pre-slaughter transport conditions on stress response, carcass traits, and meat quality in growing rabbits Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-08-01 Angela Trocino, Cristina Zomeño, Marco Birolo, Guido Di Martino, Annalisa Stefani, Lebana Bonfanti, Daniela Bertotto, Francesco Gratta, Gerolamo Xiccato
In growing rabbits (n = 320; 84 d of age), an increase in the journey duration to the slaughterhouse from 1 h to 3 h under mild climatic conditions (10–13 °C; 75–90% relative humidity) affected several stress indicators in the plasma and muscle collected at slaughter (cortisol; corticosterone; lactate dehydrogenase, LDH; lactate; heat shock protein 70 kDa, HSP70; osmolality, and Na) (0.001 < P < .05), reduced muscle L*, b* (P < .01), and meat shear force (P < .05), and increased the dressing out percentage and muscle pH (P < .01). An increase in the lairage duration before slaughtering from 30 min to 3 h affected muscle cortisol and plasma creatinine kinase, LDH, lactate, and HSP70 (0.001 < P < .05), increased dressing out percentage and muscle pH (P < .05), but decreased meat shear force (P < .001). The interaction between journey and lairage duration was significant for several stress indicators and meat quality.
Changes in the physico-chemical attributes through processing of salami made from blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi), eland (Taurotragus oryx), fallow deer (Dama dama), springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) and black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou) in comparison to pork Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-07-31 Chido Chakanya, Elodie Arnaud, Voster Muchenje, Louwrens C. Hoffman
Drying kinetics and changes in proximate composition, pH, salt content, water activity (aw) and lipid oxidation through processing of salami made using five different game meat species were evaluated and compared to pork. Eight batches of salami from each species were made and sampled for analysis throughout processing. Processing time was a significant factor on all measured attributes whilst species affected (P ≤ .05) pH and moisture but not drying kinetics. Black wildebeest meat exhibited higher (P ≤ .05) pH than pork and other game meat (6.30 vs 5.63–5.80), which translated to higher (P ≤ .05) salami pH throughout and at the end of processing (5.77). Final pH of all other salami ranged from 5.01 to 5.28, aw ranged from 0.88 to 0.92. TBARS remained lower than 1 mg MDA equivalent/kg. The study suggests that salami from these game species, excluding black wildebeest, can be produced using the same processing parameters as conventional pork salami and obtaining similar physico-chemical attributes.
Natural curing agents as nitrite alternatives and their effects on the physicochemical, microbiological properties and sensory evaluation of sausages during storage Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-07-27 Sang-Keun Jin, Jung Seok Choi, Han-Sul Yang, Tae-Seon Park, Dong-Gyun Yim
This study investigated the effects of different curing agents on the physicochemical properties, microbiological properties and sensory evaluation of sausages formulated with and without nitrite over 4 weeks of cold storage. Seven batches were prepared: control, sodium nitrite 0.01%; celery powder 0.8% (T1); fruit extract powder 0.6% (T2); purple sweet potato powder 0.45% (T3); fruit and vegetable extract powders 0.5% (T4); gardenia red 0.04% (T5); paprika and blueberry powder 0.07% (T6). T1 produced significantly lighter, redder and yellower sausages compared to control and had a higher color intensity (C*) and hue (h). The residual nitrite ion concentration was the highest in the control and declined most rapidly in control, T1, and T2 during storage. The pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) content, and total microbe counts were the same for T1 and the control. T1 received comparable sensory attributes as the control. These results suggest that celery powder effectively protects sausages from quality deterioration during storage.
Use of straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea) for the enhancement of physicochemical, nutritional and sensory profiles of Cantonese sausages Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-07-27 Xuping Wang, Pengfei Zhou, Jingrong Cheng, Zhiyi Chen, Xueming Liu
The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality and sensory properties of Cantonese sausages incorporated with dried straw mushrooms. Five types of sausage with the addition of 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% straw mushrooms were prepared, and their physicochemical traits and sensory acceptance were investigated. The results showed that incorporation of straw mushrooms improved the physical properties, significantly decreased peroxide value, increased the amount of amino acids and volatile compounds, and introduced new volatiles (aldehyde and ester compounds) to Cantonese sausages. Compared to sausages without addition of straw mushrooms, the amount of essential amino acids increased 8-fold, the P/S ratio of fatty acid increased to 0.46 similar to the recommended nutritional value, and the lipid peroxide value reduced 10-fold in Cantonese sausages with addition of 4% straw mushrooms. These results indicate that incorporation of straw mushrooms could be an efficient way to obtain nutritional and healthy Cantonese sausages.
Consumer preferences for red deer meat: A discrete choice analysis considering attitudes towards wild game meat and hunting Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-07-27 Demartini Eugenio, Vecchiato Daniel, Tempesta Tiziano, A.M. Gaviglio Anna, Viganò Roberto
This study aims to analyse consumer preferences for red deer meat (RDM) (Cervus elaphus) by conducting a case study in northern Italy. This analysis considers how the attitudes of consumers towards wild game meat and hunting might influence such preferences. This is achieved by combining the results of a k-means clustering analysis of the attitudes collected by means of two valuation scales with a choice experiment (CE). According to our results, a positive attitude towards wild game meat has an effect on the willingness to pay for RDM that is >3 times greater than being in favour of hunting. An analysis of the heterogeneity of consumer preferences allowed us to identify the presence of an important niche market for RDM served as carpaccio. Looking only at the mean estimates for carpaccio without considering heterogeneity would lead to neglecting 18% of the sample with a positive willingness to pay (WTP) for this attribute level.
Investigation of pausing fermentation of salamis with multispectral imaging for optimal sensory evaluations Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-07-25 Camilla H. Trinderup, Flemming Møller, Anders Bjorholm Dahl, Knut Conradsen
The fermentation process of salamis involves several parameters influencing taste, texture, and color of the salami. One significant parameter is the fermentation time. It is difficult to conduct sensory evaluations to assess the effect of time without introducing variation between observation days. It may be possible to overcome this by stalling or pausing the fermentation by deep-chilling the salamis. This study investigates the difference of non- and deep-chilled salamis with the use of a multispectral imaging system. The statistical investigation, based on image features relating to size, visual texture, and color of the sausages over time, showed that it may be possible to stall the fermentation process. It was shown that a statistical difference in the two kinds of samples is present. For the size feature the difference could be quantified into a number of days. However, for the important color feature only a statistical difference was observed, whereas the visual difference expressed in terms of ΔEab⁎ was barely present.
Predicting pork freshness using multi-index statistical information fusion method based on near infrared spectroscopy Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-07-25 Fangfang Qu, Dong Ren, Yong He, Pengcheng Nie, Lei Lin, Chengyong Cai, Tao Dong
In this work, the near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) technology was applied to nondestructively evaluate the freshness of pork. The total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N) and pH value of pork were detected as freshness evaluation indicators. A multi-index statistical information fusion (MSIF) modeling method based on variable selection was proposed to evaluate pork freshness. In the experiment, the proposed MSIF was compared with other state-of-the-art variable selection methods. Results showed that the proposed method achieved the best generalization performance and stability. The prediction correlation coefficient (Rval) and root mean square error (RMSEP) of MSIF were: Rval = 0.8618 and RMSEP = 3.910 for TVB-N content, Rval = 0.9379 and RMSEP = 0.1046 for pH value. The research demonstrated that NIR combined with MSIF has the potential for rapid and nondestructive determination of pork freshness, and so hopefully to provide a promising tool for monitoring meat quality and enriching the extracted information from food industry.
How do human values influence the beef preferences of consumer segments regarding animal welfare and environmentally friendly production? Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-07-24 Yuta Sonoda, Kazato Oishi, Yosuke Chomei, Hiroyuki Hirooka
Animal welfare and environmental impacts have been emphasized in the sustainable production of livestock. Labels are useful tools for clearly providing such attribute information to consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate how human values influence consumer segments for beef with information on animal welfare and environmentally friendly production. Using a choice experiment, we examined whether animal welfare and environmentally friendly labels, country of origin and price impact consumer choice. As results, five heterogeneous consumer classes were identified using a latent class model: label conscious, domestic beef preferring, price conscious, animal welfare preferring and not interested in production method. Almost 90% of consumers were interested in and willing to pay for beef with animal welfare or environmentally friendly label. The classes with significant preferences for such labeled beef were affected by “openness to change”, “self-enhancement” and “security”. Improving consumer attitudes and strengthening consumer perception towards labeled beef by marketers and policy makers will be required.
Identification of S-nitrosylated proteins in postmortem pork muscle using modified biotin switch method coupled with isobaric tags Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-07-20 Rui Liu, Qingquan Fu, Steven Lonergan, Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Lujuan Xing, Lili Zhang, Yun Bai, Guanghong Zhou, Wangang Zhang
The objective of this study was to identify the S-nitrosylated proteins in aging samples of pork longissimus thoracis muscle (aged 0 and 3 d) and to study the effects of exogenous S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, concentration at 10 and 100 μM) treatments of aged 0 d sample. After validating modified biotin switch method, the samples were labeled with tandem mass tags (TMT126-129) for the LC-MS/MS analysis. A total of 366 peptides were identified to be S-nitrosylated corresponding to 339 proteins. Comparison of total intensity and individual S-nitrosylated sites between aging samples revealed that S-nitrosylation did occur in pork muscle during postmortem aging through possible pathways of denitrosylation and transnitrosylation. GSNO treatment groups showed a considerable number of potential cysteines could be modified with high thiol-reactivity. It was deduced that S-nitrosylation could be involved in the postmortem metabolic process possibly through the regulation of activity or function of glycolytic enzymes, calcium release, heat shock proteins, antioxidant enzymes and myofibrillar proteins.
Advanced glycation end products, protein crosslinks and post translational modifications in pork subjected to different heat treatments Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-07-20 Bhaskar Mitra, Rene Lametsch, Ines Greco, Jorge Ruiz-Carrascal
The aim of the study was to characterize Maillard reactions in meat under different cooking treatments. Considered temperature-time combinations included raw samples (control), 58, 80, 98 and 160 °C for 72 min, 118 °C for 8 min and 58 °C for 17 h. Furosine, a marker for heat treatment, was detected in all groups with roasting having a 4-fold increase over the control. Sous-vide treatment at 80 °C, boiling and autoclaving also contribute to a significant increase in furosine. Nɛ-carboxymethyllysine, an indicator for advanced glycation end products, showed negligible amount in control, but increased with cooking temperature, with oven samples showing the highest values. A similar increasing trend was observed in lanthionine, covalently bonded protein crosslinks, which arises due to severe thermal regimes. Simultaneously, glycation and deamidation formation were tracked in meat proteins through peptidomics to highlight residue level changes that might affect nutrient value in processed muscle based foods.
Frankfurters made with pork meat, emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schübler) and almonds nut (Prunus dulcis Mill.): evaluation during storage of a novel food from an ancient recipe Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-07-21 David Ranucci, Dino Miraglia, Raffaella Branciari, Giulia Morganti, Rossana Roila, Kang Zhou, Haiyang Jiang, Paolo Braconi
The physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of reformulated meat-based frankfurters, derived from an ancient Roman cookbook and produced from pork meat, emmer wheat, almond, fish sauce and spices, were investigated during storage. Two different formulations were considered, with pork thigh and pork shoulder muscles, respectively. The products contain 13–16% protein, 14–19% fat, 14% carbohydrates, >7% fibre and a polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio above 0.4. During the 24 days of storage, both products evidenced a decrease in the pH and increases in the total volatile nitrogen content and TBARs value, whereas, the aw remained stable. From a microbiological perspective, increases in the total viable count and lactic acid bacteria up to 4.8 log cfu/g occurred during storage, but no pathogens were found. Sensory analyses revealed a change in odour and flavour at 18 days, with the detection of a fermented and rancid taste. Survival sensory analysis defined a shelf life of the products of between 18.6 and 22.7 days.
Computed tomography has improved precision for prediction of intramuscular fat percent in the M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum in cattle compared to manual grading Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-07-19 F. Anderson, J. Cook, A. Williams, G.E. Gardner
This study assessed the ability of computed tomography (CT) to predict intramuscular fat (IMF) % in the M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum of 64 cattle undergoing Meat Standards Australia (MSA) marbling score. The striploin was dissected from carcasses at the 12th rib and CT scanned, with IMF% determined at the 12th rib of the M. longissimus thoracis (LT) and the caudal M. longissimus lumborum (LL). Prediction of IMF% using CT in the LT was moderate (R2 = 0.89, RMSE = 1.91) utilising CT pixel density and standard deviation, and better than prediction using MSA marbling score (R2 = 0.81, RMSE = 2.47). Prediction of IMF% in the caudal aspect of the LL was comparatively poor (R2 = 0.63, RMSE = 4.69), with IMF% 1.97% higher in this region (P < .05). CT is a promising non-destructive method for determination of IMF% that was more accurate than MSA marbling score.
Feeding potentially health promoting nutrients to finishing bulls changes meat composition and allow for product health claims Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-07-19 Anna Haug, Stine Gregersen Vhile, Jan Berg, Knut Hove, Bjørg Egelandsdal
Supplementation of feed for bulls with selenium (+50%), vitamin D3 (+300%), vitamin E (+825%), vitamin K3 (+325%) and omega-3 fatty acids (+120%) affected beef nutrient composition. Twelve bulls (½ year old) were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments; control (Con) or supplemented (Sup), and fed 170 days pre-slaughter at an amount of 1% of body weight. Daily gain and feed efficiency were equal in the two groups. Homogenate meat from left forequarter in the Sup group contained more selenium (+26%), vitamin MK4 (+123%), D (+197%), E (+318%), and had lower omega-6/omega-3 ratio (−24%) compared to Con meat. Sup meat fulfilled the requirements to be labelled by health claims and nutrient claims as: “A food item containing a significant amount of selenium, vitamin K and vitamin D". We suggest supplementation of cattle rations during the finishing period as a strategy to increase meat content of specific nutrients important to human health.
Impact of elevated aging temperatures on retail display, tenderness, and consumer acceptability of beef Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-07-18 Andrew M. Cassens, Ashley N. Arnold, Rhonda K. Miller, Kerri B. Gehring, Jeffrey W. Savell
Palatability, color, and aroma of steaks derived from subprimals aged for 14 d at conventional temperatures (0.0 to 1.1 °C) versus those aged for 7 d at conventional temperatures followed by 7 d at elevated temperatures (3.3 to 4.4 °C) were evaluated before and after 5-d retail display. Subprimals from the elevated temperature aging treatment had stronger (P < 0.05) sweet and sour aromas, and the top sirloin had stronger (P < 0.05) bloody/serumy scores. After the 5-day retail display, aroma (sour, bloody/serumy) and discoloration of T-bone/Porterhouse steaks were most impacted compared to other steaks. Elevated temperature during the last 7 d of aging did not significantly improve consumer panelists' palatability scores, and no differences (P = 0.66) were seen in WBS force between aging treatments. Using higher storage temperatures to age beef does not warrant the risk associated with impacting color and odor characteristics that could negatively influence consumer acceptance of retail beef.
Dietary organic selenium addition and accumulation of toxic and essential trace elements in liver and meat of growing rabbits Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-07-18 G. Papadomichelakis, E. Zoidis, A.C. Pappas, G. Danezis, C.A. Georgiou, K. Fegeros
The effects of dietary organic selenium (Se) addition at 0.1, 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg vs. an unsupplemented basal diet (BD) on the accumulation of some toxic and essential trace elements were studied in the liver and muscle tissues of growing rabbits. Dietary Se addition increased liver and muscle Se concentration linearly (P < .001), and decreased linearly Cd, As, Ni and Cr (P < .001) in liver, as well as As (P < .01) and Cd (P < .001) in muscle. Muscle Cu and Zn contents were significantly lower (P < .05) in rabbits fed 2.5 mg Se/kg diet compared to the other 3 groups. Selenium was negatively correlated with Cr, Ni, Cd and As (P < .01) in liver, and with Cu (P < .05) and Cd (P < .01) in muscle. In conclusion, dietary Se supplementation decreased the accumulation of toxic (Cd and As) and potentially toxic (Cr and Ni) trace elements in rabbits. However, at excessive quantities may negatively affect essential trace elements.
Effect of natural antioxidants from grape seed and chestnut in combination with hydroxytyrosol, as sodium nitrite substitutes in Cinta Senese dry-fermented sausages Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-07-17 Chiara Aquilani, Francesco Sirtori, Monica Flores, Riccardo Bozzi, Benedicte Lebret, Carolina Pugliese
Dry-fermented pork sausages, from Cinta Senese local breed, were manufactured replacing sodium nitrite (NIT) with two mixtures of natural antioxidants consisting of: i) grape seed extract and olive pomace hydroxytyrosol (GSE); ii) chestnut extract and olive pomace hydroxytyrosol (CHE). The effects on physical-chemical, aromatic and sensory traits, as well as the microbiological safety, were tested. Nitrite replacement lowered the pH in GSE and CHE samples and resulted in several differences in physical traits between CHE and NIT samples. Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and Clostridium botulinum were not found in any samples. GSE and CHE mixtures showed a slightly lower antioxidant activity. Volatile profile showed a similar aromatic profile among the three treatments with differences mainly to abundance of the single compounds, indicating that replacement of nitrite by natural antioxidants did not affect the overall aroma profile, as outlined by olfactometry results. In addition, the replacement did not affect the overall acceptability, except for color-related traits, underscored in GSE and CHE products.
Practical use of natural antioxidants in meat products in the U.S.: A review Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-07-17 Natalie J. Oswell, Harshavardhan Thippareddi, Ronald B. Pegg
Historically, meat and poultry processors in the U.S. have relied on the use of synthetic antioxidants like butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, tert-butylhydroquinone, and propyl gallate, as well as tocopherols to prevent lipid and protein oxidation. There is a trend towards utilizing natural antioxidants as replacements for synthetic ones. Some processors are already using multi-functional ingredients, such as rosemary and oregano, approved for use as spices and natural flavors to curb oxidation. Yet, there are still other ingredients that have not been applied in this fashion. Spices and natural flavors can often be incorporated in products that have defined statements of identity or composition. Further, these ingredients allow the processor to transition to a clean label without compromising the shelf life and quality of the products. Spices and natural flavors may have higher minimum effective concentrations than their synthetic counterparts, but they will offer increased consumer acceptability, decreased potential health risks, and can often achieve the same degree of oxidation prevention.
Effects of frozen-then-chilled storage on proteolytic enzyme activity and water-holding capacity of pork loin Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-07-17 Yuemei Zhang, Per Ertbjerg
This study aimed to determine the effect of frozen-then-chilled storage on free Ca2+, proteolytic enzyme activity of calpains and the proteasome, water-holding capacity and shear force of porcine longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle. Pork loins were subjected to either chilled storage at 2 ± 1 °C for 1, 2, 4, 6 and 9 days, or frozen-then chilled storage (−20 ± 1 °C for 1 week followed by thawing overnight). Free Ca2+ increased with chilled storage in the non-frozen group. Frozen-then-chilled storage increased free Ca2+ concentration, followed by a faster decrease of calpain-1 activity and activation of around 50% of calpain-2. Proteasome activity was reduced by around 40% following freezing-thawing. Purge loss increased and water-holding capacity of myofibrils decreased in the frozen-thawed group, suggesting considerable denaturation of myofibrillar proteins. Shear force was not affected by freezing-thawing, and we speculate that the tenderizing effect of calpain activation was counteracted by loss of proteasome activity and substantial exudate loss.
Effect of muscle type and CO-pretreatment combinations on the colour stability, protein oxidation and shelf-life of vacuum packaged beef steaks Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-07-17 Lauren Anne Van Rooyen, Paul Allen, David I. O’Connor
This study investigated the effects of CO-pretreatments on three bovine muscles: Psoas major (PM), Gluteus medius (GM) and Semitendinosus (ST) on colour stability and quality attributes under anaerobic conditions. Steaks were exposed to one of four pretreatments: 1% CO for 5 h, 5% CO for 5 h, 1% CO for 24 h, with 60% CO2, (balance N2) or untreated (control) and then vacuum packaged and displayed (28 days at 2 °C). CO pretreatments improved redness for colour labile muscles (PM and GM). The optimum CO pretreatment was 1% for 5 h as this induced surface redness while discolouring (a* = 12, C* = 16) by the use-by-date (28 days). CO pretreatments decreased protein oxidation (P < 0.01), and had no negative effect on pH and spoilage bacteria (P > 0.05). Applying a 1% CO pretreatment for 5 h effectively enhanced the colour of various muscles while not masking spoilage thus addressing consumer concerns.
Effect of edible pectin-fish gelatin films containing the olive antioxidants hydroxytyrosol and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol on beef meat during refrigerated storage Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-07-17 Alejandra Bermúdez-Oria, Guillermo Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Fátima Rubio-Senent, África Fernández-Prior, Juan Fernández-Bolaños
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the addition of two antioxidants naturally present in olives, hydroxytyrosol (HT) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), to a pectin-fish gelatin edible film on the preservation of raw beef meat during refrigerated storage. A new composite film that included beeswax was also prepared, resulting in a reduction in the film's oxygen permeability. Results showed that the meat samples wrapped with film containing antioxidants reduced the formation of oxidation products in the form of thiobarbituric acid reaction substances (TBARS) compared with control film without antioxidants. HT added at 0.5% to the film with beeswax suppressed the lipid oxidation of beef meat during 7 days of storage at 4 °C, possibly by the combined effect of acting as an oxygen barrier and the specific antioxidant activity. The interference of plasticizer agents (glycerol and sorbitol) incorporated to the film on the TBARS method was showed for the first time.
Capybara meat: An extraordinary resource for food security in South America Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-07-10 Sérgio Luiz Gama Nogueira-Filho, Selene Siqueira da Cunha Nogueira
The available information on capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) meat, an important resource for the subsistence of many traditional communities in several South American countries, is reviewed. Some features of the species, such as an herbivorous diet, high prolificacy, rapid growth rate, tameness, and social behaviour, which allow its commercial use through harvesting in Venezuela and farming in Brazil, where commercial hunting is not allowed, is discussed. Key characteristics of capybara meat, is low saturated fat and cholesterol content. Discussions about management and handling practices regarding animal welfare and capybara meat quality are also highlighted. After commenting on ethical, political, and economic implications of wildlife use it is concluded that capybara meat has an extraordinary potential to satisfy the growing demand for healthy and high-quality protein of animal origin for the subsistence of many people in the Neotropics.
Rapid and non-destructive determination of lean fat and bone content in beef using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry Meat Sci. (IF 2.821) Pub Date : 2018-07-10 Ó. López-Campos, J.C. Roberts, I.L. Larsen, N. Prieto, M. Juárez, M.E.R. Dugan, J.L. Aalhus
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was evaluated for its accuracy in predicting total lean, fat and bone in beef carcass sides and primal cuts. Left carcass sides (n = 316) were broken down into primal cuts, scanned using DXA and then dissected to fat, lean and bone. The DXA estimates for bone, lean and fat from the primals (n = 237) were used to calibrate partial least squares regression (PLSR) models for predicting tissue weights. Models were validated using 79 additional carcass sides, which were broken into primals, scanned using DXA, and subsequently dissected to fat, lean and bone. Models were highly accurate for predicting tissue weights for the entire carcass side (lean R2 = 0.991, fat R2 = 0.985 and bone R2 = 0.941) and within most primal cuts. Results suggest DXA technology can be utilized to accurately predict carcass tissue composition for whole carcass sides and within most primals.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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