The investigation of the use of beetroot powder in Turkish fermented beef sausage (sucuk) as nitrite alternative Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Cisem Sucu, Gulen Yildiz Turp
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of reformulation of Turkish dry fermented beef sausage (sucuk) by replacing nitrite with beetroot powder (BP), which has high nitrate content, on some quality characteristics of the product during storage at 4 °C for 84 days. Four different sausage formulations were produced containing C:150 mg/kg sodium nitrite; BS1:100 mg/kg sodium nitrite and 0.12% BP; BS2:50 mg/kg sodium nitrite and 0.24% BP and BS3: 0.35% BP. The inclusion of BP increased a* value of samples and resulted in the protection of the desired red color during storage. There was no significant difference between the residual nitrite contents of the samples at the end of the storage period. The lactic acid bacteria count was highest in BS3. Suggested storage periods for BS2 and BS3 samples were 56 days by taking into consideration the TBARS value. Sensory evaluation scores of samples with BP were comparable to those of C during storage.
Pork proteins oxidative modifications under the influence of varied time-temperature thermal treatments: A chemical and redox proteomics assessment Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 Mitra Bhaskar, Lametsch Rene, Akcan Tolga, Ruiz Carrascal Jorge
The impact of thermal processing on meat proteins oxidation was investigated. Cooking treatments included 58 °C for either 72 min or 17 h (mimicking low temperature-long time sous vide cooking), 80, 98 and 160 °C for 72 min (mimicking common cooked meat products, stewing and roasting, respectively) and 118 °C for 8 min (autoclaving). Tryptophan degradation, fluorescent oxidation products, free thiol content and α-aminoadipic and γ-glutamic semialdehydes were tracked. For all of them, there was a consistent trend to increased levels of oxidative damage with higher cooking temperatures and longer cooking times, although the extent varied from one indicator to another. Through proteomics, peptide oxidative modifications like carbonylation, malonaldehyde adducts and hydroxykynurenin (tryptophan oxidation products) were also detected at residue level. Our findings indicate that protein oxidation is dependent upon the heat treatment, which point out to a different effect on the nutritional quality of proteins in meat products.
Effects of feeding legume-grass pasture and different concentrate levels on fatty acid profile, volatile compounds, and off-flavor of the M. longissimus thoracis Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 A.P.B. Fruet, F. Trombetta, F.S. Stefanello, C.S. Speroni, J.Z. Donadel, A.N.M. De Souza, A. Rosado Júnior, C.J. Tonetto, R. Wagner, A. De Mello, J.L. Nörnberg
Pasture-finished beef is becoming more popular among consumers due to concerns related to fatty acid content and sustainable practices. The effects of finishing crossbred steers on legume-grass pasture comprised of oats, ryegrass, and clover (PAST), legume-grass pasture plus whole corn grain (WCG) supplementation (SUPP), and only with WCG (GRAIN) on fatty acids profile, volatile compounds, sensory, and texture attributes were studied. Pasture diets (PAST and SUPP) led to lower n-6/n-3 ratio (P < 0.001), and highest deposition of C18:2 cis-9 trans-11 (P < 0.001) in the lean. Beef from steers fed GRAIN had the highest values of volatile compounds associated with lipid oxidation. Off-flavor intensity was significantly greater on beef from steers fed GRAIN when compared to PAST. Overall, muscles from steers finished on PAST and SUPP showed similar attributes but differ when compared to GRAIN. The presence of forage is essential to improve fatty acid profile, decrease volatile compounds associated with lipid oxidation, and minimize off-flavor.
Prediction of beef carcass and meat quality traits from factors characterising the rearing management system applied during the whole life of heifers Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 J. Soulat, B. Picard, S. Léger, V. Monteils
In this study, four prediction models were developed by logistic regression using individual data from 96 heifers. Carcass and sensory rectus abdominis quality clusters were identified then predicted using the rearing factors data. The obtained models from rearing factors applied during the fattening period were compared to those characterising the heifers' whole life. The highest prediction power of carcass and meat quality clusters were obtained from the models considering the whole life, with success rates of 62.8% and 54.9%, respectively. Rearing factors applied during both pre-weaning and fattening periods influenced carcass and meat quality. According to models, carcass traits were improved when heifer's mother was older for first calving, calves ingested concentrates during pasture preceding weaning and heifers were slaughtered older. Meat traits were improved by the genetic of heifers' parents (i.e., calving ease and early muscularity) and when heifers were slaughtered older. A management of carcass and meat quality traits is possible at different periods of the heifers' life.
The effect of bacon pump retention levels following thermal processing on bacon slice composition and sensory characteristics ☆ Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 T. Sivendiran, L.M. Wang, S. Huang, B.M. Bohrer
The objective was to evaluate the effect of belly pump uptake and cook yield during processing on bacon slice composition and sensory attributes. A total of forty-four bellies were commercially sourced and randomly assigned to two experiments. Each experiment consisted of one smokehouse cooking cycle. Within each experiment, bellies were separated at the medial point and one belly half was assigned to a high pump uptake treatment (HIGH; target of 30% uptake) and the remaining belly half was assigned to a normal pump uptake treatment (NORM; target of 15% uptake). In experiment-1, cook yields were 107.79% for the HIGH bellies and 101.52% for the NORM bellies. In experiment-2, cook yields were 97.41% for the HIGH bellies and 94.74% for the NORM bellies. Overall, bacon slice composition and sensory attributes of bacon from bellies with greater pump retention were largely unaffected, accordingly it was concluded that cook yields ranging in level of pump retention does not affect most attributes of bacon.
The impact of frozen storage duration on physical, chemical and microbiological properties of pork Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Helga Medić, Ivona Djurkin Kušec, Jelka Pleadin, Lidija Kozačinski, Bela Njari, Brigita Hengl, Goran Kušec
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of frozen storage duration (3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 months) on physical, chemical and microbial properties of pork in three cuts (loin, ham, and belly rib). During frozen storage, significant alterations in physical and chemical parameters were observed through the increase of the total exudate, pH and lightness (L*), and a decrease of shear force and yellowness (b*). Water content in ham samples decreased, while protein content increased. The lipid oxidation (TBA) values in loin and ham samples increased for up to fifteen months of frozen storage, after which they decreased. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in frozen samples was significantly higher than in fresh meat. The total amount of Enterobacteriaceae, S. aureus and Pseudomonas spp. decreased during frozen storage, indicating that freezing may reduce the number of bacteria found in meat. Frozen pork microflora did not change after eighteen months of storage.
Carcass and meat characteristics from farm-raised and wild fallow deer (Dama dama) and red deer (Cervus elaphus): A review Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Eva Kudrnáčová, Luděk Bartoň, Daniel Bureš, Louwrens C. Hoffman
Deer species are utilised for food, hunting and other products throughout the world. Consumers are typically exposed to venison derived predominantly from both farm-raised or wild fallow (Dama dama) and red deer (Cervus elaphus). The production of venison under farm conditions, compared to the meat of deer hunted in the wild, allows for a regular supply of a consistently good meat. It is lean, tasty, and rich in proteins and minerals, with a low content of fat and cholesterol. Overall, the worldwide demand for meat is still growing, and both the potential of farming deer species and their use as meat producers have led to an increased interest in venison. The current knowledge about various factors (e.g. nutrition, age, sex, condition, season) affecting venison and game meat has significantly increased during past decades but information regarding the interaction between production system or pre- and post-slaughter handling and ultimate deer meat quality are still very limited.
Associations among animal, carcass, muscle characteristics, and fresh meat color traits in Charolais cattle Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Mohammed Gagaoua, Brigitte Picard, Valérie Monteils
This study investigated the effects of animal, carcass and muscle characteristics on initial color traits of steaks from 887 Charolais cattle. First, the fixed factors of year of birth, experiment and sex had strong impacts on color traits. From the covariates, increased age lead to intense color (low h*, −1.55 units) and darker and vivid meat (high a*, b* and C*: +4.56, +3.41 and +5.61, respectively). Increases in fatness score and carcass fat weight were associated with increases in a*, b* and C* (redness; +2.90 to +4.06 for a*; yellowness; +2.60 to +3.76 for b*; and vividness, +3.87 to +5.49 for C*) and a darker colored lean (L*; −1.56 to −3.23). As pH24h increased, a* (less red) and C* (less vivid) decreased (−3.06), whereas hue angle increased (+2.69) leading to poorer color. The selection of animals for high degree of muscularity or slaughter weight resulted in lighter and darker meat, respectively. The studied covariates could be used as indicators of Charolais beef color traits.
Prediction of pork loin quality using online computer vision system and artificial intelligence model Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 Xin Sun, Jennifer Young, Jeng-Hung Liu, David Newman
The objective of this project was to develop a computer vision system (CVS) for objective measurement of pork loin under industry speed requirement. Color images of pork loin samples were acquired using a CVS. Subjective color and marbling scores were determined according to the National Pork Board standards by a trained evaluator. Instrument color measurement and crude fat percentage were used as control measurements. Image features (18 color features; 1 marbling feature; 88 texture features) were extracted from whole pork loin color images. Artificial intelligence prediction model (support vector machine) was established for pork color and marbling quality grades. The results showed that CVS with support vector machine modeling reached the highest prediction accuracy of 92.5% for measured pork color score and 75.0% for measured pork marbling score. This research shows that the proposed artificial intelligence prediction model with CVS can provide an effective tool for predicting color and marbling in the pork industry at online speeds.
A new insight into meat toughness of callipyge lamb loins - the relevance of anti-apoptotic systems to decreased proteolysis Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 Traci Cramer, Moriah L. Penick, Jolena N. Waddell, Chris A. Bidwell, Yuan H. Brad Kim
The objective of this study was to determine associations of small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) in tenderness development of loins from callipyge and normal genotype lambs. Loins (M. longissimus lumborum) from sixteen lambs across four genotypes were collected throughout 9 days of postmortem aging. The loins from callipyge lambs had more intact desmin and troponin T throughout aging periods, as well as less μ-calpain autolysis and more calpastatin compared to loins from other genotypes (P < 0.05). Delayed onset of apoptosis was found in the callipyge loins indicated by less cytochrome c and more inactive procaspase-3 compared to normal lamb loins (P < 0.05). Less degraded HSP27 was also consistently found in the callipyge loins compared with loins from normal lambs (P < 0.001). The results found up-regulation of anti-apoptotic activities coincided with toughness in callipyge loins, which suggest apoptosis is likely involved in postmortem proteolysis and subsequent meat tenderization.
Prediction of intramuscular fat content and shear force in Texel lamb loins using combinations of different X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning techniques Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 N. Clelland, L. Bunger, K.A. McLean, S. Knott, K. Matthews, N.R. Lambe
Computed tomography (CT) parameters, including spiral computed tomography scanning (SCTS) parameters, intramuscular fat (IMF) and mechanically measured shear force were derived from two previously published studies. Purebred Texel (n = 377) of both sexes, females (n = 206) and intact males (n = 171) were used to investigate the prediction of IMF and shear force in the loin. Two and three dimensional CT density information was available. Accuracies in the prediction of shear force and IMF ranged from R2 0.02 to R2 0.13 and R2 0.51 to R2 0.71 respectively, using combinations of SCTS and CT scan information. The prediction of mechanical shear force could not be achieved at an acceptable level of accuracy employing SCTS information. However, the prediction of IMF in the loin employing information from SCTS and additional information from standard CT scans was successful, providing evidence that the prediction of IMF and related meat eating quality (MEQ) traits for Texel lambs in vivo can be achieved.
Exploring the influence of consumer characteristics on veal credence and experience guarantee purchasing motivators Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-03-05 H. Resano, A.M. Olaizola, M. Dominguez-Torreiro
In Europe, in the last decades, public administration has encouraged extensive livestock farming systems, usually related to high quality meat and the preservation of endangered local breeds. Nevertheless, its continuity in the near future should be based on adapting it to the market requirements. This paper investigates consumers' preferences heterogeneity towards veal attributes, as well as the linkage between a wide range of consumer traits and attributes that motivate purchasing of veal with unique characteristics. Main method of analysis included a choice experiment method. Findings showed that regional origin and health information play a stronger role than tenderness degree guarantee at the moment of choice. Moreover, regional origin is more relevant when it is linked to a local breed. Nevertheless, heterogeneous preferences have been detected. In contrast to the general trend, one-person households attach greater importance to the presence of a high degree of tenderness guarantee. Furthermore, younger consumers value more this guarantee, while expert consumers do not.
Fatty acid profile and carcass traits of feedlot Nellore cattle fed crude glycerin and virginiamycin Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Pablo S. Castagnino, Giovani Fiorentini, Erick E. Dallantonia, Elias San Vito, Juliana D. Messana, Juliana A. Torrecilhas, Américo G. Silva Sobrinho, Telma T. Berchielli
Forty-eight bulls with an initial body weight (BW) of 408.4 ± 22.2 kg (age = 21 ± 2 months) were used in a randomized complete block design arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The treatments were diets without virginiamycin (VM−) or with virginiamycin, at 25 mg/kg of dry matter (DM, VM+), and diets without crude glycerin (CG−) or with crude glycerin, at 100 g/kg DM (CG+). The cold carcass weight and cold carcass dressing (P ≤ 0.05) was greater in bulls fed crude glycerin diets. Total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) were 6.08% higher, and cooking weight loss was 10% lower in bulls fed CG+ diets, compared to bulls fed CG− diets (P = 0.0081). Crude glycerin at 100 g/kg DM could be a suitable replacement for VM, as it led to a slight increase in UFA deposition in meat. However, simultaneous administration of VM and CG did not positively affect performance and carcass traits of feedlot Nellore cattle.
Do extended transport times and rest periods impact on eating quality of beef carcasses? Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Rod Polkinghorne, Judy Philpott, J.M. Thompson
The experiment tested the effect of four extended transport treatments on sensory and objective meat quality in beef. A total of 343 steers (88 steers from each of three properties and 79 from a fourth property) were allocated to four treatments including a 12 hour transport time (T12), 24 hour transport time (T24), 24 h as 12 hour transport time, a 12 hour rest, with a further 12 hour transport (T12 ~ T12), 36 hour transport treatment (T36). Within property departure times of treatments were staggered to arrive at the abattoir together. There were no significant transport effects (P > .05) on live animal, carcass traits, consumer sensory scores, and objective meat quality of the longissimus lumborum. There was large between property variation in the proportions of carcasses excluded from grading on the basis of low ribfat, high ultimate pH and dark meat color scores. Variation in these traits was not associated with transport treatments and was likely related to variation in on-farm factors.
Analysis of volatile compounds in Chinese dry-cured hams by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Wenli Wang, Xi Feng, Danni Zhang, Bei Li, Baoguo Sun, Hongyu Tian, Yuan Liu
A microwave assisted extraction method coupled with solvent assisted flavor evaporation (MAE-SAFE) was used to extract the volatiles from three-selected Chinese dry-cured hams (Jinhua ham, Xuanwei ham and Rugao ham). Extracts were analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/HR-TOFMS), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), respectively. A total 165 volatile compounds were identified by GC × GC/HR-TOFMS while only 50 compounds were identified by GC–MS. Principal component analysis showed that the specific dominant volatile compounds were [S-(R*,R*)]-2,3-butanediol (26.39%) and 3-methyl-butanoic acid (7.53%) for Jinhua ham, were [R-(R*,R*)]-2,3-butanediol (16.85%) and acetic acid (8.25%) for Rugao ham and were dihydro-4-hydroxy-2(3H)-furanone (11.67%) and hexanoic acid (8.24%) for Xuanwei ham. The results not only provided a fast and mild extraction method to analyze the volatiles in non-volatile food matrices, but also represented the detailed information of volatile profiles of Chinese dry-cured hams.
Descriptive analysis of bacon smoked with Brazilian woods from reforestation: methodological aspects, statistical analysis, and study of sensory characteristics Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Erick Saldaña, Luiz Saldarriaga Castillo, Jorge Cabrera Sánchez, Raúl Siche, Marcio Aurélio de Almeida, Jorge H. Behrens, Miriam Mabel Selani, Carmen J. Contreras Castillo
The aim of this study was to perform a descriptive analysis (DA) of bacons smoked with woods from reforestation and liquid smokes in order to investigate their sensory profile. Six samples of bacon were selected: three smoked bacons with different wood species (Eucalyptus citriodora, Acacia mearnsii, and Bambusa vulgaris), two artificially smoked bacon samples (liquid smoke) and one negative control (unsmoked bacon). Additionally, a commercial bacon sample was also evaluated. DA was developed successfully, presenting a good performance in terms of discrimination, consensus and repeatability. The study revealed that the smoking process modified the sensory profile by intensifying the “saltiness” and differentiating the unsmoked from the smoked samples. The results from the current research represent the first methodological development of descriptive analysis of bacon and may be used by food companies and other stakeholders to understand the changes in sensory characteristics of bacon due to traditional smoking process.
Distribution of fatty acids and phospholipids in different table cuts and co-products from New Zealand pasture-fed Wagyu-dairy cross beef cattle Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-02-20 Emma N. Bermingham, Mariza Gomes Reis, Arvind K. Subbaraj, David Cameron-Smith, Karl Fraser, Arjan Jonker, Cameron R. Craigie
Wagyu beef products are marketed as luxury goods to discerning consumers and the lipid content and composition are important drivers of wagyu product value. Wagyu beef is an extensively marbled meat product, well characterised for its tenderness and flavour. In New Zealand, pasture-fed Wagyu-dairy beef production is increasing to meet demand for ultra-premium meat products. Important for these characteristics is the composition of lipid species and their distribution across the carcass. The aim of this study was to analyse the distribution of fatty acids and phospholipids in 26 table cuts, nine co-products and three fat deposits of carcasses from New Zealand pasture-fed Wagyu-dairy cross beef carcasses (n = 5). Phospholipid and fatty acid levels varied across different cuts of the carcass, but typically cuts with high levels of phospholipids also had high levels of omega-3 fatty acids and low levels of saturated fatty acids. This work will be used in the future to examine the potential health aspects of pasture-fed Wagyu beef.
The effects of bioactive edible film containing Terminalia arjuna on the stability of some quality attributes of chevon sausages Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-02-19 Insha Kousar Kalem, Z.F. Bhat, Sunil Kumar, Sabahu Noor, Ajay Desai
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of calcium alginate edible films incorporated with Terminalia arjuna on the lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of chevon sausages. Chevon sausages were aerobically packaged in the edible films containing different concentrations of T. arjuna viz. T1 (0.0%), T2 (0.50%) and T3 (1.0%) and were stored under refrigerated (4±1 °C) conditions. A significant improvement was observed in the lipid oxidative stability and microbial quality of the products. Products packaged in T2 and T3 films exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) lower values for TBARS (mg malonaldehyde/kg), microbial counts (log cfu/g) and FFA (% oleic acid). Higher (P < 0.05) sensory scores were also observed for the products packaged in T2 and T3 films. This study shows that application of a bioactive edible film incorporated with T. arjuna is an effective strategy in retarding the lipid oxidation and storage changes in meat products.
Effectiveness of pneumatically powered penetrating and non-penetrating captive bolts in stunning cattle Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-02-15 Steffan Edward Octávio Oliveira, Neville George Gregory, Filipe Antonio Dalla Costa, Troy John Gibson, Osmar Antonio Dalla Costa, Mateus José Rodrigues Paranhos da Costa
This study assessed the effectiveness of penetrating (PCB; 190 psi; N = 363) and non-penetrating captive bolt guns (NPCB; 210–220 psi; N = 92) to stun a total of 455 cattle (Zebu and Zebu Cross). Physical bolt parameters (momentum, kinetic energy and energy density) were evaluated. Clinical indicators of brain function were recorded after stunning (GR), after being hoisted (HO) and at the bleeding rail (BL). Physical bolt parameters (bolt velocity, momentum, kinetic energy, energy density and sectional density) were significantly higher (P < 0.001) for PCB. The need for two or more shots was more frequent for NPCB (210–220 psi; 29% vs. 12%, P < 0.001). Cattle were more likely to collapse at first shot with PCB (190 psi; 99%) compared to NPCB (91%; P < 0.002) which can be attributed to the higher values of bolt physical parameters. Incidence of eyeball rotation (5% vs. 1%) and righting behaviour (7% vs. 1%) were higher (P < 0.001) for NPCB (210–220 psi) at GR than PCB. The NPCB with 210–220 psi had a higher frequency of response to nostril stimulation (2% vs. 0%; P < 0.001) than PCB. Rhythmic respiration was more frequently found for NPCB with 210–220 psi at GR, HO and BL. Therefore, PCB with 190 psi was more effective in ensuring unconsciousness in cattle.
Fate of selected pathogens in spiked «SALAME NOSTRANO» produced without added nitrates following the application of NONIT™ technology Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-02-14 B.T. Cenci-Goga, M. Karama, P. Sechi, M.F. Iulietto, L. Grispoldi, R. Selvaggini, M. Ceccarelli, S. Barbera
This study evaluated the effect of a novel formulation for starter culture associated with specific ripening conditions (NoNit™ technology) vs. a commercial» starter on the fate of selected pathogens and hygiene indicators during the fermentation and ripening of experimentally spiked salame nostrano (Italian dry sausage). Selected strains of Staphylococcus aureus 27R, Escherichia coli CSH26 K 12, Listeria innocua ATCC 33090 and Salmonella Derby 27 were inoculated into salami batter and challenged with two formulations of starter cultures (a commercial formulation and the NoNit™ formulation, consisting of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, strain 340; L. lactis ssp. lactis, strain 16; Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei, strain 208 and Enterococcus faecium strain 614) with ripening at a low temperature. The proposed technology (NoNit™) performed better than the commercial formulation and limited the growth of spiked Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus (including the production of enterotoxin), Salmonella Derby and Listeria innocua, yet maintained the basic product appearance and texture.
Analyzing μ-Calpain induced proteolysis in a myofibril model system with vibrational and fluorescence spectroscopy Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-02-10 Petter Vejle Andersen, Jens Petter Wold, Eva Veiseth-Kent
Degree of post-mortem proteolysis influences overall meat quality (e.g. tenderness and water holding capacity). Degradation of isolated pork myofibril proteins by μ-Calpain for 0, 15 or 45 min was analyzed using four spectroscopic techniques; Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), near infrared (NIR) and fluorescence spectroscopy. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to determine degree of proteolysis. The main changes detected by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy were degradation of protein backbones manifested in the spectra as an increase in terminal carboxylic acid vibrations, a decrease in CN vibration, as well as an increase in skeletal vibrations. A reduction in β-sheet secondary structures was also detected, while α-helix secondary structure seemed to stay relatively unchanged. NIR and fluorescence were not suited to analyze degree of proteolysis in this model system.
Classification of trace elements in tissues from organic and conventional French pig production Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-02-09 Julien Parinet, Eric Royer, Mailie Saint-Hilaire, Claude Chafey, Laurent Noël, Brice Minvielle, Gaud Dervilly-Pinel, Erwan Engel, Thierry Guérin
This study assesses the impact of the farming system on the levels of copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in pig tissues from three types of production (Organic (n = 28), Label Rouge (n = 12) and Conventional (n = 30)) randomly sampled in different slaughterhouses. All the concentrations were below regulatory limits. In muscles, Cu, Zn and As were measured at slightly higher levels in organic samples but no differences between organic and Label Rouge was observed. Livers from conventional and Label Rouge pig farms exhibited higher Zn and Cd contents than the organic ones, probably due to different practice in zinc or phytase supplementation of fattening diets. Principal component analysis indicated a correlation between Cu and As concentrations in liver and carcass weight, and between Zn and Cd liver levels and lean meat percentage. The linear discriminant analysis succeeded in predicting the farming process on the basis of the lean meat percentage and the liver Cd level.
Fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat and odour-active compounds of lamb commercialized in northern Spain Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Leire Bravo-Lamas, Luis J.R. Barron, Linda Farmer, Noelia Aldai
Muscle fatty acid composition and odour-active compounds released during cooking were characterized in lamb chops (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum, n = 48) collected at retail level in northern Spain. Lamb samples were classified in two groups according to their 10 t/11 t-18:1 ratio: ≤1 (10 t-non-shifted, n = 20) and >1 (10 t-shifted, n = 28). Higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, vaccenic (11 t-18:1) and rumenic acid (9c,11 t-18:2), and iso-branched chain fatty acid contents were found in non-shifted lamb samples while n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, internal methyl-branched chain fatty acid, and 10 t-18:1 contents were greater in shifted samples. Regardless the fatty acid profile differences between lamb sample groups, odour-active compound profile was very similar and mostly affected by the cooking conditions. Overall, the main odour-active compounds of cooked lamb were described as “green”, “meaty”, “roasted”, and “fatty” being methyl pyrazine, methional, dimethyl pyrazine, and dimethyl trisulphide the main odour-active compounds. Aldehydes and alcohols were the most abundant volatiles in all samples, and they were mostly originated from the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids during cooking.
Perceived naturalness and evoked disgust influence acceptance of cultured meat Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Michael Siegrist, Bernadette Sütterlin, Christina Hartmann
Cultured meat could be a more environment- and animal-friendly alternative to conventional meat. However, in addition to the technological challenges, the lack of consumer acceptance could be a major barrier to the introduction of cultured meat. Therefore, it seems wise to take into account consumer concerns at an early stage of product development. In this regard, we conducted two experiments that examined the impact of perceived naturalness and disgust on consumer acceptance of cultured meat. The results of Experiment 1 suggest the participants' low level of acceptance of cultured meat because it is perceived as unnatural. Moreover, informing participants about the production of cultured meat and its benefits has the paradoxical effect of increasing the acceptance of traditional meat. Experiment 2 shows that how cultured meat is described influences the participants' perception. Thus, it is important to explain cultured meat in a nontechnical way that emphasizes the final product, not the production method, to increase acceptance of this novel food.
Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in fat metabolism candidate genes with fatty acid profiles of muscle and subcutaneous fat in heavy pigs Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 B. Renaville, N. Bacciu, M. Lanzoni, F. Mossa, E. Piasentier
Dietary and organoleptic qualities of pork products are largely influenced by the profiles of fatty acids (FAs) of meat and fat. The objective of this work was to investigate the potential associations between FA profile in subcutaneous adipose (back fat and leg fat) and muscular (longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris) tissues in heavy pigs (n = 129, 9-month-old) with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six candidate genes involved in fat metabolism: Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and 2 (DGAT1 & DGAT2), Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein (MTTP), Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) and Heart- fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP). Preliminary results suggest a putative association between MTTP, DGAT2 and FASN and the FA content in both fat and meat, whereas between DGAT1, SCD and H-FABP the association was found in adipose tissue only. However, the effect of the analyzed genes, needs to be verified in a larger and better characterized pig population to support the hypothesized associations with FA content.
Association of ultimate pH and stress-related blood variables in cattle Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Xiao Lu, Yimin Zhang, Libo Qin, Wenjian Ma, Lixian Zhu, Xin Luo
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between ultimate pH (pHu) and stress-related blood variables. Of 50 cattle in total, blood samples from 6 cattle which exhibited high (≥6.10) pHu (dark-cutting) were collected, along with the same number of low pHu and intermediate pHu cattle (5.40–5.80; 5.80–6.10, respectively) to determine the concentration of plasma cortisol, glucose, lactate, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A protein. Compared to cattle with low pHu, high pHu cattle showed higher plasma cortisol, glucose, lactate, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels at exsanguination. But the concentration of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A protein showed no significant differences among three pH groups. These results imply that measuring plasma cortisol, glucose, lactate, creatine kinase, or lactate dehydrogenase levels at exsanguination may be useful to identify the dark-cutting beef condition.
Slip points of subcutaneous adipose tissue lipids do not predict beef marbling score or percent intramuscular lipid Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Victor V. Carvalho, Stephen B. Smith
We hypothesized that slip points of subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue lipids would predict USDA beef marbling scores or percent intramuscular lipid (%IML). M. longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and s.c. adipose tissue from 79 feedlot-finished Angus steers were analyzed for lipid slip point, %IML, and fatty acid composition. The s.c. monounsaturated:saturated fatty acid (MUFA:SFA) ratio and s.c. lipid slip points were highly correlated (R2 = 0.557; P < 0.001), but the correlation between s.c. lipid slip point and LD lipid MUFA:SFA ratio was low (R2 = 0.112; P < 0.01). Similarly, there was a low correlation between LD lipid slip point and s.c. lipid slip point (R2 = 0.185; P < 0.001). Neither USDA marbling score nor %IML were correlated with s.c. lipid slip point (R2 = 0.001; P > 0.05). These data indicate s.c. adipose tissue lipid slip point did not predict USDA marbling scores or %IML in the conventionally fed Angus steers of this study.
Effects of aging treatment and freezing/thawing methods on the quality attributes of beef from Limousin × Holstein-Friesian and Hereford × Holstein-Friesian crossbreeds Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-10-24 Julia Bogdanowicz, Marek Cierach, Tomasz Żmijewski
The objective was to investigate combined effects of aging-, freezing-, thawing- treatments on the water-holding capacity, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and sensory properties of beef. Semitendinosus muscles from two crossbreeds were analysed. Carcasses were conventionally aged (4 days post mortem), muscles were separated and divided into samples. Part of the samples were frozen without wet-aging and the others were wet-aged for 3 or 6 days (and then also frozen). Two freezing methods (conventional and cryogenic) and two thawing methods (at 4 °C and 20 °C) were applied. Stepwise conventional/wet-aging just as thawing at 20 °C, decreased the WBSF (P < 0.05) and increased the scores for tenderness (P < 0.05). Moreover, wet-aging for 3 days gave an equal effect on tenderness (P > 0.05) as the 6-days period. Meat from Hereford-crosses scored significantly higher for juiciness, compared with Limousin-crosses. These tips may be applied in the meat industry to reduce time of aging process and ensure a consistent high quality of frozen beef.
Mitochondrial F1-ATPase extends glycolysis and pH decline in an in vitro model Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-07 Sulaiman K. Matarneh, Mariane Beline, Saulo de Luz e Silva, Hao Shi, David E. Gerrard
The experiment was conducted to identify the mitochondrial protein responsible for enhancing glycolytic flux. We hypothesized that mitochondrial F1-ATPase promotes ATP hydrolysis and thereby the flux through glycolysis. Porcine longissimus muscle mitochondria were incorporated into an in vitro system designed to recapitulate postmortem glycolysis with or without Na-azide to specifically inhibit the β-subunit of mitochondrial F1-ATPase that catalyzes ATP hydrolysis. Addition of mitochondria enhanced ATP hydrolysis, glycogen degradation, lactate accumulation, and pH decline in the in vitro system. However, the majority of mitochondria-mediated enhancement in glycolytic flux was abolished in the presence of Na-azide. To investigate further, myofibrillar and mitochondrial proteins were added to the in vitro system after 240 min from the initiation of the reaction. Greater pH decline and lactate accumulation were observed in system containing mitochondrial protein compared to their myofibrillar counterpart. In conclusion, mitochondrial F1-ATPase is capable of increasing glycolytic flux through promoting greater ATP hydrolysis at lower pH.
Association of Melanocortin (MC4R) and Myostatin (MSTN) genes with carcass quality in rabbit Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-07 Karim El-Sabrout, Sarah Aggag
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of Melanocortin (MC4R) and Myostatin (MSTN) with the carcass quality of V-line and Alexandria line rabbits. MC4R and MSTN were screened by single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis (SSCP) then DNA was sequenced. The results identified four novel SNPs using the four studied primers of the MC4R and MSTN genes. The genotype (BB) has significant higher body weight (BW), carcass weight (CW) and dressing percentage (DP) than V-line (AA) rabbits. There were no significant differences within the two lines in the carcass color (light pink) and carcass fat (CF). GLM analysis for the effect of genotypes on carcass traits demonstrated that the genotype (BB) was significantly associated with high carcass weight (CW) and dressing percentage (DP). The detected mutations and the analysis of carcass quality means revealed a significant association between MSTN and MC4R polymorphisms with some carcass traits that affect meat quality of rabbits.
Proteomics of dark cutting longissimus thoracis muscle from heifer and steer carcasses Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-10 Shahid Mahmood, Nancy Turchinsky, Francois Paradis, Walter T. Dixon, Heather L. Bruce
Studies have suggested that the phenomenon of dark cutting (Canada B4) beef may also be related to muscle glycolytic proteins. The objective of this study, therefore, was to analyze longissimus thoracis (LT; n = 23), from Canada AA (n = 8), atypical (AB4; pH < 5.9, n = 8) and typical (TB4; pH > 5.9, n = 7) B4 heifer and steer carcasses, for sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins using 2-D gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry. Results indicated that AB4 LT had intramuscular pH and lactate concentration similar to Canada AA but lower (P < 0.05) L* and b*. Moreover, AB4 LT were tougher than Canada AA even at 21 days post-mortem, unlike TB4. Canada AB4 LT had reduced (P < 0.05) levels of creatine kinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(+)], indicating a compromised glycolytic capacity in AB4. Canada AB4 LT had increased (P < 0.05) abundances of phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1 and small heat shock proteins.
Exploring innovative possibilities of recovering the value of dark-cutting beef in the Canadian grading system Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-10 N. Prieto, Ó. López-Campos, S.P. Suman, B. Uttaro, A. Rodas-González, J.L. Aalhus
This study examined if different color intensities of dark-cutting beef carcasses (Dark B4/Moderate B4) were similar in quality to normal (N) carcasses of a lower marbling score. The eating quality from abnormal (AB) dark-cutting carcasses (normal pH) was also evaluated to determine if AB should receive the same penalty as classic (CL) dark-cutting carcasses in the Canadian grading system. B4-grade carcasses, regardless of dark color intensity, exhibited increased toughness and greater off-flavor than N carcasses of a lower marbling score. Additionally, AB and borderline (BD) carcasses were tougher than N. The CL dark cutters, albeit similar in tenderness to N carcasses, had greater off-flavor and less beef flavor intensity. Downgrading B4 carcasses one quality grade based on the marbling score, with no further carcass demerits, is likely not sufficient, and further devaluations of dark cutters may be warranted. As well, AB and BD carcasses were of lower quality compared to N carcasses and, therefore, deserve some economic penalty.
Evaluation of whole pork belly qualitative and quantitative properties using selective belly muscle parameters Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-10 Eun-A Lee, Ji-Hoon Kang, Jin-Hyung Cheong, Kyung-Chul Koh, Woo-Min Jeon, Jee-Hwan Choe, Ki-Chang Hong, Jun-Mo Kim
The objective of this study was to identify parameters for the evaluation of pork belly quality (composition) and quantity (volume) and to develop regression equations that predict properties of whole pork belly. Through an image analysis of 648 bellies, newly characterized pork belly parameters were developed for evaluating pork belly quality and quantity. Importantly, the estimated muscle volume showed high positive correlation with the whole belly volume and the whole belly muscle percentage (r = 0.458, and 0.654, respectively). Section 7 was identified as the best section for the evaluation of pork belly based on the muscle area in every vertebra. A stepwise regression showed that cutaneous trunci muscle (CTM) had an r2 of 0.624 in the model, and supplementation with the other muscles yielded an r2 of 0.784. Therefore, we propose that a prediction equation could be developed for a certain area in the belly for the evaluation of pork belly quantity and quality. The results could be applied to select breeding stock using techniques such as ultrasound with the aim of producing hogs with large as well as lean bellies.
Monitoring Lean Meat Percentage Predictions from Optical Grading Probes by a Commercial Cutting Pattern Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-11 Lars Erik Gangsei, Frøydis Bjerke, Morten Røe, Ole Alvseike
The lean meat percentage (LMP) classification in Norwegian slaughterhouses is obtained by Hennessy Grading Probe 7 (HGP7), an optical tool. Even though the HGP7 method is validated frequently, there is industrial and legislative demand to reconsider the applied LMP equation, typically due to the introduction of new breeds. A deboning pilot plant generates precise yield data using cutting and deboning stratified pork carcasses by a specific commercial cutting pattern (CCP) at an annual rate of approximately 250 slaughter pigs. This paper shows how results obtained by CCP can be used to measure LMP in pork and how these results can be used for monitoring the quality of LMP predicted by HGP7. The effect of gender, maternal- and paternal lines on validity of HGP7 predictions was evaluated. The effect of introducing a new maternal line (TN70) seems to be substantial, whereas the effects of the tested paternal lines are small to negligible.
Fatty acid composition of several muscles and adipose tissues of pigs fed n-3 PUFA rich diets Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-21 Auriane de Tonnac, Mathieu Guillevic, Jacques Mourot
During two months, sixty Pietrain × (Landrace × Large White) finishing pigs (50.7 to 115.2 kg live weight) received diets containing various levels of C18:3n-3 from linseed and C22:6n-3 from Schizochytrium microalgae to increase the content of these fatty acids (FA) in their lean and fat tissues. Samples of tissues have been extracted from the carcass at the slaughterhouse. Tissues of pigs fed linseed had the highest C18:3n-3 and C20:3n-3 contents, while the C20:4, C20:5 and C22:6n-3 contents increased in tissues with microalgae diets. Diaphragm was fatter, but contained less monounsaturated FA, total n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) than longissimus thoracis et lumborum and semimembranosus muscles due to their different roles. The leaf fat was the most saturated and monounsaturated tissue, regardless of the diet. Adipose tissues located in extremities contained more n-3 and n-6 PUFA than adipose tissues located in the middle of the carcass. This study showed the existence of a PUFA gradient depending on tissue location.
A sensometric approach to the development of mortadella with healthier fats Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-22 Erick Saldaña, Aline de Oliveira Garcia, Miriam Mabel Selani, Marcia M.H. Haguiwara, Marcio Aurélio de Almeida, Raúl Siche, Carmen J. Contreras-Castillo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory characteristics of mortadellas with different fat contents using Descriptive Analysis (DA) and Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions and their relationship with overall liking (OL). Five mortadella samples were studied. Sample 1, containing 16% fat. Sample 2 was formulated with 8% fat. Samples 3 and 4 were prepared by replacing 50% fat by a pre-emulsion composed of fish, canola and olive oil. A commercial fat-reduced sample was also studied. The sensory characteristics of the samples were evaluated by DA. Besides, eighty-four consumers evaluated their OL using a 9-point scale and answered the CATA questions. Replacement or reduction of fat caused changes in the sensory characteristics of the samples. Commercial mortadella was the most liked. CATA questions along with penalty analysis and partial least squares regression (PLSR) of dummy variables on the OL helped to identify the attributes to be changed in the mortadella formulations.
Impact of reducing nitrate/nitrite levels on the behavior of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in French dry fermented sausages Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-22 Souad Christieans, Laurent Picgirard, Emilie Parafita, André Lebert, Thierry Gregori
Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes are two pathogenic bacteria that most frequently contaminate pork meat. In dry fermented sausages, several hurdles are used for controlling bacterial growth such as nitrite and salt addition. In Europe, practices consist of adding potassium nitrate (250 ppm expressed as NaNO3) or a combination of nitrate/nitrite (150/150 ppm expressed as NaNO3/NaNO2 respectively). However, involvement of these additives in nitrosamine formation is a matter of concern. Consequently, a decrease in nitrite/nitrate amounts is proposed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of reducing levels of these additives on Listeria and Salmonella behavior. Using challenge-tests, five trials were carried out by varying the concentration of nitrate and nitrate/nitrite. Results shown that nitrite is a relevant hurdle for control Salmonella and Listeria. At the end of drying, the most significant reductions of pathogens are obtained in sausages with nitrite added at the both tested concentrations (120 or 80 ppm NaNO2).
Prediction of pH and aw of pork meat by a thermodynamic model: New developments Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-23 Aïchatou Musavu Ndob, André Lebert
To ensure continuous innovations, food industries need tools which enable to predict physical-properties of food during a change of process or recipe. In this work, a thermodynamic model is suggested to predict pH and water activity of pork meat in presence of different additives such as salts or organic acids used in food industry. The predictions of pH and aw are satisfactory in a wide prediction domain, with a good accuracy. In add, a neural network mimetic of thermodynamic model is developed in order to facilitate the use of thermodynamic model and reduce calculation time.
Physical quality attributes of male and female wild fallow deer (Dama dama) muscles Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-27 Donna-Mareè Cawthorn, Leon Brett Fitzhenry, Voster Muchenje, Daniel Bureša, Radim Kotrba, Louwrens C. Hoffman
Physical meat quality measurements were conducted on the longissimus thoracis et lumborum, biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles from male (n = 6) and female (n = 6) fallow deer (Dama dama) harvested in South Africa. Ultimate pH (pHu), drip loss, cooking loss and shear force values were influenced (p ≤ 0.05) by muscle, but not gender. Mean pHu readings were 5.4–5.6 in the muscles with the two forequarter muscles having the highest readings, while drip loss, cooking loss and shear force values ranged from 1.3–1.6%, 29.4–36.1% and 31.3–61.9 N, respectively. Muscle, however, had an effect (p ≤ 0.05) on all the measured colour parameters (L*, a*, b*, chroma, hue angle), whereas gender only influenced (p ≤ 0.05) the a* and chroma values in certain muscles. It can be concluded that the physical meat quality attributes of the fallow deer muscles compare favourably with that from other game species commonly consumed in South Africa.
Effect of long term chilled (up to 5 weeks) then frozen (up to 12 months) storage at two different sub-zero holding temperatures on beef: 3. Protein structure degradation and a marker of protein oxidation Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-02-02 Benjamin W.B. Holman, Cassius E.O. Coombs, Stephen Morris, Matthew J. Kerr, David L. Hopkins
Different chilled (~0.1 °C for up to 5 weeks) then frozen storage (up to 12 months) combinations and two frozen storage holding temperatures (−12 °C and −18 °C) effects on beef M. longissimus lumborum (LL) protein structure degradation and a marker of protein oxidation were tested. Particle size (PS) analysis and protein solubility results found storage combination effects on protein degradation to be significant (P < .05), although the influence of frozen holding temperatures was negligible. LL carbonyl, and nitrate and nitrite content responses were variable and yet broadly reflected an increased incidence of protein oxidation across increasing chilled storage and ensuing frozen storage periods – this aspect meriting future exploration. Total myoglobin content and the estimated myoglobin redox fractions (metmyoglobin, deoxymyoglobin, and oxymyoglobin) were also subject to storage treatment. These findings demonstrate the capacity for beef storage selection (chilled-then-frozen) to manage compositional protein changes and its implications on sensory quality traits across comparative “long term” durations.
Preservative effect of Asparagus racemosus: A novel additive for bioactive edible films for improved lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of meat products Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-02-02 Sabahu Noor, Z.F. Bhat, Sunil Kumar, Reshan J. Mudiyanselage
Asparagus racemosus was used as a bioactive ingredient for the development of a novel calcium alginate edible film with preservative potential for improved lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of meat products. Chevon sausages were used as a model system and were aerobically packaged in the edible films incorporated with A. racemosus viz. T0 (0.0%), T1 (1.0%) and T2 (2.0%) and were stored under refrigerated (4 ± 1 °C) conditions. Products packaged in T1 and T2 edible films exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) lower values for TBARS (mg malonaldehyde/kg), microbial counts (cfu/g) and FFA (% oleic acid) indicating the bioactive properties of the developed films. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher sensory scores were recorded for the products packaged in T1 and T2 films. A. racemosus added antioxidant and antimicrobial properties to the developed films which improved the lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of the model meat product.
Modeling the effect of oregano essential oil on shelf-life extension of vacuum-packed cooked sliced ham Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 Natielle Maria Costa Menezes, Wiaslan Figueiredo Martins, Daniel Angelo Longhi, Gláucia Maria Falcão de Aragão
The present study modeled the effect of oregano essential oil, as an antimicrobial agent, on the shelf-life of vacuum-packed cooked sliced ham, based on the growth of lactic acid bacteria natural microbiota under isothermal conditions. The bacterial growth in ham without oregano essential oil (control) and with 0.4% oregano essential oil (v/w) was evaluated at five different temperatures (6, 12, 15, 20 and 25 °C). Baranyi and Roberts, and modified Gompertz primary models were fitted to microbial growth curves. Square Root and Exponential secondary models were fitted to μmax parameter data. The addition of oregano essential oil increased lag phase, decreased growth rates and extended shelf-life of ham for all temperatures (at 6 °C extended for, at least, 30 days when compared to control). Statistical indexes showed that Baranyi and Roberts, and Exponential were the primary and secondary models, respectively, that better fit to the data. Thus, oregano essential oil showed a good antimicrobial effect and extended the ham shelf-life.
Effects of aging/freezing sequence and freezing rate on meat quality and oxidative stability of pork loins Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 Hyun-Wook Kim, Ji-Han Kim, Jin-Kyu Seo, Derico Setyabrata, Yuan H. Brad Kim
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aging/freezing sequence and freezing rate on quality attributes and oxidative stability of frozen/thawed pork loins (M. longissimus lumborum, n = 6). Six treatments were prepared by combining 3 aging/freezing sequences (FT, freezing/thawing only; AFT, aging prior to freezing/thawing; and FTA, freezing/thawing and aging) with 2 freezing rates (slow- and fast-freezing). The lowest purge/thaw loss and drip loss were found for AFT, in which fast-freezing reduced total exudate loss (P < 0.05). Aging combination (AFT/FTA) decreased shear force of frozen/thawed pork loins, and FTA with slow-freezing caused the lowest shear force (P < 0.05). However, aging combination regardless of the sequence accelerated discoloration and lipid/protein oxidation during display (P < 0.05). This study suggests that aging prior to freezing coupled with fast-freezing could be an effective way to minimize quality defects of frozen/thawed only meat, particularly water-holding capacity and tenderness.
The effects of including corn silage, corn stalk silage, and corn grain in finishing ration of beef steers on meat quality and oxidative stability Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 Liwen He, Hao Wu, Guogen Wang, Qingxiang Meng, Zhenming Zhou
The effect of cattle feed on beef quality and oxidative stability was investigated. A corn silage (CS)-based finishing diet was compared with the diets based on corn stalk silage (SS) or corn stalk silage combined with its expected corn grain (SSC), containing a ratio of stalk to grain of corn plant of 1.5:1. Replacing CS with SS in the finishing diet had no effect on the proximate nutrients, cholesterol content, fatty acids profile, pH, color, water holding capacity, tenderness, texture profile, or oxidative stability of beef muscle. Compared to the CS diet and SS diet, cattle fed SSC diet showed an inferior antioxidant capacity, lower SOD and higher MDA concentrations in blood. SSC diet fed cattle also showed higher MDA and protein carbonyl concentrations in beef muscle indicating increased oxidation damage, and potentially resulting in a greater drip loss of the beef muscle. Corn silage can be replaced in the finishing feed of beef cattle with corn stalk silage without any negative effects on measures of beef quality.
Prolonging shelf life of lamb cutlets packed under high-oxygen modified atmosphere by spraying essential oils from North-African plants Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 Aida Lahmar, David Morcuende, María-Jesús Andrade, Leila Chekir-Ghedira, Mario Estévez
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of sprayable essential oils for counteracting the pro-oxidant environment created during retail display of lamb cutlets packed under high-oxygen atmosphere. North-African essential oils from Pituranthos chloranthus (PC) and Teucrium ramosissimum (TR) were applied by spraying on the surface of whole-lamb cutlets. The bio-preservative treatment led to a significant increase of their shelf life in terms protection against lipid and protein oxidative deterioration, discoloration of lean and bone and microbiological stability during 12 days of chilled storage. Furthermore, the addition of TR and PC on the surface of lamb cutlets significantly improved their appearance, increasing hence the purchase intention and consumers' preferences towards treated retailed products. This study shows that the application of a high-oxygen active packaging in combination with natural sprayable extracts is a feasible and effective strategy for protecting whole-meat muscle foods against oxidation and microbial deterioration.
The effect of dietary energy content on quality characteristics of Boer goat meat Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 T.S. Brand, D.A. Van Der Merwe, L.C. Hoffman, G. Geldenhuys
The palatability and chemical composition of Longissimus lumborum muscles from 24 Boer goat castrates (eight goats per treatment), finished on diets varying in energy content (9.7, 10.2 and 10.6 MJ ME/kg feed), were evaluated by a trained sensory panel on a line scale ranging from low to high intensity for aroma, flavour and texture attributes. Physical measurements as well as proximate analysis were performed for each sample. No differences (P > 0.05) were found between the dietary treatments for any of the attributes analysed. Lamb flavour and aroma were the most prominent attributes, while only low levels of goat-like flavours were detected. Juiciness and tenderness had a strong correlation (r = 0.864) and were rated to be moderate. The findings suggest that energy density of feedlot diets can be varied to still produce chevon with uniform meat quality characteristics.
Impact of whey protein coating incorporated with Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus on sliced ham properties Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 Joana Odila Pereira, José Soares, Maria J.P. Monteiro, Ana Gomes, Manuela Pintado
Edible coatings/films with functional ingredients may be a solution to consumers' demands for high-quality food products and an extended shelf-life. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficiency of edible coatings incorporated with probiotics on sliced ham preservation. Coatings was developed based on whey protein isolates with incorporation of Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12® or Lactobacillus casei-01. The physicochemical analyses showed that coating decreased water and weight loss on the ham. Furthermore, color analysis showed that coated sliced ham, exhibited no color change, comparatively to uncoated slices. The edible coatings incorporating the probiotic strains inhibited detectable growth of Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts/molds, at least, for 45 days of storage at 4 °C. The sensory evaluation demonstrated that there was a preference for the sliced coated ham. Probiotic bacteria viable cell numbers were maintained at ca. 108 CFU/g throughout storage time, enabling the slice of ham to act as a suitable carrier for the beneficial bacteria.
Salt content and minimum acceptable levels in whole-muscle cured meat products Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Gonzalo Delgado-Pando, Estelle Fischer, Paul Allen, Joe P. Kerry, Maurice G. O'Sullivan, Ruth M. Hamill
Reported salt levels in whole-muscle cured meat products differ substantially within and among European countries, providing substantial scope for salt reduction across this sector. The objective of this study was to identify the minimum acceptable salt levels in typical whole-muscle cured products in terms of physicochemical, microbial and sensorial properties. Salt levels in a small selection of commercial Irish meat products were determined to establish a baseline for reduction. Subsequently, eight different back bacon rasher and cooked ham products were produced with varying levels of salt: 2.9%, 2.5%, 2% and 1.5% for bacon, and 2%, 1.6%, 1.0% and 0.8% for ham. Salt reduction produced products with significantly harder texture and higher microbial counts, with no difference in the colour and affecting the sensory properties. Nonetheless, salt reduction proved to be feasible to levels of 34% and 19% in bacon and ham products, respectively, compared to baseline.
Correlated responses to selection for intramuscular fat in several muscles in rabbits Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Marina Martínez-Álvaro, Pilar Hernández, Saif Agha, Agustín Blasco
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of six generations of selection for intramuscular fat (IMF) in muscle Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) at 9 wk. in IMF and fatty acid (FA) composition of muscles with diverse metabolic profile in rabbits. Direct response to selection was 0.33 g of IMF/ 100 g of LTL, around 0.4 SD per generation. A positive correlated response was observed in IMF of Biceps femoris, Supraspinatus and Semimembranosus proprius muscles at 9 wk., representing around 0.2 SD of the trait per generation. Selection affected similarly the FA composition of all muscles at 9 wk., high-IMF line showing greater monounsaturated but lower polyunsaturated FA percentages than low-IMF line, whereas no differences were observed for saturated FA. Traits were also measured at 13 wk. and correlated responses were in the same direction. Our results suggest a common genetic background for IMF and FA composition in muscles with different metabolic profile in rabbits.
Zinc-protoporphyrin content in commercial Parma hams is affected by proteolysis index and marbling Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Ricard Bou, Mar Llauger, Jacint Arnau, Elena Fulladosa
The contents of zinc-protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and heme in twenty-four sliced Parma hams made without the addition of curing agents were determined. Expressed on a dry weight basis, ZnPP averaged 45 mg/kg on a dry matter basis and ranged from 23 to 85 mg/kg. The heme content averaged 37 mg/kg on a dry matter basis and ranged from 17 to 73 mg/kg. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression analyses were carried out to examine the existing correlations between these pigments and various physicochemical parameters in the final product. PCA showed the existence of associations between ZnPP, sensory redness and salt content. PLS suggests that the conversion of ZnPP from heme is facilitated in those hams with a higher proteolysis index and higher marbling.
Tenderness classification of fresh broiler breast fillets using visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imaging Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 Hongzhe Jiang, Seung-Chul Yoon, Hong Zhuang, Wei Wang, Kurt C. Lawrence, Yi Yang
The aim of this study was to classify and visualize tenderness of intact fresh broiler breast fillets using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique. A total of 75 chicken fillets were scanned by HSI system of 400–1000 nm in reflectance mode. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) value was used as reference tenderness indicator and fillets were grouped into least, moderately and very tender categories accordingly. To extract additional image textural features, principal component analysis (PCA) transform of images were conducted and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) analysis was implemented in region of interests (ROIs) on first three PC score images. Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) or radial basis function-support vector machine (RBF-SVM) was developed for predicting tenderness based on full wavelengths (CCR = 0.92), selected wavelengths (CCR = 0.84), textural or combined data (CCR = 0.88). Classification maps were created by pixels prediction in images and breast fillet tenderness was readily discernible. Overall, HSI technique is a promising methodology for predicting tenderness of intact fresh broiler breast meat.
Effect of deboning time on the growth of Salmonella, E. coli, aerobic, and lactic acid bacteria during beef sausage processing and storage Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-17 Anuraj T. Sukumaran, Alexander J. Holtcamp, April K. Englishbey, Yan L. Campbell, Taejo Kim, Mark W. Schilling, Thu T.N. Dinh
The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of deboning time, three steps of sausage processing (grinding, salting, and batter formulation), and storage time (of raw materials and cooked sausage) on the growth (log CFU/g) of aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and inoculated Salmonella and E. coli. Beef deboning time did not influence bacterial counts (P ≥ 0.138). However, salting of raw ground beef resulted in a 0.4-log reduction in both aerobic plate count (APC) and Salmonella (P ≤ 0.001). Lactic acid bacteria were increased from non-detectable concentration (0.54 log) on d 0 to 3.8 log on d 120 of vacuum storage (P ≤ 0.019). Salmonella counts were increased (P < 0.001) over storage time (3.2 to 3.3 log CFU/g from d 0 to 10). Results indicated that salting and batter formulation had a greater impact on bacterial counts than rigor state of raw beef.
Feasibility of addition of polyphenol-rich vegetable extracts in whole cooked products: Benefits and drawbacks Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-12 Giampiero Barbieri, Monica Bergamaschi, Marco Franceschini, Germana Barbieri
Pork loins were cooked with 5 different polyphenol-rich vegetable extracts: Polygonum cuspidatum, oregano extract, rosemary extract, white grape extract and green tea extract. These extracts were added to brine, taking into account their solubility, for subsequent injection and cooking. Loins with added vegetable extracts exhibited higher antioxidant effect compared to controls, as shown by the oxidized/reduced ascorbate ratio, the potential of reduction and the fat oxidation rate. However, some effects were observed in terms of taste, colour changes and, in some cases (green tea and oregano), presence of blots on meat slices. Poor diffusion of the brine through the muscle fibres and insolubility of the extracts in localized spots are weaknesses of these products. A significant amount of polyphenols was lost or destroyed during the cooking phase of the process. Sensory tests show that only Polygonum cuspidatum and rosemary extract result in an acceptable product. In this case the contribution of active molecules in the final product is rather limited.
Shelf life of meat from Boer-Saanen goats fed diets supplemented with vitamin E Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-12 Ana Paula S. Possamai, Claudete R. Alcalde, Andresa C. Feihrmann, Ana Cássia S. Possamai, Robson M. Rossi, Bruno Lala, Stefania C. Claudino-Silva, Francisco de Assis F. Macedo
This work aims at evaluating shelf life of meat from Boer-Saanen cross goats fed on diets containing vitamin E. Thirty-five feedlot-fed goats with an initial body weight of 21.6 ± 2.8 kg were subjected to four treatments in a completely randomized design: a control treatment with vitamin E plus others containing 50, 150, and 450 mg dl-α-tocopherol acetate/kg DM. Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle samples were stored at temperatures between 4 and 6 °C during 15 days, and evaluated for lipid peroxidation using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method and for visual acceptance by consumers by different survival analysis techniques. The addition, vitamin E in diets influenced shelf life of LL muscle, indicating longer meat preservation as the levels of the vitamin in diet increased, as the results obtained in chemical and subjective visual assessments showed. TBARS analysis showed to be more accurate in predicting shelf life of meat than subjective visual assessment by consumers, which reached a saturation threshold of 2 mg malonaldehyde/kg of meat earlier at all tested levels of vitamin E inclusion.
Effect of ultraviolet light, organic acids, and bacteriophage on Salmonella populations in ground beef Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Y. Yeh, F.H. de Moura, K. Van Den Broek, A.S. de Mello
This study investigated individual and combined effects of organic acids, bacteriophages, and ultraviolet light interventions on Salmonella populations in ground beef. Beef trim was inoculated with four Salmonella strains to result in a contamination level of 3.5 log CFU/g after grinding. Lactic (LA) and peroxyacetic (PAA) acids, bacteriophages (S16 and FO1a) (BA), and ultraviolet light (UV) were applied on fresh trim prior to grinding. Applications of individual or combined organic acids did not significantly decrease Salmonella populations in ground beef. Individual applications of BA and UV light decreased approximately 1 log CFU/g (P < 0.05). Combined applications of BA and UV provided an optimal decrease of 2 log CFU/g (P < 0.05). Organic acid applications do not reduce Salmonella populations in ground beef when applied on trim prior to grinding. Combined applications of UV and BA may be used in industry settings to improve Salmonella control in ground beef.
Identification of ground meat species using near-infrared spectroscopy and class modeling techniques – Aspects of optimization and validation using a one-class classification model Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 L. Pieszczek, H. Czarnik-Matusewicz, M. Daszykowski
Chemometric methods permit the construction of classifiers that effectively assist in monitoring safety, quality and authenticity of meat based on the near-infrared (NIR) spectral fingerprints. Discriminant techniques are often considered in multivariate quality control. However, when the authenticity of meat products is the primary concern, they often lead to an incorrect recognition of new samples. The performances of two class modeling techniques (CMT) in order to recognize meat sample species based on their NIR spectra was compared – a one-class classifier variant of the partial least squares method (OCPLS) and the soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). Based on obtained sensitivity and specificity values, OCPLS and SIMCA can be considered as an effective CMT for the classification of complex natural samples such as studied meat samples (with a relatively large variability). Moreover, particular attention was paid to the optimization and validation of a one-class classification model.
Nutritional value and potential chemical food safety hazards of selected Polish sausages as influenced by their traditionality Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Michał Halagarda, Władysław Kędzior, Ewa Pyrzyńska
Traditional food products have been regaining consumer interest worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate the differences in nutritional value of traditional and conventional Polish sausages and to determine potential chemical hazards connected with these products. The research material consisted of 5 varieties of registered traditional sausages and 4 varieties of conventional sausages. The nutritional value was identified based on selected indicators: protein, fat, NaCl, total ash, water, Feder's number, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Zn, Cr, Cu; whereas the chemical food safety - based on: nitrates and nitrites, total and added phosphorus, Cd, Pb. The results of this study show that traditional sausages have higher content of protein, zinc, magnesium and potassium as well as lower concentrations of calcium, water and total ash, plus lower water to protein ratio in comparison to conventional counterparts. Polyphosphates are not used in the production of traditional sausages and the amounts of added nitrites are at low levels.
Optimum hexametaphosphate concentration to inhibit efflorescence formation in dry fermented sausages Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Felix H. Walz, Monika Gibis, Maren Fritz, Kurt Herrmann, Jörg Hinrichs, Jochen Weiss
Assessment of the quality of refrigerated and frozen pork by multivariate exploratory techniques Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 Flávia Beatriz Custódio, Milton C. Vasconcelos-Neto, Karine H. Theodoro, Renan Campos Chisté, Maria Beatriz A. Gloria
Pork loin and leg were evaluated 24 h after slaughter and during refrigerated (5 °C) and frozen storage for microbial counts, pH, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and bioactive amines. Spermine was the prevalent amine in fresh pork loin and leg, followed by spermidine and agmatine. During refrigerated storage, pH, TVB-N, mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts increased and no changes (p < 0.05) were observed on polyamines; however putrescine, cadaverine and histamine were produced and accumulated throughout storage. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) for all parameters indicated a shelf life of 8 days for both cuts, which was also coherent with safety regarding histamine levels. During frozen storage, there was no change on amines and pH, TVB-N decreased, and TBARS increased. None biogenic amine was produced. PCA and HCA were not able to classify frozen pork based on the analyzed parameters; however, a shelf life of 90 days was suggested for the frozen cuts based on lipid oxidation.
Association of CAST2, HSP90AA1, DNAJA1 and HSPB1 genes with meat tenderness in Nellore cattle Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-05 Jessica Moraes Malheiros, Cruz Elena Enríquez-Valencia, Bruno Oliveira da Silva Duran, Tassiana Gutierrez de Paula, Rogério Abdallah Curi, Josineudson Augusto I.I. de Vasconcelos Silva, Maeli Dal-Pai-Silva, Henrique Nunes de Oliveira, Luis Artur Loyola Chardulo
The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of expression of CAPN1, CAPN2, CAST, HSP90AA1, DNAJA1 and HSPB1 genes with meat tenderness in Nellore cattle. Three experimental groups were selected by shear force (SF): moderately tender (SF = 34.3 ± 5.8 N), moderately tough (SF = 56.8 ± 7.8 N), and very tough meat (SF = 80.4 ± 15 N). Gene expression was evaluated by real-time PCR. Expression of the CAPN1, CAPN2, CAST and CAST1 genes did not differ between groups. Expression of the CAST2 was up-regulated (P < 0.05) in the moderately tough and very tough meat groups. Down-regulation of the HSP90AA1, DNAJA1 and HSPB1 genes (P < 0.05) was observed in the moderately tender meat group. The present results suggest that meat tenderness in Nellore cattle does not directly depend on the expression of the CAPN1 and CAPN2 genes, but is associated with the expression of other genes such as CAST2, HSP90AA1, DNAJA1 and HSPB1.
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