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  • Parasite development: Parasites talk about growth
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-09-18
    Irene Vacca

    Parasite development: Parasites talk about growth Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 18 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.119 A recent study by Silvester et al. found that a conserved quorum sensing signalling pathway regulates interspecies crosstalk in trypanosome co-infections and provided novel insights into trypanosome virulence and transmission.

    更新日期:2017-09-20
  • Aspergillus fumigatus morphology and dynamic host interactions
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-09-18
    Frank L. van de Veerdonk, Mark S. Gresnigt, Luigina Romani, Mihai G. Netea, Jean-Paul Latgé

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an environmental filamentous fungus that can cause life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals. The interactions between A. fumigatus and the host environment are dynamic and complex. The host immune system needs to recognize the distinct morphological forms of A. fumigatus to control fungal growth and prevent tissue invasion, whereas the fungus requires nutrients and needs to adapt to the hostile environment by escaping immune recognition and counteracting host responses. Understanding these highly dynamic interactions is necessary to fully understand the pathogenesis of aspergillosis and to facilitate the design of new therapeutics to overcome the morbidity and mortality caused by A. fumigatus. In this Review, we describe how A. fumigatus adapts to environmental change, the mechanisms of host defence, and our current knowledge of the interplay between the host immune response and the fungus.

    更新日期:2017-09-20
  • Marine microbiology: Algal virus boosts nitrogen uptake in the ocean
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 
    Ashley York

    Marine microbiology: Algal virus boosts nitrogen uptake in the ocean Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 13 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.113 A recent study identified a host-derived ammonium transporter in the genome of an algal virus that increases the rate of nitrogen uptake by infected cells and changes how the host accesses diverse nitrogen sources during infection.

    更新日期:2017-09-15
  • Microbiome: Copy-catting host signalling molecules
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 
    Ashley York

    Microbiome: Copy-catting host signalling molecules Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 13 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.115

    更新日期:2017-09-15
  • Viral infection: A bacteriophage-like entry pathway in eukaryotes
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 
    Ashley York

    Viral infection: A bacteriophage-like entry pathway in eukaryotes Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 13 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.117

    更新日期:2017-09-15
  • Bacterial pathogenesis: Rewiring cellular dynamics and metabolism
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 
    Andrea Du Toit

    Bacterial pathogenesis: Rewiring cellular dynamics and metabolism Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 13 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.114 This study reports that Legionella pneumophila regulates mitochondrial dynamics to subvert mitochondrial bioenergetics of infected cells in a process that involves a bacterial T4SS effector and a host fission protein.

    更新日期:2017-09-15
  • Archaeal biology: Plasmid propagation by virus-like particles
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 
    Ashley York

    Archaeal biology: Plasmid propagation by virus-like particles Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 13 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.116

    更新日期:2017-09-15
  • Gliding motility powers invasion and egress in Apicomplexa
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-09-04
    Karine Frénal, Jean-François Dubremetz, Maryse Lebrun, Dominique Soldati-Favre

    Protozoan parasites have developed elaborate motility systems that facilitate infection and dissemination. For example, amoebae use actin-rich membrane extensions called pseudopodia, whereas Kinetoplastida are propelled by microtubule-containing flagella. By contrast, the motile and invasive stages of the Apicomplexa — a phylum that contains the important human pathogens Plasmodium falciparum (which causes malaria) and Toxoplasma gondii (which causes toxoplasmosis) — have a unique machinery called the glideosome, which is composed of an actomyosin system that underlies the plasma membrane. The glideosome promotes substrate-dependent gliding motility, which powers migration across biological barriers, as well as active host cell entry and egress from infected cells. In this Review, we discuss the discovery of the principles that govern gliding motility, the characterization of the molecular machinery involved, and its impact on parasite invasion and egress from infected cells.

    更新日期:2017-09-15
  • Microbiome: The microbiota maintains oxygen balance in the gut
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-09-04
    Irene Vacca

    Microbiome: The microbiota maintains oxygen balance in the gut Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 4 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.112 A recent study describes a new molecular mechanism used by the gut microbiota to maintain a state of homeostasis in the intestinal lumen, and highlights the importance of PPARγ signalling in this complex regulation.

    更新日期:2017-09-15
  • Bacterial evolution: Historical influences on antibiotic resistance
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-30
    Ashley York

    Bacterial evolution: Historical influences on antibiotic resistance Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 30 August 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.111 A recent study investigated how the history of adaptation to a single antibiotic influences the trajectory of evolutionary dynamics during subsequent treatments with different antibiotics.

    更新日期:2017-09-15
  • Marine microbiology: Algal virus boosts nitrogen uptake in the ocean
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-09-13
    Ashley York

    A recent study identified a host-derived ammonium transporter in the genome of an algal virus that increases the rate of nitrogen uptake by infected cells and changes how the host accesses diverse nitrogen sources during infection.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Bacterial secretion: Stress-free vesicle production
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-21
    Irene Vacca

    A recent study by Florez et al. shows a direct correlation between the export of PQS and OMV biogenesis, which suggests that by modulating the export of PQS it is possible to regulate the production of OMVs.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Microbiome: The microbiota maintains oxygen balance in the gut
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-09-04
    Irene Vacca

    A recent study describes a new molecular mechanism used by the gut microbiota to maintain a state of homeostasis in the intestinal lumen, and highlights the importance of PPARγ signalling in this complex regulation.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Bacterial ecology: Cheaters take advantage
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-30
    Irene Vacca

    Microbial cooperation includes various behaviours, such as nutrient acquisition. However, little is known about the costs and benefits of cooperation in relation to microbial growth. A recent study by Sexton and Schuster investigated the effects of nutrient limitation on the production of the siderophore pyoverdine

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Parasite development: RBP10 is key for parasite development in the blood
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-30
    Irene Vacca

    During its life cycle, Trypanosoma brucei multiplies in the blood of infected individuals as the bloodstream form and in the midgut of Tsetse flies as the procyclic form. Changes in mRNA and protein levels accompany these developmental transitions. Mugo and Clayton now show that

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Archaeal genetics: Structural insights into archaeal chromatin
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-30
    Irene Vacca

    Most archaea have small basic proteins that are likely to share a common evolutionary ancestor with eukaryotic histones. A recent study by Mattiroli, Bhattacharyya et al. reported the 4 Å crystal structure of an archaeal histone–DNA complex. The authors reported that the DNA is

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Bacterial pathogenesis: Rewiring cellular dynamics and metabolism
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-09-13
    Andrea Du Toit

    This study reports that Legionella pneumophila regulates mitochondrial dynamics to subvert mitochondrial bioenergetics of infected cells in a process that involves a bacterial T4SS effector and a host fission protein.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Bacterial evolution: Historical influences on antibiotic resistance
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-30
    Ashley York

    A recent study investigated how the history of adaptation to a single antibiotic influences the trajectory of evolutionary dynamics during subsequent treatments with different antibiotics.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Microbiome: Copy-catting host signalling molecules
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-09-13
    Ashley York

    Small molecules produced by the host microbiota have been hypothesized to influence host physiology. In a recent study, Cohen et al. identified microbial N-acyl amides that mimic human signalling molecules and interact with host G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to regulate gastrointestinal tract physiology.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Archaeal biology: Plasmid propagation by virus-like particles
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-09-13
    Ashley York

    A defining feature that differentiates plasmids from viruses is their mechanism of propagation from cell to cell. Plasmids are transferred from donor to recipient as naked DNA, through cell–cell contact or in unstructured extracellular vesicles. A new study describes a novel mechanism of plasmid dissemination

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Viral infection: A bacteriophage-like entry pathway in eukaryotes
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-09-13
    Ashley York

    Most eukaryotic viruses release their genomes once they have entered host cells through endocytosis, pinocytosis or phagocytosis, whereas bacteriophages typically eject their DNA after they have attached to, and penetrated, the host membrane. A recent study of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV1) reported

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Illuminating microbial diversity
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-30
    Samuel C. Forster

    This month's Genome Watch discusses the release of 1,003 bacterial and archaeal genomes, and describes how they could increase our understanding of the diversity of microbial biological functions and contribute to improved metagenomic analyses.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Embracing the unknown: disentangling the complexities of the soil microbiome
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-21
    Noah Fierer

    Soil microorganisms are clearly a key component of both natural and managed ecosystems. Despite the challenges of surviving in soil, a gram of soil can contain thousands of individual microbial taxa, including viruses and members of all three domains of life. Recent advances in marker

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Legionella and Coxiella effectors: strength in diversity and activity
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-07-17
    Jiazhang Qiu, Zhao-Qing Luo

    Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii are two evolutionarily related intracellular pathogens that use the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system to translocate effectors into host cells. These effectors are essential for the establishment of membrane-bound compartments known as replication vacuoles, which enable the survival

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Sizing up the bacterial cell cycle
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Lisa Willis, Kerwyn Casey Huang

    It is remarkable how robustly a bacterial species can maintain its preferred size. This capacity is intimately related to control of the cell cycle: cell size and growth rate determine the duration of the cell cycle, which must accommodate the initiation and completion of DNA replication, and the assembly of the division apparatus during steady growth. Although we still lack an integrated view of the interconnections among events in the cell cycle, cell growth and cell size, the development of high-throughput imaging and image-processing protocols has stimulated a renaissance in the field. In this Review, we summarize recent findings, present simple classic models for cell size control, introduce high-throughput data-collection techniques, and explore the mechanisms that coordinate cell size with essential growth and cell cycle processes.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Interbacterial predation as a strategy for DNA acquisition in naturally competent bacteria
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-07-10
    Jan-Willem Veening, Melanie Blokesch

    Natural competence enables bacteria to take up exogenous DNA. The evolutionary function of natural competence remains controversial, as imported DNA can act as a source of substrates or can be integrated into the genome. Exogenous homologous DNA can also be used for genome repair. In

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • The resilience of the intestinal microbiota influences health and disease
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-06-19
    Felix Sommer, Jacqueline Moltzau Anderson, Richa Bharti, Jeroen Raes, Philip Rosenstiel

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota varies among individuals and throughout development, and is dependent on host and environmental factors. However, although the microbiota is constantly exposed to environmental challenges, its composition and function in an individual are stable against perturbations, as microbial communities are

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Illuminating microbial diversity
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-30
    Samuel C. Forster

    This month's Genome Watch discusses the release of 1,003 bacterial and archaeal genomes, and describes how they could increase our understanding of the diversity of microbial biological functions and contribute to improved metagenomic analyses.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Bacterial secretion: Stress-free vesicle production
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-21
    Irene Vacca

    A recent study by Florez et al. shows a direct correlation between the export of PQS and OMV biogenesis, which suggests that by modulating the export of PQS it is possible to regulate the production of OMVs.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Prokaryotic Argonaute proteins: novel genome-editing tools?
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    Jorrit W. Hegge, Daan C. Swarts, John van der Oost

    Prokaryotic Argonaute proteins, homologues of eukaryotic Argonaute proteins involved in RNA interference, have recently been demonstrated to mediate host defence in archaea and bacteria. In this Progress article, van der Oost and colleagues explore the structures and biological functions of the prokaryotic Argonaute proteins, and discuss their potential applications in genome editing.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Legionella and Coxiella effectors: strength in diversity and activity
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-07-17
    Jiazhang Qiu, Zhao-Qing Luo

    Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii are two evolutionarily related intracellular pathogens that use the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system to translocate effectors into host cells. These effectors are essential for the establishment of membrane-bound compartments known as replication vacuoles, which enable the survival and replication of bacteria inside host cells. The effectors interfere with diverse signalling pathways to co-opt host processes, such as vesicle trafficking, ubiquitylation, gene expression and lipid metabolism, to promote pathogen survival. In this Review, we explore Dot/Icm effectors from L. pneumophila and C. burnetii as key virulence factors, and we examine the biochemical and cell biological functions of these effectors and their roles in our understanding of bacterial virulence.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Evolution and genome architecture in fungal plant pathogens
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-07

    The fungal kingdom comprises some of the most devastating plant pathogens. Sequencing the genomes of fungal pathogens has shown a remarkable variability in genome size and architecture. Population genomic data enable us to understand the mechanisms and the history of changes in genome size and adaptive evolution in plant pathogens. Although transposable elements predominantly have negative effects on their host, fungal pathogens provide prominent examples of advantageous associations between rapidly evolving transposable elements and virulence genes that cause variation in virulence phenotypes. By providing homogeneous environments at large regional scales, managed ecosystems, such as modern agriculture, can be conducive for the rapid evolution and dispersal of pathogens. In this Review, we summarize key examples from fungal plant pathogen genomics and discuss evolutionary processes in pathogenic fungi in the context of molecular evolution, population genomics and agriculture.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Sizing up the bacterial cell cycle
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Lisa Willis, Kerwyn Casey Huang

    It is remarkable how robustly a bacterial species can maintain its preferred size. This capacity is intimately related to control of the cell cycle: cell size and growth rate determine the duration of the cell cycle, which must accommodate the initiation and completion of DNA replication, and the assembly of the division apparatus during steady growth. Although we still lack an integrated view of the interconnections among events in the cell cycle, cell growth and cell size, the development of high-throughput imaging and image-processing protocols has stimulated a renaissance in the field. In this Review, we summarize recent findings, present simple classic models for cell size control, introduce high-throughput data-collection techniques, and explore the mechanisms that coordinate cell size with essential growth and cell cycle processes.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Embracing the unknown: disentangling the complexities of the soil microbiome
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-21
    Noah Fierer

    Soil microorganisms are clearly a key component of both natural and managed ecosystems. Despite the challenges of surviving in soil, a gram of soil can contain thousands of individual microbial taxa, including viruses and members of all three domains of life. Recent advances in marker gene, genomic and metagenomic analyses have greatly expanded our ability to characterize the soil microbiome and identify the factors that shape soil microbial communities across space and time. However, although most soil microorganisms remain undescribed, we can begin to categorize soil microorganisms on the basis of their ecological strategies. This is an approach that should prove fruitful for leveraging genomic information to predict the functional attributes of individual taxa. The field is now poised to identify how we can manipulate and manage the soil microbiome to increase soil fertility, improve crop production and improve our understanding of how terrestrial ecosystems will respond to environmental change.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • The resilience of the intestinal microbiota influences health and disease
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-06-19
    Felix Sommer, Jacqueline Moltzau Anderson, Richa Bharti, Jeroen Raes, Philip Rosenstiel

    The resilience of the microbiota can protect us from disease, but a resilient dysbiotic microbiota may also cause disease. This Opinion article discusses the concepts and mechanisms of microbial resilience against dietary, antibiotic or bacteriotherapy-induced perturbations and the implications these have for human health.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Interbacterial predation as a strategy for DNA acquisition in naturally competent bacteria
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-07-10
    Jan-Willem Veening, Melanie Blokesch

    The evolutionary function of natural competence remains controversial and several hypotheses for a function have been proposed. In this Opinion article, Veening and Blokesch propose that kin-discriminated predation that is linked to natural competence serves as a DNA acquisition strategy and therefore contributes to bacterial evolution.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Prediction of antibiotic resistance: time for a new preclinical paradigm?
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Morten O. A. Sommer, Christian Munck, Rasmus Vendler Toft-Kehler, Dan I. Andersson

    Risk assessment for the development of antibiotic resistance against a new drug candidate is of paramount importance in preclinical development. In this Opinion article, Sommer et al. propose a new preclinical paradigm for the prediction of antibiotic resistance.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Viral infection: When two become one
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    Ashley York

    Two recent studies provide new insights into the fusion stage of HIV-1 entry.

    更新日期:2017-08-14
  • Biofilms: Building up the matrix
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Irene Vacca

    Two independent recent studies have revealed how distinct components of the biofilm matrix contribute to its architectural stability and functionality.

    更新日期:2017-08-14
  • Bacterial physiology: Efflux pumps, fitness and virulence
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    Andrea Du Toit

    Two new studies explore the effect of overexpression of efflux pumps on bacterial fitness as well as the effect of loss of efflux function on virulence.

    更新日期:2017-08-14
  • Bacterial physiology: Raising the alarm
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Ashley York

    The targeted degradation of foreign nucleic acids by type III CRISPR–Cas systems is mediated by the multisubunit Csm interference complex. In addition, the CRISPR-associated protein Csm6 ribonuclease, which does not form part of the Csm complex, degrades foreign RNAs to provide full immunity, but how

    更新日期:2017-08-14
  • Viral pathogenesis: Finding the enemy within
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Ashley York

    Ebola virus (EBOV) can persist for many months after survivors have recovered from acute EBOV disease and cause post-EBOV syndrome. Understanding EBOV persistence in vivo has been challenging owing to the lack of an animal model, but now Zeng et al. report the

    更新日期:2017-08-14
  • Parasite genomics: Screening for the essentials
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Ashley York

    Functional genome-wide screens in Plasmodium spp. parasites, the causative agents of malaria, have been lacking, as they are refractory to genetic manipulation. Now, a new study by Bushell et al. reports the findings of an in vivo genetic screen that identified essential

    更新日期:2017-08-14
  • Bacterial pathogenesis: Bacteriophages, the glue that holds bacteria together
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    Ashley York

    A recent study provides a mechanism by which a bacteriophage may increase the translocation of Neisseria meningitidis into the bloodstream.

    更新日期:2017-08-14
  • Bacterial genetics: Splitting is never easy
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Irene Vacca

    Two recent studies shed light on the mechanisms that coordinate cell division with chromosomal replication and segregation in two distinct bacterial species.

    更新日期:2017-08-14
  • Epidemiology: Anthrax threatens wildlife
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Irene Vacca

    Anthrax is a bacterial disease that affects wild and domestic animals, as well as humans. Although outbreaks have mostly been reported in arid ecosystems of the African savannahs, lethal anthrax-like cases in wild chimpanzees were reported in a rainforest habitat, and the causative agent was

    更新日期:2017-08-14
  • Microbiota: Tell me who you are and I'll tell you what you eat
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Irene Vacca

    The gut microbiota of Drosophila melanogaster mainly comprises Acetobacter spp. and Lactobacillus spp., and their relative abundance changes at the individual level and throughout development; however, how the microbiota is assembled is not well understood. Chun-Nin Wong et al. manipulated the

    更新日期:2017-08-14
  • Bacterial pathogenesis: Vibrio enters 'sleep mode' to survive
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Irene Vacca

    Vibrio cholerae is a water-borne pathogen that can cause cholera, an acute and severe gastrointestinal infection. A recent study by Silva-Valenzuela et al. investigated how this bacterium adapts to, and survives in, fresh water, which is an environment that is crucial for human

    更新日期:2017-08-14
  • Stronger together
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    John A. Lees, Gerry Tonkin-Hill, Stephen D. Bentley

    This month's Genome Watch discusses how genome-wide epistasis analysis and genome-to-genome analyses are providing insights into the relevance of interactions between and within the genomes of pathogens and their hosts.

    更新日期:2017-08-14
  • Pseudomonas predators: understanding and exploiting phage–host interactions
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-06-26
    Jeroen De Smet, Hanne Hendrix, Bob G. Blasdel, Katarzyna Danis-Wlodarczyk, Rob Lavigne

    Species in the genus Pseudomonas thrive in a diverse set of ecological niches and include crucial pathogens, such as the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. The bacteriophages that infect Pseudomonas spp. mirror the widespread and diverse nature of their hosts. Therefore, Pseudomonas spp. and their phages are an ideal system to study the molecular mechanisms that govern virus–host interactions. Furthermore, phages are principal catalysts of host evolution and diversity, which directly affects the ecological roles of environmental and pathogenic Pseudomonas spp. Understanding these interactions not only provides novel insights into phage biology but also advances the development of phage therapy, phage-derived antimicrobial strategies and innovative biotechnological tools that may be derived from phage–bacteria interactions.

    更新日期:2017-08-14
  • Transmission of the gut microbiota: spreading of health
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    Hilary P. Browne, B. Anne Neville, Samuel C. Forster, Trevor D. Lawley

    Transmission of commensal intestinal bacteria between humans could promote health by establishing, maintaining and replenishing microbial diversity in the microbiota of an individual. Unlike pathogens, the routes of transmission for commensal bacteria remain unappreciated and poorly understood, despite the likely commonalities between both. Consequently, broad infection control measures that are designed to prevent pathogen transmission and infection, such as oversanitation and the overuse of antibiotics, may inadvertently affect human health by altering normal commensal transmission. In this Review, we discuss the mechanisms and factors that influence host-to-host transmission of the intestinal microbiota and examine how a better understanding of these processes will identify new approaches to nurture and restore transmission routes that are used by beneficial bacteria.

    更新日期:2017-08-14
  • Engineering of obligate intracellular bacteria: progress, challenges and paradigms
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-06-19
    Erin E. McClure, Adela S. Oliva Chávez, Dana K. Shaw, Jason A. Carlyon, Roman R. Ganta, Susan M. Noh, David O. Wood, Patrik M. Bavoil, Kelly A. Brayton, Juan J. Martinez, Jere W. McBride, Raphael H. Valdivia, Ulrike G. Munderloh, Joao H. F. Pedra

    It is estimated that approximately one billion people are at risk of infection with obligate intracellular bacteria, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms that govern their life cycles. The difficulty in studying Chlamydia spp., Coxiella spp., Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Orientia spp. is, in part, due to their genetic intractability. Recently, genetic tools have been developed; however, optimizing the genomic manipulation of obligate intracellular bacteria remains challenging. In this Review, we describe the progress in, as well as the constraints that hinder, the systematic development of a genetic toolbox for obligate intracellular bacteria. We highlight how the use of genetically manipulated pathogens has facilitated a better understanding of microbial pathogenesis and immunity, and how the engineering of obligate intracellular bacteria could enable the discovery of novel signalling circuits in host–pathogen interactions.

    更新日期:2017-08-14
  • Viral effects on the content and function of extracellular vesicles
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-06-26
    Nancy Raab-Traub, Dirk P. Dittmer

    The release of membrane-bound vesicles from cells is being increasingly recognized as a mechanism of intercellular communication. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) or exosomes are produced by virus-infected cells and are thought to be involved in intercellular communication between infected and uninfected cells. Viruses, in particular oncogenic viruses and viruses that establish chronic infections, have been shown to modulate the production and content of EVs. Viral microRNAs, proteins and even entire virions can be incorporated into EVs, which can affect the immune recognition of viruses or modulate neighbouring cells. In this Review, we discuss the roles that EVs have during viral infection to either promote or restrict viral replication in target cells. We will also discuss our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie these roles, the potential consequences for the infected host and possible future diagnostic applications.

    更新日期:2017-08-14
  • Antimalarial drug discovery — approaches and progress towards new medicines
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    Erika L. Flannery, Arnab K. Chatterjee, Elizabeth A. Winzeler

    Nature Reviews Microbiology11, 849–862 (2013)In the above article, the structure of DSM265 in figure 3 was missing a methyl group. This has now been corrected in the PDF and online. We apologize to readers for any confusion

    更新日期:2017-08-14
  • Stronger together
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    John A. Lees, Gerry Tonkin-Hill, Stephen D. Bentley

    This month's Genome Watch discusses how genome-wide epistasis analysis and genome-to-genome analyses are providing insights into the relevance of interactions between and within the genomes of pathogens and their hosts.

    更新日期:2017-08-07
  • Bacterial pathogenesis: Bacteriophages, the glue that holds bacteria together
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    Ashley York

    A recent study provides a mechanism by which a bacteriophage may increase the translocation of Neisseria meningitidis into the bloodstream.

    更新日期:2017-08-07
  • Bacterial physiology: Efflux pumps, fitness and virulence
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    Andrea Du Toit

    Two new studies explore the effect of overexpression of efflux pumps on bacterial fitness as well as the effect of loss of efflux function on virulence.

    更新日期:2017-08-07
  • Biofilms: Building up the matrix
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Irene Vacca

    Two independent recent studies have revealed how distinct components of the biofilm matrix contribute to its architectural stability and functionality.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Viral infection: When two become one
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    Ashley York

    Two recent studies provide new insights into the fusion stage of HIV-1 entry.

    更新日期:2017-07-24
  • Antimicrobials: Modified sugar compound can clear intestinal colonization by UPEC
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Irene Vacca

    This study found a new role for chaperone–usher pathway (CUP) pili in the colonization of the gut by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and identified a mannoside compound that could be used to prevent their binding to host cells.

    更新日期:2017-07-13
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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