Effect of deboning time on the growth of Salmonella, E. coli, aerobic, and lactic acid bacteria during beef sausage processing and storage Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-17 Anuraj T. Sukumaran, Alexander J. Holtcamp, April K. Englishbey, Yan L. Campbell, Taejo Kim, Mark W. Schilling, Thu T.N. Dinh
The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of deboning time, three steps of sausage processing (grinding, salting, and batter formulation), and storage time (of raw materials and cooked sausage) on the growth (log CFU/g) of aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and inoculated Salmonella and E. coli. Beef deboning time did not influence bacterial counts (P ≥ 0.138). However, salting of raw ground beef resulted in a 0.4-log reduction in both aerobic plate count (APC) and Salmonella (P ≤ 0.001). Lactic acid bacteria were increased from non-detectable concentration (0.54 log) on d 0 to 3.8 log on d 120 of vacuum storage (P ≤ 0.019). Salmonella counts were increased (P < 0.001) over storage time (3.2 to 3.3 log CFU/g from d 0 to 10). Results indicated that salting and batter formulation had a greater impact on bacterial counts than rigor state of raw beef.
Feasibility of addition of polyphenol-rich vegetable extracts in whole cooked products: Benefits and drawbacks Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-12 Giampiero Barbieri, Monica Bergamaschi, Marco Franceschini, Germana Barbieri
Pork loins were cooked with 5 different polyphenol-rich vegetable extracts: Polygonum cuspidatum, oregano extract, rosemary extract, white grape extract and green tea extract. These extracts were added to brine, taking into account their solubility, for subsequent injection and cooking. Loins with added vegetable extracts exhibited higher antioxidant effect compared to controls, as shown by the oxidized/reduced ascorbate ratio, the potential of reduction and the fat oxidation rate. However, some effects were observed in terms of taste, colour changes and, in some cases (green tea and oregano), presence of blots on meat slices. Poor diffusion of the brine through the muscle fibres and insolubility of the extracts in localized spots are weaknesses of these products. A significant amount of polyphenols was lost or destroyed during the cooking phase of the process. Sensory tests show that only Polygonum cuspidatum and rosemary extract result in an acceptable product. In this case the contribution of active molecules in the final product is rather limited.
Shelf life of meat from Boer-Saanen goats fed diets supplemented with vitamin E Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-12 Ana Paula S. Possamai, Claudete R. Alcalde, Andresa C. Feihrmann, Ana Cássia S. Possamai, Robson M. Rossi, Bruno Lala, Stefania C. Claudino-Silva, Francisco de Assis F. Macedo
This work aims at evaluating shelf life of meat from Boer-Saanen cross goats fed on diets containing vitamin E. Thirty-five feedlot-fed goats with an initial body weight of 21.6 ± 2.8 kg were subjected to four treatments in a completely randomized design: a control treatment with vitamin E plus others containing 50, 150, and 450 mg dl-α-tocopherol acetate/kg DM. Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle samples were stored at temperatures between 4 and 6 °C during 15 days, and evaluated for lipid peroxidation using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method and for visual acceptance by consumers by different survival analysis techniques. The addition, vitamin E in diets influenced shelf life of LL muscle, indicating longer meat preservation as the levels of the vitamin in diet increased, as the results obtained in chemical and subjective visual assessments showed. TBARS analysis showed to be more accurate in predicting shelf life of meat than subjective visual assessment by consumers, which reached a saturation threshold of 2 mg malonaldehyde/kg of meat earlier at all tested levels of vitamin E inclusion.
Effect of ultraviolet light, organic acids, and bacteriophage on Salmonella populations in ground beef Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Y. Yeh, F.H. de Moura, K. Van Den Broek, A.S. de Mello
This study investigated individual and combined effects of organic acids, bacteriophages, and ultraviolet light interventions on Salmonella populations in ground beef. Beef trim was inoculated with four Salmonella strains to result in a contamination level of 3.5 log CFU/g after grinding. Lactic (LA) and peroxyacetic (PAA) acids, bacteriophages (S16 and FO1a) (BA), and ultraviolet light (UV) were applied on fresh trim prior to grinding. Applications of individual or combined organic acids did not significantly decrease Salmonella populations in ground beef. Individual applications of BA and UV light decreased approximately 1 log CFU/g (P < 0.05). Combined applications of BA and UV provided an optimal decrease of 2 log CFU/g (P < 0.05). Organic acid applications do not reduce Salmonella populations in ground beef when applied on trim prior to grinding. Combined applications of UV and BA may be used in industry settings to improve Salmonella control in ground beef.
Identification of ground meat species using near-infrared spectroscopy and class modeling techniques – Aspects of optimization and validation using a one-class classification model Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 L. Pieszczek, H. Czarnik-Matusewicz, M. Daszykowski
Chemometric methods permit the construction of classifiers that effectively assist in monitoring safety, quality and authenticity of meat based on the near-infrared (NIR) spectral fingerprints. Discriminant techniques are often considered in multivariate quality control. However, when the authenticity of meat products is the primary concern, they often lead to an incorrect recognition of new samples. The performances of two class modeling techniques (CMT) in order to recognize meat sample species based on their NIR spectra was compared – a one-class classifier variant of the partial least squares method (OCPLS) and the soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). Based on obtained sensitivity and specificity values, OCPLS and SIMCA can be considered as an effective CMT for the classification of complex natural samples such as studied meat samples (with a relatively large variability). Moreover, particular attention was paid to the optimization and validation of a one-class classification model.
Nutritional value and potential chemical food safety hazards of selected Polish sausages as influenced by their traditionality Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Michał Halagarda, Władysław Kędzior, Ewa Pyrzyńska
Traditional food products have been regaining consumer interest worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate the differences in nutritional value of traditional and conventional Polish sausages and to determine potential chemical hazards connected with these products. The research material consisted of 5 varieties of registered traditional sausages and 4 varieties of conventional sausages. The nutritional value was identified based on selected indicators: protein, fat, NaCl, total ash, water, Feder's number, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Zn, Cr, Cu; whereas the chemical food safety - based on: nitrates and nitrites, total and added phosphorus, Cd, Pb. The results of this study show that traditional sausages have higher content of protein, zinc, magnesium and potassium as well as lower concentrations of calcium, water and total ash, plus lower water to protein ratio in comparison to conventional counterparts. Polyphosphates are not used in the production of traditional sausages and the amounts of added nitrites are at low levels.
Optimum hexametaphosphate concentration to inhibit efflorescence formation in dry fermented sausages Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Felix H. Walz, Monika Gibis, Maren Fritz, Kurt Herrmann, Jörg Hinrichs, Jochen Weiss
Assessment of the quality of refrigerated and frozen pork by multivariate exploratory techniques Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 Flávia Beatriz Custódio, Milton C. Vasconcelos-Neto, Karine H. Theodoro, Renan Campos Chisté, Maria Beatriz A. Gloria
Pork loin and leg were evaluated 24 h after slaughter and during refrigerated (5 °C) and frozen storage for microbial counts, pH, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and bioactive amines. Spermine was the prevalent amine in fresh pork loin and leg, followed by spermidine and agmatine. During refrigerated storage, pH, TVB-N, mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts increased and no changes (p < 0.05) were observed on polyamines; however putrescine, cadaverine and histamine were produced and accumulated throughout storage. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) for all parameters indicated a shelf life of 8 days for both cuts, which was also coherent with safety regarding histamine levels. During frozen storage, there was no change on amines and pH, TVB-N decreased, and TBARS increased. None biogenic amine was produced. PCA and HCA were not able to classify frozen pork based on the analyzed parameters; however, a shelf life of 90 days was suggested for the frozen cuts based on lipid oxidation.
Association of CAST2, HSP90AA1, DNAJA1 and HSPB1 genes with meat tenderness in Nellore cattle Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-05 Jessica Moraes Malheiros, Cruz Elena Enríquez-Valencia, Bruno Oliveira da Silva Duran, Tassiana Gutierrez de Paula, Rogério Abdallah Curi, Josineudson Augusto I.I. de Vasconcelos Silva, Maeli Dal-Pai-Silva, Henrique Nunes de Oliveira, Luis Artur Loyola Chardulo
The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of expression of CAPN1, CAPN2, CAST, HSP90AA1, DNAJA1 and HSPB1 genes with meat tenderness in Nellore cattle. Three experimental groups were selected by shear force (SF): moderately tender (SF = 34.3 ± 5.8 N), moderately tough (SF = 56.8 ± 7.8 N), and very tough meat (SF = 80.4 ± 15 N). Gene expression was evaluated by real-time PCR. Expression of the CAPN1, CAPN2, CAST and CAST1 genes did not differ between groups. Expression of the CAST2 was up-regulated (P < 0.05) in the moderately tough and very tough meat groups. Down-regulation of the HSP90AA1, DNAJA1 and HSPB1 genes (P < 0.05) was observed in the moderately tender meat group. The present results suggest that meat tenderness in Nellore cattle does not directly depend on the expression of the CAPN1 and CAPN2 genes, but is associated with the expression of other genes such as CAST2, HSP90AA1, DNAJA1 and HSPB1.
Preliminary investigation of the use of Raman spectroscopy to predict meat and eating quality traits of beef loins Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-03 Stephanie M. Fowler, Heinar Schmidt, Remy van de Ven, David L. Hopkins
A preliminary investigation was conducted to determine the potential for a handheld Raman spectroscopic device to predict sensory traits determined by an untrained consumer panel. Measurement of 45 beef loins (M. longissimus lumborum) was conducted using a 671 nm handheld Raman spectroscopic device. Samples were then held frozen until testing by an untrained sensory panel. Sections were also excised to determine shear force values and other indicators of meat quality. Derived models suggest that the Raman spectroscopic device can predict juiciness and tenderness, with correlations between predicted and observed values (ρ) of 0.42 and 0.47, respectively. Spectra indicated that these predictions were characterised by the fatty acid concentration, the hydrophobicity of proteins and the orientation of collagen. However, future research is required to determine the repeatability and robustness of these models on a larger independent data set.
Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of caprine muscle with high and low meat quality Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2018-01-02 Manshun Liu, Yanchao Wei, Xin Li, Siew Young Quek, Jing Zhao, Huazhen Zhong, Dequan Zhang, Yongfeng Liu
During the conversion of muscle to meat, protein phosphorylation can regulate various biological processes that have important effects on meat quality. To investigate the phosphorylation pattern of protein on rigor mortis, goat longissimus thoracis and external intercostals were classified into two groups (high quality and low quality), and meat quality was evaluated according to meat quality attributes (Warner-Bratzler shear force, Color, pH and drip loss). A quantitative mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic study was conducted to analyze the caprine muscle at 12 h postmortem applying the TiO2-SIMAC-HILIC (TiSH) phosphopeptide enrichment strategy. A total of 2125 phosphopeptides were identified from 750 phosphoproteins. Among them, 96 proteins had differed in phosphorylation levels. The majority of these proteins are involved in glucose metabolism and muscle contraction. The differential phosphorylation level of proteins (PFK, MYL2 and HSP27) in two groups may be the crucial factors of regulating muscle rigor mortis. This study provides a comprehensive view for the phosphorylation status of caprine muscle at rigor mortis, it also gives a better understanding of the regulation of protein phosphorylation on various biological processes that affect the final meat quality attributes.
Molecular discrimination of New Zealand sourced meat spoilage associated psychrotolerant Clostridium species by ARDRA and its comparison with 16s RNA gene sequencing Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Gale Brightwell, Kylie Marree Horváth
ARDRA analysis was carried out on 90 New Zealand psychrotolerant Clostridium isolates derived from three meat production animal types and their environments. The isolates included species associated with spoilage: C. gasigenes, C. algidicarnis, C. tagluense, C. frigidicarnis and C. estertheticum. The isolates fell into 14 distinct ARDRA Groups, with 13 previously characterised meat spoilage-associated isolates shared between 6 of the 14 groups. The accuracy of ARDRA profiling analysis was supported by sequencing the 16s rRNA gene from isolates, including the representative spoilage associated Clostridium species and was consistent with previous phylogenetic relationships and classical cultural characterisation. The ARDRA methodology described in this study successfully discriminated between the different spoilage-associated species of clostridia as well as other pyschrotolerant Clostridium species associated with meat production. This discriminatory molecular screen will aid future source attribution studies as well as enable meat processors to identify and validate control measures for clostridia contamination, thus gaining greater efficacy in controlling meat spoilage caused by psychrotolerant clostridia.
Proteome changes of beef in nellore cattle with different genotypes for tenderness Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Alessandra F. Rosa, Cristina T. Moncau, Mirele D. Poleti, Leydiana D. Fonseca, Julio C.C. Balieiro, Saulo L.E. Silva, Joanir P. Eler
In the present study, 155 Nellore cattle were genotyped for the CAPN4751 and UOGCAST polymorphisms and phenotyped for shear force (SF) at 1, 7 and 14 days aging. The effects of different genotypic combinations were evaluated on the Longissimus muscle proteomic profile using 2DE and mass spectrometry. A significant association was found between genotypes for UOGCAST and CAPN4751 and meat tenderness. The CC genotype for both markers was favorable for lesser shear force than TT. A total of 40 spots showed significant differential expression profiles (P < 0.05), of which eight had a main effect for the CAPN4751 marker, 11 for UOGCAST, two for both markers, and 19 had interactions between markers, including myosin (MYL1, MYL2, MYLPF and MYL6B), actin (ACTA1 and CAPZβ), troponin (TNNT1 and TNNT3) and heat shock proteins (HSPB6, HSPB1 and HSP70-2). The results demonstrated that UOGCAST and CAPN4751 genotypes led to variability on the expression of proteins that are involved in muscle metabolism, and consequently affect meat tenderness.
Cooking method effect on Warner-Bratzler shear force of different beef muscles Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-12-12 Romina Fabre, Gabriela Dalzotto, Flavia Perlo, Patricia Bonato, Gustavo Teira, Osvaldo Tisocco
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oven, griddle plate and water bath cooking on the WBSF values and % cooking loss for longissimus thoracis (LT), semitendinosus (ST), semimenbranosus (SM) and biceps femoris (BF), of Aberdeen-Angus steers. Similar effect of cooking methods on WBSF values were observed for LT, SM and BF steaks. The highest values were observed in oven whereas the lowest were obtained in griddle plate. For ST steaks significant differences of WBSF values were obtained between oven (with the highest value) and the other two methods. Moreover, the cooking methods studied presented differences in the coefficients of variation of WBSF values, which also were different according to the type of muscle for each cooking method. Oven cooking resulted in the highest cooking losses in all muscles.
Pre-slaughter cattle welfare indicators for use in commercial abattoirs with voluntary monitoring systems: A systematic review ☆ Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-12-08 Natyieli Losada-Espinosa, Morris Villarroel, Gustavo A. María, Genaro C. Miranda-de la Lama
Animal welfare has become an important subject of public, economic and political concern, leading to the need to validate indicators that are feasible to use at abattoirs. A systematic review was carried out, which identified 72 cattle welfare indicators (CWI) that were classified into four categories (physiological, morphometric, behavioral and meat quality). Their validity and feasibility for use in abattoirs were evaluated as potential measures of cattle welfare during transportation to the abattoir and at the abattoir itself. Several highly valid indicators were identified that are useful to assess welfare at abattoirs, including body condition score, human-animal interactions, vocalizations, falling, carcass bruising, and meat pH. In addition, some intermediate valid indicators are useful and should be investigated further. Information along the food chain could be used systematically to provide a basis for a more-risk-based meat inspection. An integrated system based on the use of key indicators defined for each inspection step with the setting of alarm thresholds could be implemented.
Identification of offal adulteration in beef by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-12-06 Hasan Murat Velioglu, Banu Sezer, Gonca Bilge, Süleyman Efe Baytur, Ismail Hakki Boyaci
Minced meat is the major ingredient in sausages, beef burgers, and similar products; and thus it is the main product subjected to adulteration with meat offal. Determination of this kind of meat adulteration is crucial due to religious, economic and ethical concerns. The aim of the present study is to discriminate the beef meat and offal samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). To this end, LIBS and multivariate data analysis were used to discriminate pure beef and offal samples qualitatively and to determine the offal mixture adulteration quantitatively. In this analysis, meat samples were frozen and LIBS analysis were performed. The results indicate that by using principal component analysis (PCA), discrimination of pure offal and offal mixture adulterated beef samples can be achieved successfully. Besides, adulteration ratio can be determined using partial least square analysis method (PLS) with 0.947 coefficient of determination (R2) and 3.8% of limit of detection (LOD) values for offal mixture adulterated beef samples.
Whole cottonseed, vitamin E and finishing period affect the fatty acid profile and sensory traits of meat products from Nellore cattle Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-12-05 Adrielle M. Ferrinho, Renata T. Nassu, Noelia Aldai, Leire Bravo-Lamas, Maísa L.N. Furlan, Beatriz M. Toda, Bruno L. Utembergue, Romulo G. Rezende, Lenise F. Mueller, Joyce J.M. Furlan, Mariana Zanata, Fernando Baldi, Angélica S.C. Pereira
This study investigated how different finishing periods and the inclusion of whole cottonseed and vitamin E in diets fed to feedlot cattle affect meat lipid composition and sensory traits of fresh beef and hamburgers. Fifty-four Nellore bulls were fed 3 different diets (C: control; WCS: 30% whole cottonseed; WCSE: 30% whole cottonseed plus vitamin E) during finishing periods of 83, 104, and 111 days. The inclusion of cottonseed did not affect saturated fatty acid levels (SFA), but increased the levels of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in meat. The SFA levels and n-6/n-3 ratio increased over the length of finishing period. In general, meat products from animals fed the WCS and WCSE diets were more tender and juicier (P < 0.05); however, an off-flavor was detected by the panelists (P < 0.05). The sensory difference test results showed that the WCS hamburger flavor was not significantly different for the studied lengths of finishing period. Addition of 30% DM cottonseed in diets for cattle did not promote changes likely to affect human health, and it provided a more tender and juiciness meat, however differences in the off flavor were perceived only by panelist.
Differentiation of dry-cured hams from different processing methods by means of volatile compounds, physico-chemical and sensory analysis Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-12-05 Sandra Petričević, Nives Marušić Radovčić, Katarina Lukić, Eddy Listeš, Helga Medić
The aim of this study was to characterize dry-cured hams from four different processing methods (differences in primary leg treatment, salting and smoking phase). Volatile compounds were isolated by using headspace-solid phase microextraction and analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Samples were also evaluated by sensory and physico-chemical characteristics (moisture, protein, fat and NaCl content, aw, colour). 149 volatile compounds of dry-cured hams were identified and 15 of them were quantified. Identified volatile compounds belonged to several classes of chemical: 25 aldehydes, 18 phenols, 12 alcohols, 16 terpenes, 27 aromatic hydrocarbons, 18 aliphatic hydrocarbons, 17 ketones, 9 esters and 7 acids. Most abundant volatiles in ham samples were aldehydes (34.46–49.78%). Principal component analysis showed a good separation among groups. Smoked dry-cured hams showed a higher content of phenols, aromatic hydrocarbons, and acids and were characterized by smoky aroma, while non-smoked dry-cured hams showed higher content of terpenes, ketones, alcohols, esters, aliphatic hydrocarbons and were characterized with spicy aroma.
Thiamine accumulation and thiamine triphosphate decline occur in parallel with ATP exhaustion during postmortem aging of pork muscles Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-12-02 S. Muroya, M. Oe, K. Ojima
We aimed to clarify the mechanisms affecting postmortem thiamine and its phosphoester contents in major edible pork muscles, namely the longissimus lumborum (LL) in addition to vastus intermedius (VI). Metabolomic analysis by capillary electrophoresis-time of flight mass spectrometry revealed that the level of thiamine triphosphate (ThTP), approximately 1.8-fold higher in LL than in VI muscle at 0 h postmortem, declined in the first 24 h, resulting in an undetectable level at 168 h postmortem in both muscles. In contrast, the thiamine content in both muscles increased after 24 h postmortem during the aging process. The thiamine accumulation and ThTP decline progressed in parallel with a drastic reduction of the ATP level. The intermuscular differences in pH at 24 h, and expression of thiamine transporter and thiamine pyrophosphokinase might result in delayed thiamine generation in LL. These results suggest that postmortem ATP exhaustion forced ThTP hydrolysis and further depyrophosphorylation of thiamine diphosphate in the porcine muscles, which resulted in thiamine accumulation.
Consumer acceptance of minced meat patties from boars in four European countries Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-28 M. Aluwé, M. Aaslyng, G. Backus, M. Bonneau, P. Chevillon, J.-E. Haugen, L. Meier-Dinkel, D. Mörlein, M.A. Oliver, H.M. Snoek, F.A.M. Tuyttens, M. Font-i-Furnols
A consumer study was performed in four EU countries to further clarify the acceptability of meat with boar taint. In Denmark, France, Italy and Poland, a total of 476 female consumers evaluated 8 meat patties from boars with varying levels of skatole (0.10–0.40 μg/g fat tissue) and androstenone (0.47–2.00 μg/g fat tissue), in a pair-wise comparison with patties from castrates. Boar meat patties were always less preferred than the castrate meat patties, regardless of the level of androstenone and skatole. Acceptability of the boar meat patties decreased with increasing skatole level. In samples with low skatole levels, higher levels of androstenone also reduced acceptability among androstenone sensitive consumers. No clear threshold levels for androstenone and skatole could be identified. Maps presenting the reduction in preference due to increasing levels of skatole and androstenone, and corrected for the general acceptance of the meat product were developed, taking into account androstenone sensitivity. Further work is needed, covering the whole range of androstenone and skatole levels found in entire male pigs and for a wider set of meat products.
On-site evaluation of Wagyu beef carcasses based on the monounsaturated, oleic, and saturated fatty acid composition using a handheld fiber-optic near-infrared spectrometer Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-27 S. Piao, T. Okura, M. Irie
The fat quality is an important aspect, especially for Wagyu beef. A handheld fiber-optic near-infrared spectrometer for on-site evaluation of beef fat quality was developed, and the interactance spectra of the intermuscular fat from 833 Wagyu carcasses at 12 markets were measured. The calibration model was transferred to five slave instruments using twenty-six block samples. The performance of one slave instrument was verified at five meat markets (n = 360). The coefficients of determination of the slave instrument for monounsaturated, oleic, and saturated fatty acid compositions determined by gas chromatography and near-infrared measurements were 0.69, 0.64, and 0.67, respectively. The standard error of prediction for the slave instrument was approximately 2%. The fiber-optic near-infrared spectrometers were highly accurate in the fat quality evaluation of Wagyu carcasses based on monounsaturated, oleic, and saturated fatty acid composition with easy calibration model transfer.
Physical quality attributes of male and female wild fallow deer (Dama dama) muscles Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-27 Donna-Mareè Cawthorn, Leon Brett Fitzhenry, Voster Muchenje, Daniel Bureša, Radim Kotrba, Louwrens C. Hoffman
Physical meat quality measurements were conducted on the longissimus thoracis et lumborum, biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles from male (n = 6) and female (n = 6) fallow deer (Dama dama) harvested in South Africa. Ultimate pH (pHu), drip loss, cooking loss and shear force values were influenced (p ≤ 0.05) by muscle, but not gender. Mean pHu readings were 5.4–5.6 in the muscles with the two forequarter muscles having the highest readings, while drip loss, cooking loss and shear force values ranged from 1.3–1.6%, 29.4–36.1% and 31.3–61.9 N, respectively. Muscle, however, had an effect (p ≤ 0.05) on all the measured colour parameters (L*, a*, b*, chroma, hue angle), whereas gender only influenced (p ≤ 0.05) the a* and chroma values in certain muscles. It can be concluded that the physical meat quality attributes of the fallow deer muscles compare favourably with that from other game species commonly consumed in South Africa.
The effects of sodium chloride and PSE meat on restructured cured-smoked pork loin quality: A response surface methodology study Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-24 Gabriela de Barros Silva Haddad, Ana Paula Rocha Moura, Paulo Rogério Fontes, Simone de Fatima Viana da Cunha, Alcinéia de Lemos Souza Ramos, Eduardo Mendes Ramos
The effects of the PSE meat proportion (0 to 100%) and sodium chloride contents (0 to 2%) on technological and saltiness of restructured cured-smoked pork loins were investigated by using response surface methodology (RSM). Lipid oxidation, pH values and reheating loss of the products were most affected by the proportion of PSE meat, while the salt concentration mainly affected the water activity, expressible moisture values, hardness, chewiness and sliceability of the products. Perception of the salt flavor increased with the addition of salt and proportion of PSE meat in the elaborated products, where the addition of 0.5% salt was considered as ideal by consumers. It was concluded that an amount close to 0.8% salt is required for satisfactory maintenance of the technological characteristics of the restructured cured-smoked pork loins, especially when PSE meat is used in the formulation.
Lamb loin tenderness is not associated with plasma indicators of pre-slaughter stress Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-23 S.M. Stewart, P. McGilchrist, G.E. Gardner, D.W. Pethick
The purpose of this study was to test if associations exist between plasma indicators of acute and chronic stress and lamb loin Warner Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF). Blood was collected at exsanguination from 2877 lambs from the Meat and Livestock Genetic Research flock with a suite of indicators analysed. Loin (M. longissimus lumborum) WBSF was measured after 5 days aging. Plasma indicators of stress did not relate to WBSF, however a positive association was found between WBSF and kill order, indicating that immediate pre-slaughter factors may be causing reduced tenderness in lamb. In addition, selection for decreased fat depth (PFAT) was associated with increased loin WSBF, indicating that genetic selection for increased carcass leanness is negatively affecting lamb loin tenderness.
Prediction of pH and aw of pork meat by a thermodynamic model: New developments Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-23 Aïchatou Musavu Ndob, André Lebert
To ensure continuous innovations, food industries need tools which enable to predict physical-properties of food during a change of process or recipe. In this work, a thermodynamic model is suggested to predict pH and water activity of pork meat in presence of different additives such as salts or organic acids used in food industry. The predictions of pH and aw are satisfactory in a wide prediction domain, with a good accuracy. In add, a neural network mimetic of thermodynamic model is developed in order to facilitate the use of thermodynamic model and reduce calculation time.
A comparison of two evisceration methods on hygienic quality in the pelvic area of sheep carcasses Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-22 Elin Røssvoll, Ole-Johan Røtterud, Sigrun J. Hauge, Ole Alvseike
The aim was to compare the effects of two evisceration methods under operational conditions, on the pelvic hygiene of sheep carcasses. Method 1: rectum sealed with plastic bag and pushed through the pelvic cavity. Method 2: rectum cut, placed back inside and pulled out from the carcass. The 18 largest Norwegian sheep abattoirs participated. Sampling areas were i) 400 cm2 inside the pelvic cavity (n = 623), ii) 100 cm2 outside the circum-anal incision (n = 622). There were pooled samples by swabbing the same area of five carcasses, representing totally 3115 carcasses. Mean E. coli results from Method 1: − 1.61 log CFU/cm2 inside and − 0.25 log CFU/cm2 for the outside area. Results from Method 2: − 1.56 log CFU/cm2 inside and − 0.42 log CFU/cm2 outside. There were no significant differences between the two methods. Both evisceration methods can produce carcasses that are of practically identical high hygienic quality.
A sensometric approach to the development of mortadella with healthier fats ☆ Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-22 Erick Saldaña, Aline de Oliveira Garcia, Miriam Mabel Selani, Marcia M.H. Haguiwara, Marcio Aurélio de Almeida, Raúl Siche, Carmen J. Contreras-Castillo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory characteristics of mortadellas with different fat contents using Descriptive Analysis (DA) and Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions and their relationship with overall liking (OL). Five mortadella samples were studied. Sample 1, containing 16% fat. Sample 2 was formulated with 8% fat. Samples 3 and 4 were prepared by replacing 50% fat by a pre-emulsion composed of fish, canola and olive oil. A commercial fat-reduced sample was also studied. The sensory characteristics of the samples were evaluated by DA. Besides, eighty-four consumers evaluated their OL using a 9-point scale and answered the CATA questions. Replacement or reduction of fat caused changes in the sensory characteristics of the samples. Commercial mortadella was the most liked. CATA questions along with penalty analysis and partial least squares regression (PLSR) of dummy variables on the OL helped to identify the attributes to be changed in the mortadella formulations.
Consumer sensory and hedonic perception of sheep meat coppa under blind and informed conditions Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-22 Juliana Cunha de Andrade, Elen Silveira Nalério, Citieli Giongo, Marcia Dutra de Barcellos, Gastón Ares, Rosires Deliza
The development of air-dried cured sheep meat products represents an interesting option to add value to the meat of adult animals. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate consumer sensory and hedonic perception of sheep meat coppa, an innovative product. Four sheep meat coppa samples were formulated by varying smoking (smoked vs. non-smoked) and salt content (4.5% vs. 3.4%), and compared with two commercial samples of regular pork meat coppa. Samples were evaluated under blind or informed conditions by 202 consumers, who had to rate their liking and to answer a check-all-that-apply question. Sheep and pork meat coppa samples did not largely differ in their overall liking in both experimental conditions. Smoking and high salt content significantly increased consumers' hedonic perception of sheep meat coppa. The information included in the labels did not modify consumer hedonic perception but influenced their sensory description, particularly for the terms related to the type of meat used in their manufacture. Results indicate positive market opportunities for sheep meat coppa in the Brazilian market.
Impact of reducing nitrate/nitrite levels on the behavior of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in French dry fermented sausages Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-22 Souad Christieans, Laurent Picgirard, Emilie Parafita, André Lebert, Thierry Gregori
Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes are two pathogenic bacteria that most frequently contaminate pork meat. In dry fermented sausages, several hurdles are used for controlling bacterial growth such as nitrite and salt addition. In Europe, practices consist of adding potassium nitrate (250 ppm expressed as NaNO3) or a combination of nitrate/nitrite (150/150 ppm expressed as NaNO3/NaNO2 respectively). However, involvement of these additives in nitrosamine formation is a matter of concern. Consequently, a decrease in nitrite/nitrate amounts is proposed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of reducing levels of these additives on Listeria and Salmonella behavior. Using challenge-tests, five trials were carried out by varying the concentration of nitrate and nitrate/nitrite. Results shown that nitrite is a relevant hurdle for control Salmonella and Listeria. At the end of drying, the most significant reductions of pathogens are obtained in sausages with nitrite added at the both tested concentrations (120 or 80 ppm NaNO2).
Vitamin A and marbling attributes: Intramuscular fat hyperplasia effects in cattle Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-21 Z.A. Kruk, M.J. Bottema, L. Reyes-Veliz, R.E.A. Forder, W.S. Pitchford, C.D.K. Bottema
Twenty Angus steers were fed a diet low in β-carotene and vitamin A for 10 months. Ten steers were supplemented with vitamin A weekly, while the other ten steers did not receive any additional vitamin A. The results demonstrated that the restriction of vitamin A intake increased intramuscular fat (IMF) by 46%. This was a function of the total number of marbling flecks increasing by 22% and the average marbling fleck size increasing by 14%. Vitamin A restriction resulted in marbling flecks that were less branched (22%) and slightly more round (4%) with an increased minor axis length (7%). However, restricting vitamin A did not affect the size of the intramuscular or subcutaneous adipocyte cells or the subcutaneous fat depth. The results suggest that vitamin A affects the amount of marbling and other attributes of the marbling flecks due to hyperplasia rather than hypertrophy. This may explain why vitamin A restriction specifically affects IMF rather than subcutaneous fat deposition.
Fatty acid composition of several muscles and adipose tissues of pigs fed n-3 PUFA rich diets Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-21 Auriane de Tonnac, Mathieu Guillevic, Jacques Mourot
During two months, sixty Pietrain × (Landrace × Large White) finishing pigs (50.7 to 115.2 kg live weight) received diets containing various levels of C18:3n-3 from linseed and C22:6n-3 from Schizochytrium microalgae to increase the content of these fatty acids (FA) in their lean and fat tissues. Samples of tissues have been extracted from the carcass at the slaughterhouse. Tissues of pigs fed linseed had the highest C18:3n-3 and C20:3n-3 contents, while the C20:4, C20:5 and C22:6n-3 contents increased in tissues with microalgae diets. Diaphragm was fatter, but contained less monounsaturated FA, total n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) than longissimus thoracis et lumborum and semimembranosus muscles due to their different roles. The leaf fat was the most saturated and monounsaturated tissue, regardless of the diet. Adipose tissues located in extremities contained more n-3 and n-6 PUFA than adipose tissues located in the middle of the carcass. This study showed the existence of a PUFA gradient depending on tissue location.
Consumer interest in environmental impact, safety, health and animal welfare aspects of modern pig production: Results of a cross-national choice experiment Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-21 K.G. Grunert, W.I. Sonntag, V. Glanz-Chanos, S. Forum
Are consumers interested in aspects of pig production and do they take these into account in their buying decisions when such information is available? Samples of consumers in Germany and Poland selected the two – for them – most important out of a list of ten production characteristics, relating to animal welfare, health and safety, and environmental issues. In a subsequent choice experiment, the relative weight these characteristics had in consumers' choices was estimated. Relative importance of production characteristics varied between consumer segments, with the production interested segment being bigger in Germany than in Poland. With the exception of one animal welfare related criterion in Germany, those production characteristics that consumers perceive as most important relate to health and safety aspects rather than to animal welfare and environmental impact.
Genomic characterization of the porcine CRTC3 and the effects of a non-synonymous mutation p.V515F on lean meat production and belly fat Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-20 S.H. Lee, M.H. Hur, E.A. Lee, K.C. Hong, J.M. Kim
cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcriptional coactivator 3 (CRTC3) is well known to be related to obesity in humans and mice. However, the effects of CRTC3 have not been studied in pigs. Here, we characterized the structure of the porcine CRTC3 gene and identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in its coding region. Moreover, mRNA expression profiles of CRTC3 in muscle and fat tissues were examined. Of the 40 identified SNPs, the p.V515F mutation, located on exon 16, was genotyped in 368 Yorkshire pigs. The p.V515F mutation was significantly associated with lean meat production ability, including reduced back fat thickness (P = 0.0317) and loin eye area (P = 0.0174). Moreover, the SNP was significantly associated with differences in intermuscular fat (P = 0.0092), total muscle area in the belly (P = 0.0108), and total fat percentage in the belly (P = 0.0298). Taken together, our results suggest that the p.V515F mutation affects to lean meat production ability and amount of belly fat.
Analysis of meat quality traits and gene expression profiling of pigs divergent in residual feed intake Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-20 Justyna Horodyska, Michael Oster, Henry Reyer, Anne Maria Mullen, Peadar G. Lawlor, Klaus Wimmers, Ruth M. Hamill
Residual feed intake (RFI), the difference between actual feed intake and predicted feed requirements, is suggested to impact various aspects of meat quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underpinning the relationship between RFI and meat quality. Technological, sensory and nutritional analysis as well as transcriptome profiling were carried out in Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle of pigs divergent in RFI (n = 20). Significant differences in sensory profile and texture suggest a minor impairment of meat quality in more efficient pigs. Low RFI animals had leaner carcasses, greater muscle content and altered fatty acid profiles compared to high RFI animals. Accordingly, differentially expressed genes were enriched in muscle growth and lipid & connective tissue metabolism. Differences in protein synthesis and degradation suggest a greater turnover of low RFI muscle, while divergence in connective tissue adhesion may impact tenderness. Fatty acid oxidation tending towards suppression could possibly contribute to reduced mitochondrial activity in low RFI muscle.
Estimation of pork quality in live pigs using biopsied muscle fibre number composition Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-20 Jun-Mo Kim, Kyu-Sang Lim, Kyung-Bo Ko, Youn-Chul Ryu
Here, we newly provided the parameters for estimating meat quality in live pigs using the muscle biopsy. The biopsied longissimus thoracis muscle was used to identify the muscle fibre characteristics (MFCs). Of the various MFCs in biopsied muscle, muscle fibre number (MFN) composition showed the greatest correlation with the MFCs in postmortem muscle (P < 0.001). Moreover, the pigs cluster groups, based on the biopsied MFN composition, demonstrated statistically significant differences in meat quality traits such as muscle pH, drip loss, and meat colour (P < 0.05). Therefore, we conclude that the MFN parameters in live pigs are closely related to the postmortem muscle metabolic rate and ultimately with the quality of meat. We suggest that the higher type I and lower type IIB MFN in biopsied muscle will result in better pork quality.
Carbon monoxide packaging shows the same color improvement for dark cutting beef as high oxygen packaging Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-17 Yimin Zhang, Libo Qin, Yanwei Mao, David L. Hopkins, Guangxing Han, Lixian Zhu, Xin Luo
In this study, carbon monoxide (CO) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was used to increase redness (a*) and lightness (L*) values of dark cutting beef (ultimate pH (pHu) ≥ 6.10), compared to normal pHu beef and intermediate pHu beef (pH: 5.40–5.79; pH: 5.80–6.09, respectively) during 20 d chilled storage. Compared with HiOx-MAP, CO-MAP exhibited similar color improvement effects (increased L*, a*, b* values) for all pHu beef groupings. The metmyoglobin (MetMb) content was lower under CO-MAP than that of HiOx-MAP in normal pHu beef, but opposite effects were observed in dark, high pH beef. This result could not be explained by MetMb reducing ability (MRA) and lipid oxidation, as both parameters were higher in CO-MAP beef than either normal or high pHu beef, compared with HiOx-MAP. In conclusion, CO-MAP was effective to maintain the cherry red color for dark cutting beef, but the color improvement mechanisms might be different with HiOx packaging methods.
Assessment of the stability of sheep sausages with the addition of different concentrations of Origanum vulgare extract during storage Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-15 R.P.P. Fernandes, M.A. Trindade, J.M. Lorenzo, M.P. de Melo
The aim of this study was to assess the stability of sheep sausages with the addition of different concentrations of Origanum vulgare extract during storage. Five treatments were prepared: without natural antioxidant (control), sodium erythorbate 500 mg/kg (ER), and three amounts of extract (N1 = 4964.51 mg/kg, N2 = 6630.98 mg/kg and N3 = 8038.20 mg/kg). From appearance sensory analysis, control treatment differed significantly compared to ER (P < 0.05) and N3 (P < 0.01) groups, with intense red color, agreeing with trend of a* values. On the other hand, oregano extract improved the lipid and protein stability of cooked sausages during the storage time. Regarding volatile compounds from lipid oxidation, the N2 group presented the lowest values at the end of chilled period. In conclusion, the oregano extract showed antioxidant potential equivalent to sodium erythorbate at intermediate and high levels, calculated by DPPH∙ and FRAP methods, and most of the parameters were not compromised, allowing synthetic antioxidants replaced while maintaining the nutritional and sensory quality of cooked sausages.
Monitoring Lean Meat Percentage Predictions from Optical Grading Probes by a Commercial Cutting Pattern ☆ Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-11 Lars Erik Gangsei, Frøydis Bjerke, Morten Røe, Ole Alvseike
The lean meat percentage (LMP) classification in Norwegian slaughterhouses is obtained by Hennessy Grading Probe 7 (HGP7), an optical tool. Even though the HGP7 method is validated frequently, there is industrial and legislative demand to reconsider the applied LMP equation, typically due to the introduction of new breeds. A deboning pilot plant generates precise yield data using cutting and deboning stratified pork carcasses by a specific commercial cutting pattern (CCP) at an annual rate of approximately 250 slaughter pigs. This paper shows how results obtained by CCP can be used to measure LMP in pork and how these results can be used for monitoring the quality of LMP predicted by HGP7. The effect of gender, maternal- and paternal lines on validity of HGP7 predictions was evaluated. The effect of introducing a new maternal line (TN70) seems to be substantial, whereas the effects of the tested paternal lines are small to negligible.
Exploring innovative possibilities of recovering the value of dark-cutting beef in the Canadian grading system Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-10 N. Prieto, Ó. López-Campos, S.P. Suman, B. Uttaro, A. Rodas-González, J.L. Aalhus
This study examined if different color intensities of dark-cutting beef carcasses (Dark B4/Moderate B4) were similar in quality to normal (N) carcasses of a lower marbling score. The eating quality from abnormal (AB) dark-cutting carcasses (normal pH) was also evaluated to determine if AB should receive the same penalty as classic (CL) dark-cutting carcasses in the Canadian grading system. B4-grade carcasses, regardless of dark color intensity, exhibited increased toughness and greater off-flavor than N carcasses of a lower marbling score. Additionally, AB and borderline (BD) carcasses were tougher than N. The CL dark cutters, albeit similar in tenderness to N carcasses, had greater off-flavor and less beef flavor intensity. Downgrading B4 carcasses one quality grade based on the marbling score, with no further carcass demerits, is likely not sufficient, and further devaluations of dark cutters may be warranted. As well, AB and BD carcasses were of lower quality compared to N carcasses and, therefore, deserve some economic penalty.
Evaluation of whole pork belly qualitative and quantitative properties using selective belly muscle parameters Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-10 Eun-A Lee, Ji-Hoon Kang, Jin-Hyung Cheong, Kyung-Chul Koh, Woo-Min Jeon, Jee-Hwan Choe, Ki-Chang Hong, Jun-Mo Kim
The objective of this study was to identify parameters for the evaluation of pork belly quality (composition) and quantity (volume) and to develop regression equations that predict properties of whole pork belly. Through an image analysis of 648 bellies, newly characterized pork belly parameters were developed for evaluating pork belly quality and quantity. Importantly, the estimated muscle volume showed high positive correlation with the whole belly volume and the whole belly muscle percentage (r = 0.458, and 0.654, respectively). Section 7 was identified as the best section for the evaluation of pork belly based on the muscle area in every vertebra. A stepwise regression showed that cutaneous trunci muscle (CTM) had an r2 of 0.624 in the model, and supplementation with the other muscles yielded an r2 of 0.784. Therefore, we propose that a prediction equation could be developed for a certain area in the belly for the evaluation of pork belly quantity and quality. The results could be applied to select breeding stock using techniques such as ultrasound with the aim of producing hogs with large as well as lean bellies.
Proteomics of dark cutting longissimus thoracis muscle from heifer and steer carcasses ☆ Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-10 Shahid Mahmood, Nancy Turchinsky, Francois Paradis, Walter T. Dixon, Heather L. Bruce
Studies have suggested that the phenomenon of dark cutting (Canada B4) beef may also be related to muscle glycolytic proteins. The objective of this study, therefore, was to analyze longissimus thoracis (LT; n = 23), from Canada AA (n = 8), atypical (AB4; pH < 5.9, n = 8) and typical (TB4; pH > 5.9, n = 7) B4 heifer and steer carcasses, for sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins using 2-D gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry. Results indicated that AB4 LT had intramuscular pH and lactate concentration similar to Canada AA but lower (P < 0.05) L* and b*. Moreover, AB4 LT were tougher than Canada AA even at 21 days post-mortem, unlike TB4. Canada AB4 LT had reduced (P < 0.05) levels of creatine kinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(+)], indicating a compromised glycolytic capacity in AB4. Canada AB4 LT had increased (P < 0.05) abundances of phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1 and small heat shock proteins.
Can postmortem proteolysis explain tenderness differences in various bovine muscles? Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-08 Eva Veiseth-Kent, Mona E. Pedersen, Sissel B. Rønning, Rune Rødbotten
This study investigated the relationship between postmortem proteolysis, muscle pH decline, sarcomere length (SL), intramuscular fat (IMF) and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) in four bovine muscles (biceps femoris (BF), infraspinatus (IS), longissimus lumborum (LL), psoas major (PM). The WBSF was low in BF, IS and PM, while LL had a higher value (P < 0.001), but still considered as tender. The PM had fastest pH decline (P < 0.001), ultimate pH was lowest in LL and PM and highest for IS (P < 0.001), sarcomeres were longest for PM and shortest for BF and LL (P < 0.001), while IS and PM had more IMF than BF and LL (P = 0.038). Troponin T degradation was similar in all muscles after 2d postmortem, however after 13d LL had more degradation than IS (P = 0.003). The MMP-2 activity increased during storage (P = 0.001), while IS had less activity than the other muscles (P = 0.022). Although the variation in proteolytic activity could not explain the variation in WBSF, the study provides useful knowledge for the meat industry for optimising processing and storage procedures for different beef muscles.
Association of Melanocortin (MC4R) and Myostatin (MSTN) genes with carcass quality in rabbit Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-07 Karim El-Sabrout, Sarah Aggag
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of Melanocortin (MC4R) and Myostatin (MSTN) with the carcass quality of V-line and Alexandria line rabbits. MC4R and MSTN were screened by single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis (SSCP) then DNA was sequenced. The results identified four novel SNPs using the four studied primers of the MC4R and MSTN genes. The genotype (BB) has significant higher body weight (BW), carcass weight (CW) and dressing percentage (DP) than V-line (AA) rabbits. There were no significant differences within the two lines in the carcass color (light pink) and carcass fat (CF). GLM analysis for the effect of genotypes on carcass traits demonstrated that the genotype (BB) was significantly associated with high carcass weight (CW) and dressing percentage (DP). The detected mutations and the analysis of carcass quality means revealed a significant association between MSTN and MC4R polymorphisms with some carcass traits that affect meat quality of rabbits.
Mitochondrial F1-ATPase extends glycolysis and pH decline in an in vitro model Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-07 Sulaiman K. Matarneh, Mariane Beline, Saulo de Luz e Silva, Hao Shi, David E. Gerrard
The experiment was conducted to identify the mitochondrial protein responsible for enhancing glycolytic flux. We hypothesized that mitochondrial F1-ATPase promotes ATP hydrolysis and thereby the flux through glycolysis. Porcine longissimus muscle mitochondria were incorporated into an in vitro system designed to recapitulate postmortem glycolysis with or without Na-azide to specifically inhibit the β-subunit of mitochondrial F1-ATPase that catalyzes ATP hydrolysis. Addition of mitochondria enhanced ATP hydrolysis, glycogen degradation, lactate accumulation, and pH decline in the in vitro system. However, the majority of mitochondria-mediated enhancement in glycolytic flux was abolished in the presence of Na-azide. To investigate further, myofibrillar and mitochondrial proteins were added to the in vitro system after 240 min from the initiation of the reaction. Greater pH decline and lactate accumulation were observed in system containing mitochondrial protein compared to their myofibrillar counterpart. In conclusion, mitochondrial F1-ATPase is capable of increasing glycolytic flux through promoting greater ATP hydrolysis at lower pH.
The effects of pre-and post-slaughter spray application with organic acids on microbial population reductions on beef carcasses Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-06 Hoa Van Ba, Hyun-Woo Seo, Seong Pil-Nam, Yoon-Seok Kim, Beom Young Park, Sung-Sil Moon, Se-Ju Kang, Yong-Min Choi, Jin-Hyoung Kim
As an attempt to control bacterial cross-contamination of beef carcasses, in the present investigation acetic acid and lactic acid (3% v/v) were used for bacterial decontamination. For the decontamination, cows were sprayed with each above acid at two different stages; (i) on live animal's hides, (ii) on carcass surfaces immediately after slaughter. Microbiological samples were taken on different hide areas of animals before spraying and on carcass surfaces at 24 h after spraying. Meat quality traits were also analyzed on the sprayed animals. The detected microorganisms were identified using 16SrRNA gene sequencing. A diversity of bacterial species such as Staphylococcus, Shigella, Bacillus, Escherichia and Salmonella etc. were found on both external hide and carcass surface samples. The decontamination sprays significantly reduced the numbers (2–5 log unit) of all aforementioned bacterial species on carcass surfaces as compared with non-sprayed control. Thus, the two times-spray applications with the acid could be an effective tool for reducing bacterial cross-contaminations of beef carcass without adverse effect on meat quality.
Differential partitioning of rumen-protected n–3 and n–6 fatty acids into muscles with different metabolism Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-06 C. Wolf, S.E. Ulbrich, M. Kreuzer, J. Berard, K. Giller
Bioavailability of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in ruminants is enhanced by their protection from ruminal biohydrogenation. Both n–3 and n–6 PUFA fulfil important physiological functions. We investigated potentially different incorporation patterns of these functional PUFA into three beef muscles with different activity characteristics. We supplemented 33 Angus heifers with rumen-protected oils characterized either by mainly C18:2 n–6 (linoleic acid (LA) in sunflower oil) or by C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) and C22:6 (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)), both prevalent n–3 PUFA in fish oil. Contents and proportions of n–3 and n–6 PUFA of total fatty acids were elevated in the muscles of the respective diet group but they were partitioned differently into the muscles. For EPA and DHA, but not for LA, the diet effect was more distinct in the extensor carpi radialis compared to longissimus thoracis and biceps femoris. Partitioning of PUFA in metabolism could be related to muscle function. This has to be confirmed in other muscles, adipose tissues and organs.
A PVC/polypyrrole sensor designed for beef taste detection using electrochemical methods and sensory evaluation Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-04 Lingtao Zhu, Xiaodan Wang, Yunxiu Han, Yingming Cai, Jiahui Jin, Hongmei Wang, Liping Xu, Ruijia Wu
An electrochemical sensor for detection of beef taste was designed in this study. This sensor was based on the structure of polyvinyl chloride/polypyrrole (PVC/PPy), which was polymerized onto the surface of a platinum (Pt) electrode to form a Pt-PPy-PVC film. Detecting by electrochemical methods, the sensor was well characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The sensor was applied to detect 10 rib-eye beef samples and the accuracy of the new sensor was validated by sensory evaluation and ion sensor detection. Several cluster analysis methods were used in the study to distinguish the beef samples. According to the obtained results, the designed sensor showed a high degree of association of electrochemical detection and sensory evaluation, which proved a fast and precise sensor for beef taste detection.
Crossbred young bulls and heifers sired by double-muscled Piemontese or Belgian Blue bulls exhibit different effects of sexual dimorphism on fattening performance and muscularity but not on meat quality traits Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-11-04 Giovanni Bittante, Alessio Cecchinato, Franco Tagliapietra, Rina Verdiglione, Alberto Simonetto, Stefano Schiavon
As double-muscled Belgian Blue (BB) and Piemontese (PIEM) breeds are heavily selected for different objectives (the former mainly for muscularity, the latter for ease of calving), the aim of this study was to compare sexual dimorphism in 56 crossbred young bulls and heifers obtained from dairy cows mated to bulls of the two beef breeds. Young PIEM- and BB-sired bulls had similar fattening performances and beef traits, although the BB crossbreds were slightly more muscular. Otherwise, the BB-sired heifers exceeded the PIEM-sired heifers in growth rate (1.12 vs. 0.98 kg/d), feed efficiency (0.129 vs. 0.121 kg/kg DM), increases in muscle scores (1.45 vs. 0.98 SEUROP scores) and carcass yield (0.612 vs. 0.605), but not in fatness, retail cut proportions and meat quality traits. Sexual dimorphism is, therefore, less distinct in BB than in PIEM crossbreds. In conclusion, BB sires are to be preferred for “product quality”, and PIEM sires for “process quality”, on account of welfare and ethical issues.
Eating quality traits of shoulder roast and stir fry cuts outperformed loin and silverside cuts sourced from entire and immunocastrated male pigs Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-10-31 H.A. Channon, D.N. D'Souza, F.R. Dunshea
This study investigated the effects of ageing period (2 or 7 days), endpoint temperature (70 or 75 °C), cut type (loin (M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum), silverside (M. biceps femoris), blade (M. triceps brachii) and chuck tender (M. supraspinatus)), cooking method (roast and stir fry (all cuts) and steak (loin only)) on eating quality attributes of pork from entire and immunocastrated male pigs. Higher intramuscular fat levels were found in all cuts from immunocastrated males compared with entire males. Of the seven cut type × cooking method combinations evaluated, shoulder cuts had the lowest fail rate (P < 0.001) and loin steak and silverside cuts scored lowest (P < 0.001) for tenderness, juiciness, overall liking, quality grade and re-purchase intention. Although no differences in sensory scores due to gender were observed, boar taint was identified in 10% of entire males. Minimising adverse risks in eating quality due to boar taint in males remains a key industry issue to ensure consistent delivery of high quality pork.
The gender background of texture attributes of pork loin Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-10-28 Margit D. Aaslyng, Henriette Jensen, Anders H. Karlsson
The tenderness of pork loins from castrates, entire males and females was quantified with sensory analysis and measurement of instrumental texture during ageing. Furthermore, the effects of intramuscular fat (IMF), collagen content and solubility, hot carcass weights and meat percentages on tenderness were examined. Meat from castrates was significantly (p = 0.043) more tender than meat from entire males and females as assessed by trained sensory panellists. Tenderness scores were positively affected by IMF content (p = 0.008) and hot carcass weight (p < 0.001), but no effect of collagen content and solubility was found. Meat from all three genders had the same tenderisation rate during ageing (two, five, seven and ten days). It is therefore suggested that meat from entire males and females should be aged for longer than meat from castrates to obtain the same level of tenderness.
A simple and sensitive two-tube multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of ten meat species Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-10-26 Olga V. Prusakova, Xenia A. Glukhova, Gaida V. Afanas'eva, Yulia A. Trizna, Ludmila F. Nazarova, Igor P. Beletsky
A sensitive and reliable technique for meat species identification is required to prevent food adulteration, particularly in meat production. This work developed an optimized multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous identification of five commonly consumed and five commonly banned meat species in meat products. We designed primers that specifically amplified mitochondrial ATPase subunit 8 gene regions of different lengths of bovine, ovine, swine, chicken, turkey, cat, dog, mouse and human DNAs. The developed multiplex PCR assay proved to be specific, sensitive down to 30 pg DNA per reaction, reproducible and economical. It could be used with a variety of raw meats and processed food samples and is easily applicable in a routine laboratory analysis without specific sophisticated equipment.
Effects of aging treatment and freezing/thawing methods on the quality attributes of beef from Limousin × Holstein-Friesian and Hereford × Holstein-Friesian crossbreeds Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-10-24 Julia Bogdanowicz, Marek Cierach, Tomasz Żmijewski
The objective was to investigate combined effects of aging-, freezing-, thawing- treatments on the water-holding capacity, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and sensory properties of beef. Semitendinosus muscles from two crossbreeds were analysed. Carcasses were conventionally aged (4 days post mortem), muscles were separated and divided into samples. Part of the samples were frozen without wet-aging and the others were wet-aged for 3 or 6 days (and then also frozen). Two freezing methods (conventional and cryogenic) and two thawing methods (at 4 °C and 20 °C) were applied. Stepwise conventional/wet-aging just as thawing at 20 °C, decreased the WBSF (P < 0.05) and increased the scores for tenderness (P < 0.05). Moreover, wet-aging for 3 days gave an equal effect on tenderness (P > 0.05) as the 6-days period. Meat from Hereford-crosses scored significantly higher for juiciness, compared with Limousin-crosses. These tips may be applied in the meat industry to reduce time of aging process and ensure a consistent high quality of frozen beef.
Assessing different processed meats for adulterants using visible-near-infrared spectroscopy Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-10-24 Ahmed Rady, Akinbode Adedeji
The main objective of this study was to investigate the use of spectroscopic systems in the range of 400–1000 nm (visible/near-infrared or Vis-NIR) and 900–1700 nm (NIR) to assess and estimate plant and animal proteins as potential adulterants in minced beef and pork. Multiple machine learning techniques were used for classification, adulterant prediction, and wavelength selection. Samples were first evaluated for the presence or absence of adulterants (6 classes), and secondly for adulterant type (6 classes) and level. Selected wavelengths models generally resulted in better classification and prediction outputs than full wavelengths. The first stage classification rates were 96% and 100% for pure/unadulterated and adulterated samples, respectively. Whereas, the second stage had classification rates of 69–100%. The optimal models for predicting adulterant levels yielded correlation coefficient, r of 0.78–0.86 and ratio of performance to deviation, RPD, of 1.19–1.98. The results from this study illustrate potential application of spectroscopic technology to rapidly and accurately detect adulterants in minced beef and pork.
Effects of dietary lecithin and l-carnitine on fatty acid composition and lipid-metabolic genes expression in subcutaneous fat and longissimus thoracis of growing-finishing pigs Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-10-19 Qingwei Meng, Shishuai Sun, Yuecheng Sun, Jianan Li, Di Wu, Anshan Shan, Baoming Shi, Baojing Cheng
A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary lecithin and l-carnitine on fatty acid composition and lipid-metabolic genes expression in subcutaneous fat and longissimus thoracis of growing-finishing pigs. 160 barrows were assigned to 4 treatments consisting of 8 replicates with 5 pigs in each. The total PUFA, C18:2n − 6 and C18:3n − 3 in subcutaneous fat were increased by lecithin but the effect of lecithin was dependent of l-carnitine where supplementation of lecithin together with l-carnitine decreased total PUFA, C18:2n − 6 and C18:3n − 3. l-Carnitine increased the intramuscular fat content when supplemented with lecithin but no effect was observed without lecithin supplementation. l-Carnitine increased the mRNA expression of CPT1A, HSL, FABP4 and CRAT; and reduced the mRNA expression of FAS and ACCα in subcutaneous fat. Lecithin increased the mRNA expression of ACCα and ME1 in longissimus thoracis. l-Carnitine increased the mRNA expression of FAS in longissimus thoracis when supplemented with lecithin but no effect was observed without lecithin supplementation.
Effects of chilled and frozen storage conditions on the lamb M. longissimus lumborum fatty acid and lipid oxidation parameters Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-10-19 Cassius E.O. Coombs, Benjamin W.B. Holman, Eric N. Ponnampalam, Stephen Morris, Michael A. Friend, David L. Hopkins
This study investigated the effects of chilled and frozen storage conditions on the fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation in lamb M. longissimus lumborum (LL). Muscle LL (n = 360) were randomly selected at 24 h post-mortem from a commercial Australian abattoir and maintained chilled for five periods (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks) followed by frozen for six periods (0, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 52 weeks) at − 12 °C or − 18 °C. Samples were analysed for fatty acid profile and lipid oxidative parameters (TBARS, oxidation-reduction potential and peroxidase activity). Health-claimable polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPA and DHA) were unaffected by neither storage period nor temperature. TBARS levels did not exceed rancidity thresholds recommended in the literature, with these and other lipid peroxidation parameters showing broad increases in concentration with more ‘long-term’ chilled and frozen storage periods. Combined, the results suggest nutritional and eating quality were maintained across the various chilled and frozen storage conditions applied in this study.
Growth performance, carcass quality, fresh belly characteristics, and commercial bacon slicing yields of growing-finishing pigs fed a subtherapeutic dose of an antibiotic, a natural antimicrobial, or not fed an antibiotic or antimicrobial ☆ Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-10-18 J.E. Lowell, B.M. Bohrer, K.B. Wilson, M.F. Overholt, B.N. Harsh, H.H. Stein, A.C. Dilger, D.D. Boler
The objective was to compare growth performance, belly characteristics, and bacon slicing yields of growing-finishing pigs fed a subtherapeutic dose of an antibiotic, a natural antimicrobial, or a diet containing no antibiotics or antimicrobials. Barrows and gilts (96 each, initial BW: 27.52 ± 3.98 kg) were housed in 48 pens (8 replications per treatment) in a 2 × 3 factorial randomized complete block design. Pens were assigned 1 of 3 diets: antibiotic free, oregano or tylosin phosphate. Pigs were slaughtered at an average BW of 127.31 ± 10.18 kg. There were no differences among dietary treatments for growth performance (P ≥ 0.06), carcass cutability (P ≥ 0.42), loin quality (P ≥ 0.28), fresh belly dimensional characteristics (P ≥ 0.11), IV (P ≥ 0.87) or bacon processing characteristics (P ≥ 0.07). Given the lack of differences in meat quality from pigs fed diets without antibiotics, the implementation of VFD in the United States should not result in changes in pork quality.
Evolution of the bulk optical properties of bovine muscles during wet aging Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-10-18 Robbe Van Beers, Mito Kokawa, Ben Aernouts, Rodrigo Watté, Stefaan De Smet, Wouter Saeys
The bulk optical properties (BOP) of two bovine muscles were studied in the 500 nm to 1850 nm wavelength range. Over a two-week period of wet aging, the BOP of the biceps femoris (BF) and longissimus lumborum (LL) were determined and related to moisture content, tenderness and cooking loss. The absorption by myoglobin and reduced scattering coefficient were higher in the BF compared to the LL. The scattering anisotropy factor was relatively high (> 0.95 for LL), representing dominant forward scattering. Two-toning effects in the BF could be attributed to significant scattering differences, as no differences in absorption properties were observed. During wet aging, the anisotropy factor decreased, while tenderness increased. It was hypothesized that this might be related to proteolysis of cytoskeletal proteins. The results show the potential use of BOP to monitor tenderization and the cause of color differences in beef muscles. Moreover, this information could be used to develop and optimize optical sensors for non-destructive meat quality monitoring.
Analysis of the monitoring status of residual nitrite in meat products in China from 2000 to 2011 Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-10-14 Hongchao Zhang, Changbao Sun, Wanjun Han, Jiaxiu Zhang, Juncai Hou
The aim of this article was to analyze the monitoring status of nitrite in meat products consumed from 2000 to 2011 in 24 provinces, autonomous regions or direct-controlled municipalities in China. Statistical analyses were performed on the monitoring status including number, proportion, and distribution of 13,316 samples, of which 11,320 (85%) contained up to 2808.2 mg/kg nitrite and 1996 (15%) contained no nitrite. A total of 10,299 samples (77%) qualified for GB/T 5009.33-2003, 2003; however, 3017 samples (23%) contained nitrite at levels higher than the national standard. The districts with high percentage of samples with no nitrite were Shanghai (49%), Beijing (47%), and Liaoning (30%). While the districts with high percentage of meat products containing nitrite at levels exceeding the national standard were Jiangxi (49%), Jiangsu (33%), Shandong (29%) and Sichuan (29%). Therefore, the status of residue nitrite in meat products is of concern.
Differential expression of extracellular matrix and integrin genes in the longissimus thoracis between bulls and steers and their association with intramuscular fat contents Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-10-14 Seung Ju Park, Hyeok Joong Kang, Sangweon Na, Seung Hwan Lee, Myunggi Baik
This study was performed to compare expression of genes for extracellular matrix (ECM) components, ECM degrading factors, and integrin subunits in the longissimus thoracis (LT) between bulls and steers. Steers had lower (P < 0.05) ECM component collagen type 1 α1 and collagen type 3 α1 mRNA levels than did bulls, but they had higher (P < 0.05) thrombospondin 1 mRNA and protein levels. Steers had higher (P < 0.01) matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 mRNA levels than did bulls. Steers had higher (P < 0.05) integrin α5 mRNA levels but lower (P < 0.05) integrin β6 mRNA and protein levels; however, expression levels of several other integrin subunits were not different between steers and bulls. MMP9 mRNA levels were positively correlated (P < 0.05) with intramuscular fat content in bull group. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that castration has moderate effects on expression of ECM components, ECM degrading factors, and integrin subunit genes in the LT.
Effects of finishing diets containing wet distillers grains plus solubles on beef quality attributes and fatty acid profile ☆ Meat Sci. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2017-10-13 A.S. de Mello, B.E. Jenschke, L.S. Senaratne, T.P. Carr, G.E. Erickson, C.R. Calkins
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) on quality attributes of three beef muscles (longissimus lumborum, psoas major, and infraspinatus). Ninety-six, yearlings crossbred steers were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments (Corn, 15%, or 30% WDGS - DM basis) and fed for 133 d. No significant differences were observed in marbling score (P = 0.89), marbling texture (P = 0.70), and marbling distribution (P = 0.36). Greater concentrations of PUFA and lower levels of 18:1(n-7) were observed in beef from steers fed 30% WDGS when compared to other treatments. Lipid oxidation was also greater in beef from steers fed 30% WDGS (P ≤ 0.05). No significant differences were observed in sensorial attributes and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) for all muscles (P > 0.05). Feeding WDGS increased PUFA and lipid oxidation, which may lead to shorter shelf life.
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