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  • Prevalence of Mental Disorder and Service Use by Immigrant Generation and Race/Ethnicity Among U.S. Adolescents
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2018-02-15
    Katholiki Georgiades, Diana Paksarian, Kara E. Rudolph, Kathleen R. Merikangas

    Objective To examine differences in lifetime prevalence of mental disorder and service utilization among U.S. adolescents by both immigrant generation and race/ethnicity. Method 6,250 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement were assessed for lifetime prevalence of mood and/or anxiety disorders, behavior disorders, and mental health service utilization. Twelve groups defined by self-identified race-ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, Asian) and immigrant generation (1st, 2nd, 3rd or greater) were compared. Results Differences in prevalence of lifetime mental disorder were most apparent when immigrant generation and race/ethnicity were considered jointly. Compared to 3rd+ generation non-Hispanic white adolescents, the odds of mood/anxiety disorder were increased among 2nd generation Asian (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.51; 95%CI=1.22-5.17) and 3rd+ generation Hispanic (AOR=1.28; 95%CI=1.00-1.63) but reduced among 1st generation Asian (AOR=0.27; 95%CI=0.10-0.71) and 2nd generation non-Hispanic white adolescents (AOR=0.50; 95%CI=0.30-0.81). The odds of behavior disorder were lower among 1st generation Asian (AOR=0.26; 95%CI=0.09-0.71) and all generations of non-Hispanic black adolescents (AORs range 0.43-0.55). Adjusting for lifetime disorder, 1st generation Hispanic and non-Hispanic white adolescents and all generations of non-Hispanic black adolescents were less likely to receive mental health services (AORs range 0.24-0.55). Conclusions Variation in risk of disorder by immigrant generation and race/ethnicity underscores the importance of considering social, economic, and cultural influences in etiologic and treatment studies of adolescent psychopathology. Lower rates of service use, particularly among 1st generation immigrant adolescents, highlight the need to identify and address barriers to recognition and treatment of mental disorders among adolescents from immigrant and racial-ethnic minority backgrounds.

    更新日期:2018-02-15
  • Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors Among First-Year College Students: Results From the WMH-ICS Project
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Philippe Mortier, Randy P. Auerbach, Jordi Alonso, Jason Bantjes, Corina Benjet, Pim Cuijpers, David D. Ebert, Jennifer Greif Green, Penelope Hasking, Matthew K. Nock, Siobhan O’Neill, Stephanie Pinder-Amaker, Nancy A. Sampson, Gemma Vilagut, Alan M. Zaslavsky, Ronny Bruffaerts, Ronald C. Kessler

    Objective College entrance may be a strategically well-placed “point of capture” for detecting late adolescents with suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB). However, a clear epidemiological picture of STB among incoming college students is lacking. We present the first cross-national data on prevalence as well as socio-demographic and college-related correlates for STB among first-year college students. Method Web-based self-report surveys were obtained from 13,984 first-year students (response rate 45.5%) across 19 colleges in eight countries (Australia, Belgium, Germany, Mexico, Northern Ireland, South Africa, Spain, United States). Results Lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts was 32.7%, 17.5%, and 4.3%, respectively. Twelve-month prevalence was 17.2%, 8.8%, and 1.0%, respectively. About 75% of STB cases had onset before the age of 16 years (Q3 = 15.8), with persistence figures in the range 41-53%. About half (53.4%) of lifetime ideators transitioned to a suicide plan; 22.1% of lifetime planners transitioned to an attempt. Attempts among lifetime ideators without plan were less frequent (3.1%). Significant correlates of lifetime STB were cross-nationally consistent and generally modest in effect size (median adjusted OR [aOR] = 1.7). Non-heterosexual orientation (aOR range 3.3-7.9) and heterosexual orientation with some same-sex attraction (aOR range 1.9-2.3) were the strongest correlates of STB, and of transitioning from ideation to plans and/or attempts (aOR range 1.6-6.1). Conclusion The distribution of STB in first-year students is widespread, and relatively independent of socio-demographic risk profile. Multivariate risk algorithms based on a high number of risk factors are indicated to efficiently link high-risk status with effective preventive interventions.

    更新日期:2018-02-14
  • Sustained Effects of Collaborative School-Home Intervention for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Impairment
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2018-02-08
    Linda J. Pfiffner, Mary E. Rooney, Yuanyuan Jiang, Lauren M. Haack, Allyson Beaulieu, Keith McBurnett

    Objectives The Collaborative Life Skills (CLS) program is a school-home intervention for students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and impairment. CLS integrates school, parent, and student treatments followed by booster sessions during a maintenance period into the subsequent school year. The program is delivered by school-based mental health providers. Beneficial post-treatment effects have been documented. This study evaluates effects of CLS after the maintenance period in the subsequent school year. Method Using a cluster randomized design, schools within a large urban public-school district were randomly assigned to CLS (12 schools) or usual services (11 schools). Approximately six students participated at each school (N=135, grade range=2-5). Measures were completed at baseline, post-treatment, and follow-up during the next school year. Results Students from schools assigned to CLS, relative to those assigned to usual services, showed significantly greater improvement at follow-up on parent, but not teacher, ratings of ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom severity, organizational skills, and global impairment. Within-group analyses indicated that parent and teacher-reported post-treatment gains for CLS in ADHD and ODD symptoms, organizational skills and academic competence maintained into the next school year. Conclusions These results extend support for CLS to the following school year by demonstrating sustained benefits on parent-reported ADHD and ODD symptoms and functional impairment. The lack of significant teacher-reported differences between CLS and usual services highlights the need for further study of booster treatments for improving outcomes with new teachers across school years.

    更新日期:2018-02-09
  • Data-Driven Subtyping of Executive-Function-Related Behavioral Problems in Children
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2018-02-08
    Joe Bathelt, Joni Holmes, Duncan E. Astle

    Objective Executive functions (EF) are cognitive skills important for regulating behavior and achieving goals. Executive function deficits are common in children who struggle in school and are associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. However, there is also considerable heterogeneity across children, even within diagnostic categories. This study took a data-driven approach to identify distinct clusters of children with common profiles of EF-related difficulties, and then identified patterns of brain organization that distinguish these data-driven groups. Method The sample consisted of 442 children identified by health and educational professionals as having difficulties in attention, learning and/or memory. We applied community clustering, a data-driven clustering algorithm, to group children by similarities on a commonly used rating scale of EF-associated behavioral difficulties, the Conners-3 questionnaire. Furthermore, we then investigated whether the groups identified by the algorithm could be distinguished on white matter connectivity using a structural connectomics approach combined with partial least squares analysis. Results The data-driven clustering yielded three distinct groups of children with symptoms of either: (1) elevated inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, and poor executive function, (2) learning problems, and (3) aggressive behavior and problems with peer relationships. These groups were associated with significant inter-individual variation in white matter connectivity of the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Conclusion In sum, data-driven classification of EF-related behavioral difficulties identified stable groups of children, provided a good account of inter-individual differences, and aligned closely with underlying neurobiological substrates.

    更新日期:2018-02-08
  • The Impact of Antidepressant Dose and Class on Treatment Response in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders: A Meta-Analysis
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2018-02-08
    Jeffrey R. Strawn, Jeffrey A. Mills, BeauA. Sauley, Jeffrey A. Welge

    Objective To determine the trajectory and magnitude of antidepressant response as well as the effect of antidepressant class and dose on symptomatic improvement in pediatric anxiety disorders. Method Weekly symptom severity data were extracted from randomized, parallel group, placebo-controlled trials of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs) in pediatric anxiety disorders. Treatment response was modeled for the standardized change in continuous measures of anxiety using Bayesian updating. Posterior distributions for each study served as informative conjugate priors to update subsequent study posteriors. Change in symptom severity was evaluated as a function of time, class and, for SSRIs, standardized dose. Results Data from 9 trials (SSRIs: n=5; SSNRIs, n=4) evaluating 7 medications in 1,673 youth were included. In the logarithmic model of treatment response, statistically—but not clinically—significant treatment effects emerged within 2 weeks of beginning treatment (standardized medication-placebo difference = -0.054, CI: -0.076 to -0.032, p=0.005, approximate Cohen’s d ≤ 0.2) and by week 6, clinically significant differences emerged (standardized medication-placebo difference = -0.120, CI: -0.142, -0.097, p=0.001, approximate Cohen’s d = 0.44). Compared to SSNRIs, SSRIs resulted in significantly greater improvement by the second week of treatment (p=0.0268) and this advantage remained statistically significant through week 12 (all ps<0.03). Improvement occurred earlier with high dose SSRI treatment (week 2, p=0.002) compared to low-dose treatment (week 10, p=0.025), but SSRI dose did not impact overall response trajectory (p>0.18 for weeks 1-12). Conclusions In pediatric patients with generalized, separation and/or social anxiety disorders, antidepressant-related improvement occurs early in the course of treatment and SSRIs are associated with more rapid and greater improvement compared to SSNRIs.

    更新日期:2018-02-08
  • Gun and Non-Gun Related Violence Exposure and Risk for Subsequent Gun Carrying Among Male Juvenile Offenders
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2018-02-06
    Jordan Beardslee, Edward Mulvey, Carol Schubert, Paul Allison, Arynn Infante, Dustin Pardini

    Objective Although studies have found that youth exposed to violence are more likely to carry guns than non-exposed youth, this association could be due to common causal factors or other pre-existing differences between individuals. In this study, within-individual change models were used to determine whether juvenile offenders exhibit an increased propensity to carry a firearm after being exposed to gun violence and/or non-gun violence. The advantage of this approach is all time-invariant factors are eliminated as potential confounders. Method 1170 racially/ethnically diverse male juvenile offenders were recruited in Arizona and Pennsylvania (ages 14-19 at recruitment). Participants were interviewed every six months for three years followed by four annual assessments. The outcome was gun carrying and the primary predictors were exposure to gun violence and non-gun violence. Time-varying covariates included exposure to peers who carried guns, exposure to peers who engaged in other (non-gun) criminal acts, developmental changes in gun carrying, and changes in gun carrying due to incarceration/institutionalization. Results Adolescent offenders were significantly more likely to carry a gun in recall periods following exposure to gun violence, but not after exposure to non-gun violence. Effect of gun violence on carrying was significant throughout adolescence and young adulthood, and could not be accounted for by time-varying and time-invariant confounders. Conclusions Interventions to reduce illegal gun carrying should target young men in medical and mental health settings who experience or witness gun violence, as well as those living in communities with high rates of gun violence.

    更新日期:2018-02-07
  • Working Memory and Vigilance as Multivariate Endophenotypes Related to Common Genetic Risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2018-01-09
    Joel T. Nigg, Hanna C. Gustafsson, Sarah L. Karalunas, Peter Ryabinin, Shannon McWeeney, Stephen V. Faraone, Michael Mooney, Damien A. Fair, Beth Wilmot

    Objective Understanding the role of endophenotypes is essential for process models of psychopathology. This study examined which candidate cognitive endophenotypes statistically mediate common variant genetic risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method A case-control design using community-recruited volunteer children 7-11 years old (n=656, n=435 ADHD) of whom 514 were homogenous European ancestry for the primary models (n=337 ADHD, 177 non-ADHD). Children were assessed with a multi-informant, best-estimate diagnostic procedure and laboratory measures of working memory, response inhibition, executive functioning, arousal/attention, temporal information processing, and processing speed. Latent variables were created for the candidate cognitive measures and for parent- and teacher-rated ADHD dimensions. Polygenic risk scores (PGS) were computed, using a discovery sample of 20,183 individuals with ADHD and 35,191 controls from the Psychiatric Genetics Consortium. Cognitive measures that survived multiple testing correction for association with the PGS were evaluated for mediation with ADHD using structural equation models. Results Results were essentially identical in the homogeneous European ancestry subgroup (n=514) and in the full sample (n=656). For the European population, the PGS was associated with ADHD diagnosis (Nagelkerke R2= .045; beta=.233, SE=.053, p=.000011) and multi-indicator dimensional ADHD latent variables by parent report (beta=.185, SE=.043) and teacher report (beta=.165, SE=.042). The PGS effect was statistically mediated by working memory (indirect effect, beta=.101, SE=.029, 95% CI=.05, .16, p=.00049, 43% of genetic effect accounted for) and arousal/alertness (indirect effect beta=.115, 95% CI=.04, .20, SE=.041, p=.005, 49% of genetic effect accounted for). Conclusion This is the first clear demonstration from molecular genetic data that working memory and arousal regulation are promising cognitive endophenotypes for ADHD with regard to mediating genetic risk from common genetic variants.

    更新日期:2018-01-09
  • Reduced Functional Brain Activation and Connectivity During a Working Memory Task in Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-28
    Frances F. Loeb, Xueping Zhou, Kirsten E.S. Craddock, Lorie Shora, Diane D. Broadnax, Peter Gochman, Liv S. Clasen, Francois M. Lalonde, Rebecca A. Berman, Karen F. Berman, Judith L. Rapoport, Siyuan Liu

    Objective Working memory (WM) deficits are consistently reported in schizophrenia and are related to poor functional outcomes. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS) show reduced functional activations and connectivity in the WM network, but no prior fMRI study has examined WM in childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS). The aim of this study was to examine the neural correlates of WM in COS. Method Adult patients with COS (n=32, 21.3±1.1years), nonpsychotic siblings of COS (n=30, 19.4±0.8), and healthy controls (n=39, 20.0±0.7) completed 1- and 2-back working memory tasks during 3T fMRI scanning. Both functional activation and connectivity analyses were conducted. A separate group of 23 younger patients with COS (17.9±7.4) could not perform the tasks after twice completing a standard training and were not studied here. Results Patients with COS who were included scored significantly lower than controls on all tasks (p<.001). Patients with COS showed significantly lower activations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, posterior parietal cortices, cerebellum and caudate, as well as reduced fronto-parietal and cortico-striatal functional connectivity compared to controls (p<.05, corrected). Siblings had functional activations and connectivity intermediate between patients and controls in a similar set of regions (p<.05, corrected). In patients, functional connectivity strength in the left fronto-parietal network correlated positively with accuracy scores during the 1-back task (p=.0023, corrected). Conclusion Reduced functional activation and connectivity in the WM network in COS supports pathophysiologic continuity with AOS. The low participation rate and accuracy of the patients highlights the disease severity of COS. Hypo-activations and hypo-connectivity were shared by siblings of patients with COS, suggesting COS as a potential endophenotype. Clinical trial registration information Evaluating Genetic Risk Factors for Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia; http://ClinicalTrials.gov/; NCT00001198;

    更新日期:2017-12-31
  • Identifying Clinically Significant Irritability in Early Childhood
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-28
    Jillian Lee Wiggins, Margaret J. Briggs-Gowan, Ryne Estabrook, Melissa A. Brotman, Daniel S. Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Lauren S. Wakschlag

    Objective Advances in developmentally sensitive measurement now enable differentiation of normative vs. clinically salient irritability in early childhood. Yet, clinical application of these measures is still nascent. Here, we first developed an optimized model of clinically salient irritable behaviors at preschool age. Based on this model, we next derived an empirically-based cutoff in relation to concurrent DSM-5 irritability-related disorders (i.e., oppositional defiant disorder [ODD], disruptive mood dysregulation disorder [DMDD], other depressive disorders) and used longitudinal models to test the predictive validity of the cutoff for impairment and irritability trajectories and later DSM disorders. Method Preschool children oversampled for irritability were followed over three time points into early school age (N=425; mean age at baseline=4.7 years, mean follow-up=2.9 years). Mothers reported on children’s irritability via the developmentally-validated Multidimensional Assessment of Profile of Disruptive Behavior (MAP-DB) Temper Loss scale, impairment via the Family Life Impairment Scale, and DSM categories via the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment and Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version. Results Of 22 MAP-DB Temper Loss behaviors, two behaviors—one normative (easily frustrated), one rare, dysregulated (destructive tantrums)—uniquely related to cross-domain impairment. At baseline, these two irritability items identified diagnostic status (ODD, DMDD, other depressive disorders) with good sensitivity (70-73%) and specificity (74-83%). Also, children above the irritability cutoff at baseline exhibited more persistent irritability and impairment and greater likelihood of DSM disorders in early school-age. Conclusion Clinical identification of early-onset irritability can be enhanced via brief, developmentally optimized indicators. Further research to apply these findings to tiered early intervention is important.

    更新日期:2017-12-31
  • Early Childhood Adverse Experiences, Inferior Frontal Gyrus Connectivity, and the Trajectory of Externalizing Psychopathology
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-28
    Deanna M. Barch, Andy C. Belden, Rebecca Tillman, Diana Whalen, Joan L. Luby

    Objective Early adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to the development of both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. In our prior work, we found that ACEs predicted reductions in the volume of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a brain region important for impulse control and emotion regulation. Here we tested the hypothesis that ACEs might influence child behavioral outcomes through an impact on IFG functional connectivity, which may influence impulsive or risk-taking behavior. Method We examined the effects of prospectively assessed ACEs on IFG connectivity in childhood, and their relationship to the trajectory of subsequent psychopathology from late school age and early adolescence, utilizing data from an 11-year longitudinal study of children starting in preschool that included three waves of resting state functional connectivity across childhood and early adolescence. Results ACEs predicted functional connectivity of both left and right IFG. Multi-level modeling of symptoms across 3 waves of assessments indicated that more ACEs predicted both internalizing and externalizing symptoms. However, altered IFG connectivity specifically predicted greater externalizing symptoms over time in middle childhood and early adolescence, as compared to internalizing symptoms. Longitudinal modeling indicating that the relationships between externalizing and functional connectivity maintained across three waves of functional connectivity assessment. Conclusion These findings underscore the relationship of ACEs to later psychopathology and suggest that connectivity of the IFG, a region known to play an important role in impulse control and emotion regulation, may play a key role in the risk trajectory of ACEs to externalizing problems. However, further work is needed to understand whether these relationships reflect a direct effect of ACEs or whether ACEs are a marker for other environmental or genetic factors that may also influence brain development and behavior.

    更新日期:2017-12-31
  • Effect of Time-Dependent Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Antidepressants During Pregnancy on Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Development in Preschool-Age Children
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-28
    Angela Lupattelli, Mollie Wood, Eivind Ystrom, Svetlana Skurtveit, Marte Handal, Hedvig Nordeng

    Objective To evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on children’s behavioral, emotional, and social development by age 5 years, and over time since age 1.5. Method The prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study was linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We included women who reported depressive/anxiety disorders before and/or during pregnancy. Children born to women who used SSRIs in early (weeks 0-16), mid (weeks 17-28), or late (> week 29) pregnancy were compared to unexposed. Children’s internalizing and externalizing behaviors (Child Behavior Checklist) and temperament traits (Emotionality, Activity and Shyness Temperament Questionnaire) were measured at 1.5, 3, and 5 years. Mean scores were calculated and standardized. We fit general linear marginal structural models to account for time-varying exposure and confounders, and censoring; three-level growth-curve models. Results We included 8,359 mother–child dyads, and 4,128 children had complete outcome data at age 5. Children exposed to SSRIs in late pregnancy had an increased risk for anxious/depressed behaviors by age 5 compared with unexposed (adjusted β: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.96). Such risk was not evident for earlier timings of exposure. There was no evidence for a substantial prenatal SSRI effect on externalizing, social, and emotional problems. Conclusion These findings suggest no substantial increased risk for externalizing, emotional, and social problems in preschool-age children following prenatal SSRI exposure. While the role of chance and potential unmeasured confounding cannot be ruled out, late-pregnancy SSRI exposure was associated with greater anxious/depressed behaviors in the offspring.

    更新日期:2017-12-31
  • The Effectiveness of School-Based Mental Health Services for Elementary-Aged Children: A Meta-Analysis
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-24
    Amanda L. Sanchez, Danielle Cornacchio, Bridget Poznanski, Alejandra Golik, Tommy Chou, Jonathan S. Comer

    Objective Given problems and disparities in the utilization of community-based mental health services for youth, school personnel have assumed frontline mental health service roles. To date, the majority of research on school-based services has evaluated analogue educational contexts with services implemented by highly trained study staff, and little is known about the effectiveness of school-based mental health services when implemented by school professionals. Method: We used random-effects meta-analytic procedures to synthesize effects of school-based mental health services for elementary-aged children based exclusively on studies without direct implementation by researchers, and potential moderators of treatment response. Forty-three controlled trials evaluating 49,941 elementary school-aged children met selection criteria (mean grade=2.86, 60.3% male). Results Overall school-based services demonstrated a small-to-medium effect (Hedges’ g=0.39) in reducing mental health problems, with the largest effects found for targeted intervention (Hedges’ g=0.76), followed by selective prevention (Hedges’ g=0.67), relative to universal prevention (Hedges’ g=0.29). Mental health services integrated into students’ academic instruction (Hedges’ g=0.59), those targeting externalizing problems (Hedges’ g=0.50), those incorporating contingency management (Hedges’ g=0.57), and those implemented multiple times per week (Hedges’ g=0. 0.50) showed particularly strong effects. Conclusion Considering serious barriers precluding youth from accessing necessary mental health care, the present meta-analysis suggests child psychiatrists and other mental health professionals are wise to recognize the important role that school personnel, who are naturally in children’s lives, can play in reducing child mental health problems.

    更新日期:2017-12-27
  • Examining the Association Between Autistic Traits and Atypical Sensory Reactivity: A Twin Study
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-06
    Mark J. Taylor, Peik Gustafsson, Henrik Larsson, Christopher Gillberg, Sebastian Lundström, Paul Lichstenstein

    Objective Atypical responses to sensory stimuli are common features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Consequently, atypical sensory reactivity (SR) is now a diagnostic feature of ASD. Quantitative genetic research on ASD has overlooked these symptoms, however. We therefore investigated the association between autistic traits and SR using twin methods. Method Autistic traits and SR were assessed by two separate scales in 12,419 Swedish twin pairs (n=3,586 monozygotic [MZ], n=8,833 dizygotic [DZ]) when the twins were aged 9 or 12. The classic twin design estimated the degree to which etiological factors associated with autistic traits were also associated with SR, and the degree to which such shared factors explained the covariance between these phenotypes. DeFries-Fulker analysis estimated the genetic correlation between screening diagnoses of ASD, defined broadly and strictly, and SR. Results Autistic traits and SR were both highly heritable (62-75% and 66-71%, respectively). There was a moderate phenotypic correlation between autistic traits and SR (r=.47). Genetic influences on these phenotypes correlated moderately (genetic correlation=.60). These overlapping genetic factors explained most of the correlation between autistic traits and SR. Genetic correlations with SR increased for broad ASD (genetic correlation =.72) and strict ASD (genetic correlation=.80). Conclusion The genetic overlap observed between autistic traits and SR lends quantitative genetic support to the notion that ASD and SR are strongly linked. Such symptoms may thus comprise part of the ASD genotype, as well as phenotype. Associations persisted across all definitions of ASD, indicating a genetic link between the broader ASD phenotype and SR.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Effects of State Autism Mandate Age Caps on Health Service Use and Spending Among Adolescents
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2017-12-05
    Alene Kennedy-Hendricks, Andrew J. Epstein, David S. Mandell, Molly K. Candon, Steven C. Marcus, Ming Xie, Colleen L. Barry

    Objective Many states with mandates requiring commercial insurers to cover autism spectrum disorder (ASD) health services specify upper age limits above which coverage is no longer mandated. It is unknown what effects these age caps have on health service use and spending among adolescents who have exceeded the age cap. Method Using administrative claims data from three national commercial insurers, a difference-in-differences approach was used to estimate effects of age caps on health service use and spending among adolescents with ASD. Statistical models compared changes in use and spending between those above versus below the age cap among those eligible versus ineligible for mandated coverage. The analytic sample included data from 2008 through 2012 on 7,845 individuals (151,976 person-months) ages 10-21 years in 11 states imposing mandate age caps going into effect during adolescence. Results Age caps were associated with 4.2 percentage point (95% CI: -7.0, -1.5) lower probability of any ASD-specific service use in a month and $69 less (95% CI: -112, -$26) in average monthly spending on ASD-specific services than would have been expected given concomitant pre-post age cap differences among individuals in the same states who were never eligible for mandate-covered services. In addition, age caps were associated with $99 (95% CI: -$168, -$30) lower average monthly spending on all health care services. Conclusion Insurance mandates that include age caps going into effect during adolescence reduce health service use and spending among individuals with ASD during a critical phase of the life course.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Biobehavioral Markers of Attention Bias Modification in Temperamental Risk for Anxiety: A Randomized Control Trial
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-28
    Pan Liu, Bradley C. Taber-Thomas, Xiaoxue Fu, Koraly E. Pérez-Edgar

    Objective Children with behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperament characterized by biologically-based hypervigilance to novelty and social withdrawal, are at high risk for developing anxiety. We examined the effect of a novel attention training protocol, attention bias modification (ABM), on symptomatic-behavioral-neural risk markers in children with BI. Method Nine- to twelve-year-old typically-developing children identified as BI (n=84) were assigned to a four-session active ABM training (n=43) or placebo protocol (n=41) using a double-blind, randomized control trial approach. Anxiety symptoms (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children–Fourth Edition), attention bias (measured by a dot-probe task, attention bias [AB]=incongruent reaction time [RT]-congruent RT) and AB-related neural activation (measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging activation for the incongruent>congruent contrast in the dot-probe task) were assessed both before and after the training sessions. Results Our results showed that (1) active ABM (n=40) significantly alleviated participants’ symptoms of separation anxiety, but not social anxiety, compared with the placebo task (n=40); (2) ABM did not modify behavioral AB scores in the dot-probe task; and (3) at the neural level, active ABM (n=15) significantly reduced amygdala and insula activation and enhanced activation in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex relative to placebo (n=19). Conclusion Our findings provide important evidence for ABM as a potentially effective protective tool for temperamentally at-risk children, in a developmental window prior to the emergence of clinical disorder and open to prevention and intervention.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study of Adolescents and Young Adults With Bipolar Disorder
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-26
    Judah Weathers, Elizabeth T.C. Lippard, Linda Spencer, Brian Pittman, Fei Wang, Hilary P. Blumberg

    Objective Longitudinal neuroimaging during adolescence/young adulthood, when bipolar disorder (BD) commonly emerges, can help elucidate the neurodevelopmental pathophysiology of BD. Adults with BD have shown reduced structural integrity in the uncinate fasciculus (UF), a white matter (WM) tract providing major connections between the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) important in emotion regulation. In this longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study of adolescents/young adults, we hypothesized differences in age and time-related changes in UF integrity in BD compared to healthy control (HC). Method Two DTI scans were obtained in 27 adolescents/young adults with BD and 37 HC adolescents/young adults, on average approximately 2.5 years apart. Interactions between diagnosis with age and with time for UF fractional anisotropy (FA) were assessed. Exploratory analyses were performed including euthymic-only participants with BD, and for potential influences of demographic and clinical factors. Whole-brain analyses were performed to explore for interactions in other regions. Results There were significant interactions between diagnosis with age and with time for UF FA (p<.05). Healthy control adolescents/young adults showed significant UF FA increases with age and over time (p<.05), while no significant changes with age or over time were observed in the adolescents/young adults with BD. Significant interactions with age and time were also observed in analyses including euthymic-only participants with BD (p<.05). Conclusion These findings provide neuroimaging evidence supporting differences in UF WM structural development during adolescence/young adulthood, suggesting differences in the development of an amygdala-vPFC system subserving emotion regulation may be a trait feature of BD neurodevelopment.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Novel Loci Associated With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Are Revealed by Leveraging Polygenic Overlap With Educational Attainment
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-26
    Alexey A. Shadrin, Olav B. Smeland, Tetyana Zayats, Andrew J. Schork, Oleksandr Frei, Francesco Bettella, Aree Witoelar, Wen Li, Jon A. Eriksen, Florian Krull, Srdjan Djurovic, Stephen V. Faraone, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Wesley K. Thompson, Stefan Johansson, Jan Haavik, Anders M. Dale, Yunpeng Wang, Ole A. Andreassen

    Objective Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable psychiatric condition. By exploiting the reported relationship between ADHD and educational attainment (EA), we here aimed to improve discovery of ADHD-associated genetic variants and investigate genetic overlap between these phenotypes. Method A conditional/conjunctional false discovery rate (condFDR/conjFDR) method was applied to genome-wide association study (GWAS) data on ADHD (2,064 trios, 896 cases, and 2,455 controls) and EA (n=328,917 n = 328,917 ) to identify ADHD-associated loci and loci overlapping between ADHD and EA. Identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association in an independent population-based study of ADHD symptoms (n=17,666 n = 17,666 ). Genetic correlation between ADHD and EA was estimated using LD score regression and Pearson correlation. Results At levels of condFDR<0.01 condFDR < 0.01 and conjFDR<0.05, conjFDR < 0.05 , we identified five ADHD-associated loci, three of these being shared between ADHD and EA. None of these loci had been identified in the primary ADHD GWAS, demonstrating the increased power provided by the condFDR/conjFDR analysis. Leading SNPs for 4 of 5 identified regions are in introns of protein coding genes: KDM4A, MEF2C, PINK1, RUNX1T1, while the remaining one is an intergenic SNP on chromosome 2 at 2p24. Consistent direction of effects in the independent study of ADHD symptoms was shown for 4 of 5 identified loci. A polygenic overlap between ADHD and EA was supported by significant genetic correlation (rg=−0.403 r g = − 0.403 , p=7.90×10−8 p = 7.90 × 10 − 8 ) and >10-fold mutual enrichment of SNPs associated with both traits. Conclusion We identified five novel loci associated with ADHD and provided evidence for a shared genetic basis between ADHD and EA. These findings could aid understanding of the genetic risk architecture of ADHD and its relation to EA.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Sexual Risk Behavior Among Youth With Bipolar Disorder: Identifying Demographic and Clinical Risk Factors
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-26
    Megan Krantz, Tina Goldstein, Brian Rooks, John Merranko, Fangzi Liao, Mary Kay Gill, Rasim Diler, Danella Hafeman, Neal Ryan, Benjamin Goldstein, Shirley Yen, Heather Hower, Jeffrey Hunt, Martin Keller, Michael Strober, David Axelson, Boris Birmaher

    Objective This study aims to document rates of sexual activity among youth with bipolar spectrum disorder (BD), and to examine demographic and clinical factors associated with first sexual activity and sexual risk behavior over follow-up. Method The sample was drawn from the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) study of 413 youth ages 7-17 at baseline who met criteria for BD via the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS). Psychiatric symptoms over follow-up were assessed using the Adolescent Longitudinal Interview Follow-Up Evaluation (ALIFE). Sexual behavior and level of sexual risk (e.g., unprotected sex, multiple partners, and/or partners with known sexually transmitted infections [STIs]) were assessed by trained evaluators using the ALIFE Psychosocial Functioning Scale (PSF). Analyses were conducted in relation to first sexual behavior over follow-up, and then to subsequent sexual behaviors, for a mean 9.7 (SD=3.2) years. Results Sexually active COBY youth (n=292/413; 71%) were more likely female, using substances, and not living with both parents. Consistent with findings among healthy youth, earlier first sexual activity in the sample was significantly associated with low socioeconomic status (SES), female sex, comorbid disruptive behavior disorder, and substance use. As with healthy youth, sexual risk behavior over follow-up was significantly associated with Non-Caucasian race, low SES, substance use, and history of sexual abuse. Among those COBY youth who were sexually active, 11% reported sexual assault or abuse, 36% reported becoming pregnant (or significant other becoming pregnant), and 15% reported having at least one abortion (or significant other having an abortion) over follow-up. Hypomanic symptoms over follow-up were temporally associated with greatest risk for sexual risk behavior. Conclusion Demographic and clinical factors may help identify youth with BD at significantly greatest risk for sexual activity and sexual risk behavior. Attending to sexual risk behaviors in this population is warranted.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Sexually Transmitted Infection Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Mu-Hong Chen, Ju-Wei Hsu, Kai-Lin Huang, Ya-Mei Bai, Nai-Ying Ko, Tung-Ping Su, Cheng-Ta Li, Wei-Chen Lin, Shih-Jen Tsai, Tai-Long Pan, Wen-Han Chang, Tzeng-Ji Chen

    Objective Previous studies suggest that ADHD is related to risky sexual behaviors, which have been regarded as a major risk factor of sexually transmitted infection (STI). However, the association between ADHD and subsequent STIs remains unknown. Method Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 17,898 adolescents and young adults who were diagnosed with ADHD by psychiatrists and 71,592 age-/sex-matched comparisons without ADHD were enrolled between 2001 and 2009 and followed up to the end of 2011 in our study. Participants who developed any STI during the follow-up period were identified. Cox regression analysis was performed to examine the risk of STIs between patients with ADHD and those without ADHD. Results Patients with ADHD were prone to developing any STI (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.36, 95% CI: 2.69∼4.21) after adjusting for demographic data, psychiatric comorbidities, and ADHD medications compared with the comparison group. Substance use disorders (HR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.27∼2.98) were also associated with the STI risk. Both short-term use (0.70, 95% CI: 0.53∼0.94) of and long-term use (HR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37∼0.93) of ADHD medications were related to a reduced risk of subsequent STIs. However, an association between substance use disorders and STIs was observed only in women. By contrast, the effect of ADHD medications on the reduction of STI risk was observed only in men. Conclusion Adolescents and young adults with ADHD had an elevated risk of developing any STI later in life compared with the non-ADHD comparisons. Patients with ADHD who also had substance use disorders were at the highest risk of subsequent STIs. Treatment with ADHD medications was associated with a reduced risk of subsequent STIs.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Brain Structural Correlates of Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Healthy Children
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Maria Suñol, Oren Contreras-Rodríguez, Dídac Macià, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, Marta Subirà, Jesús Pujol, Jordi Sunyer, Carles Soriano-Mas

    Objective Subclinical obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms are frequently observed in children and have been reported to predict a subsequent diagnosis of OC disorder (OCD). Therefore, identifying the putative neurobiological signatures of such risk is crucial, because it would allow for the characterization of the underpinnings of OCD without the interfering effects of chronicity, medication, or comorbidities, especially when interpreted within the context of OCD clinical heterogeneity and taking into account normal neurodevelopmental changes. The present study aimed to identify the brain volumetric features associated with subclinical OC symptoms and the potential modulatory effects of sex and age in a large sample of healthy children. Method Two hundred fifty-five healthy children were assessed using the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory–Child Version and underwent a brain structural magnetic resonance examination. The relation between total and symptom-specific scores and regional gray and white matter (GM and WM) volumes was evaluated. Participants were grouped according to sex and age (younger versus older) to assess the effect of these factors on symptom–brain morphometry associations. Results Ordering symptoms were negatively related to GM volumes in the ventral caudate. Hoarding symptoms were positively associated with GM and WM volumes in the left inferior frontal gyrus, and obsessing symptoms correlated negatively with GM and WM volumes in the right temporal pole. Doubt-checking symptoms correlated positively with WM volumes in the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and the corpus callosum. Sex and age modulated some of these associations. Conclusion Subclinical OC symptoms are associated with specific brain volumetric features, which could be considered potential neural signatures of increased risk for OCD.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • From Childhood Conduct Problems to Poor Functioning at Age 18: Examining Explanations in a Longitudinal Cohort Study
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Jasmin Wertz, Jessica Agnew-Blais, Avshalom Caspi, Andrea Danese, Helen L. Fisher, Sidra Goldman-Mellor, Terrie E. Moffitt, Louise Arseneault

    Objective Childhood conduct problems are associated with poor functioning in early adulthood. We tested a series of hypotheses to understand the mechanisms underlying this association. Method We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a 1994–1995 birth cohort of 2,232 twins born in England and Wales, followed to age 18 with 93% retention. Severe conduct problems in childhood were assessed at ages 5, 7, and 10 years using parent and teacher reports. Poor functioning at age 18 years, including cautions and convictions, daily cigarette smoking, heavy drinking, and psychosocial difficulties, was measured through interviews with participants and official crime record searches. Results 18-year-olds with versus without a childhood history of severe conduct problems had greater rates of each poor functional outcome, and they were more likely to experience multiple poor outcomes. This association was partly accounted for by concurrent psychopathology in early adulthood, as well as by early familial risk factors, both genetic and environmental. Childhood conduct problems, however, continued to predict poor outcomes at age 18 years after accounting for these explanations. Conclusion Children with severe conduct problems display poor functioning at age 18 years because of concurrent problems in early adulthood and familial risk factors originating in childhood. However, conduct problems also exert a lasting effect on young people’s lives independent of these factors, pointing to early conduct problems as a target for early interventions aimed at preventing poor functional outcomes.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • National Trends in the Prevalence of Suicidal Ideation and Behavior Among Young Adults and Receipt of Mental Health Care Among Suicidal Young Adults
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Beth Han, Wilson M. Compton, Carlos Blanco, Lisa Colpe, Larke Huang, Richard McKeon

    Objective This study examined national trends in the prevalence of suicidal ideation and behavior among young adults and receipt of mental health care among suicidal young adults. Method We examined restricted data from 145,800 persons aged 18 to 25 years who participated in the 2009 to 2015 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Descriptive analyses and bivariable and multivariable logistic regressions were applied. Results Among US young adults during 2009 to 2015, the 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation increased from 6.1% to 8.3%, the 12-month prevalence of suicide plan increased from 2.0% to 2.7%, and 12-month prevalence of suicide attempt increased from 1.1% to 1.6%. After adjusting for personal factors and changes in residing county’s population characteristics, we found upward trends in suicidal ideation among non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics, an upward trend in suicide plan among young adults overall, and an upward trend in suicide attempt among those without major depressive episodes (MDE). Among young adults with MDE, the prevalence of suicide attempt remained high and unchanged. During 2009 to 2015, trends in receipt of mental health care remained unchanged among most suicidal young adults and declined slightly among uninsured suicidal young adults. The annual average prevalence of receipt of mental health care was 36.2% among suicidal young adults. Conclusion During 2009 to 2015, suicidal ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt increased among young adults overall, but receipt of mental health care among suicidal young adults did not increase. Our results suggest that effective efforts are needed for suicide prevention and promotion of mental health care among young adults.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Impaired Value Learning for Faces in Preschoolers With Autism Spectrum Disorder
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Quan Wang, Lauren DiNicola, Perrine Heymann, Michelle Hampson, Katarzyna Chawarska

    Objective One of the common findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited selective attention toward social objects such as faces. Evidence from both human and nonhuman primate studies suggests that selection of objects for processing is guided by the appraisal of object values. We hypothesized that impairments in selective attention in ASD may reflect a disruption of a system supporting learning about object values in social domain. Method We examined value learning in social (faces) and nonsocial (fractals) domains in preschoolers with ASD (n = 25) and typically developing (TD) controls (n = 28) using a novel value learning task implemented on a gaze-contingent eye-tracking platform consisting of value learning and selective attention choice test. Results Children with ASD performed more poorly than TD controls in the social value learning task, but both groups performed similarly on the nonsocial task. Within-group comparisons indicated that value learning in TD children was enhanced on the social compared to nonsocial task, but no such enhancement was seen in children with ASD. Performance in the social and nonsocial conditions was correlated in the ASD but not in the TD group. Conclusion The study provides support for a domain-specific impairment in value learning for faces in ASD and suggest that in ASD value learning in social and nonsocial domains may rely on a shared mechanism. These findings have implications for both models of selective social attention deficits in autism and identification of novel treatment targets.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Parental Rheumatoid Arthritis and Autism Spectrum Disorders in Offspring: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.442) Pub Date : 2017-10-09
    Ane Lilleøre Rom, Chun Sen Wu, Jørn Olsen, Damini Jawaheer, Merete Lund Hetland, Lina Steinrud Mørch

    Objective Maternal rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring. We assessed the potential influence of both maternal and paternal RA on the risk of ASD in offspring to disentangle the influence of genetic inheritance from other conditions potentially leading to fetal programming. Method The nationwide cohort study included all children born alive from 1977 to 2008 in Denmark (N = 1,917,723). Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard rate ratios (HR) of ASD in offspring exposed to maternal or paternal RA, compared to unexposed children. Results Maternal RA was associated with an approximately 30% increased risk of ASD in the offspring (HR = 1.31 and 95% CI = 1.06−1.63). Also, paternal RA seemed to increase the risk of ASD by approximately 30% (HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 0.97−1.82). Conclusion Our findings suggest maternal as well as paternal RA to be associated with an increased risk of ASD in the offspring, indicating that genetic factors associated with RA may also play a role in the etiology of ASD in children of parents with RA.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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