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  • Antimicrobials: Daylight robbery by Acinetobacter
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    Andrea Du Toit

    Antimicrobials: Daylight robbery by Acinetobacter Antimicrobials: Daylight robbery by Acinetobacter, Published online: 20 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.147 Bacterial predation by Acinetobacter baylyi increases the rate of horizontal gene transfer from Escherichia coli, which leads to the acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes from prey cells.

    更新日期:2017-11-20
  • Antimicrobials: Daylight robbery by Acinetobacter
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    Andrea Du Toit

    Antimicrobials: Daylight robbery by Acinetobacter Antimicrobials: Daylight robbery by Acinetobacter, Published online: 20 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.147 Bacterial predation by Acinetobacter baylyi increases the rate of horizontal gene transfer from Escherichia coli, which leads to the acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes from prey cells.

    更新日期:2017-11-20
  • Environmental microbiology: Geographic coordinates guide natural product discovery
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Andrea Du Toit

    Environmental microbiology: Geographic coordinates guide natural product discoveryEnvironmental microbiology: Geographic coordinates guide natural product discovery, Published online: 10 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.142NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup=This study identifies the environmental factors that are associated with changes in bacterial secondary metabolism across natural environments on a metagenome-wide scale., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • A flourishing field: going back to the roots of the Archaea
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10

    A flourishing field: going back to the roots of the ArchaeaA flourishing field: going back to the roots of the Archaea, Published online: 10 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.144NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup=This issue marks the 40th anniversary of the publication of the landmark article by Carl Woese and George Fox in which they proposed the Archaea as a third domain of life., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • The enigmatic archaeal virosphere
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    David Prangishvili, Dennis H. Bamford, Patrick Forterre, Jaime Iranzo, Eugene V. Koonin, Mart Krupovic

    One of the most prominent features of archaea is the extraordinary diversity of their DNA viruses. Many archaeal viruses differ substantially in morphology from bacterial and eukaryotic viruses and represent unique virus families. The distinct nature of archaeal viruses also extends to the gene composition and architectures of their genomes and the properties of the proteins that they encode. Environmental research has revealed prominent roles of archaeal viruses in influencing microbial communities in ocean ecosystems, and recent metagenomic studies have uncovered new groups of archaeal viruses that infect extremophiles and mesophiles in diverse habitats. In this Review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the genomic and morphological diversity of archaeal viruses and the molecular biology of their life cycles and virus–host interactions, including interactions with archaeal CRISPR–Cas systems. We also examine the potential origins and evolution of archaeal viruses and discuss their place in the global virosphere.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Archaea and the origin of eukaryotes
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Laura Eme, Anja Spang, Jonathan Lombard, Courtney W. Stairs, Thijs J. G. Ettema

    Woese and Fox's 1977 paper on the discovery of the Archaea triggered a revolution in the field of evolutionary biology by showing that life was divided into not only prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Rather, they revealed that prokaryotes comprise two distinct types of organisms, the Bacteria and the Archaea. In subsequent years, molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated that eukaryotes and the Archaea represent sister groups in the tree of life. During the genomic era, it became evident that eukaryotic cells possess a mixture of archaeal and bacterial features in addition to eukaryotic-specific features. Although it has been generally accepted for some time that mitochondria descend from endosymbiotic alphaproteobacteria, the precise evolutionary relationship between eukaryotes and archaea has continued to be a subject of debate. In this Review, we outline a brief history of the changing shape of the tree of life and examine how the recent discovery of a myriad of diverse archaeal lineages has changed our understanding of the evolutionary relationships between the three domains of life and the origin of eukaryotes. Furthermore, we revisit central questions regarding the process of eukaryogenesis and discuss what can currently be inferred about the evolutionary transition from the first to the last eukaryotic common ancestor.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Evolution and genome architecture in fungal plant pathogens
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Mareike Möller, Eva H. Stukenbrock

    Evolution and genome architecture in fungal plant pathogensEvolution and genome architecture in fungal plant pathogens, Published online: 10 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.143

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Host response: Granzyme B's roundhouse kick against bacteria
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Ursula Hofer

    Host response: Granzyme B's roundhouse kick against bacteriaHost response: Granzyme B's roundhouse kick against bacteria, Published online: 10 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.145NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup=This study identifies a new bacterial cell death pathway that is triggered by granzyme B and that can kill diverse bacteria., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Environmental microbiology: Geographic coordinates guide natural product discovery
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Andrea Du Toit

    Environmental microbiology: Geographic coordinates guide natural product discoveryEnvironmental microbiology: Geographic coordinates guide natural product discovery, Published online: 10 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.142NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup=This study identifies the environmental factors that are associated with changes in bacterial secondary metabolism across natural environments on a metagenome-wide scale., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • A flourishing field: going back to the roots of the Archaea
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10

    A flourishing field: going back to the roots of the ArchaeaA flourishing field: going back to the roots of the Archaea, Published online: 10 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.144NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup=This issue marks the 40th anniversary of the publication of the landmark article by Carl Woese and George Fox in which they proposed the Archaea as a third domain of life., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • The enigmatic archaeal virosphere
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    David Prangishvili, Dennis H. Bamford, Patrick Forterre, Jaime Iranzo, Eugene V. Koonin, Mart Krupovic

    One of the most prominent features of archaea is the extraordinary diversity of their DNA viruses. Many archaeal viruses differ substantially in morphology from bacterial and eukaryotic viruses and represent unique virus families. The distinct nature of archaeal viruses also extends to the gene composition and architectures of their genomes and the properties of the proteins that they encode. Environmental research has revealed prominent roles of archaeal viruses in influencing microbial communities in ocean ecosystems, and recent metagenomic studies have uncovered new groups of archaeal viruses that infect extremophiles and mesophiles in diverse habitats. In this Review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the genomic and morphological diversity of archaeal viruses and the molecular biology of their life cycles and virus–host interactions, including interactions with archaeal CRISPR–Cas systems. We also examine the potential origins and evolution of archaeal viruses and discuss their place in the global virosphere.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Archaea and the origin of eukaryotes
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Laura Eme, Anja Spang, Jonathan Lombard, Courtney W. Stairs, Thijs J. G. Ettema

    Woese and Fox's 1977 paper on the discovery of the Archaea triggered a revolution in the field of evolutionary biology by showing that life was divided into not only prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Rather, they revealed that prokaryotes comprise two distinct types of organisms, the Bacteria and the Archaea. In subsequent years, molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated that eukaryotes and the Archaea represent sister groups in the tree of life. During the genomic era, it became evident that eukaryotic cells possess a mixture of archaeal and bacterial features in addition to eukaryotic-specific features. Although it has been generally accepted for some time that mitochondria descend from endosymbiotic alphaproteobacteria, the precise evolutionary relationship between eukaryotes and archaea has continued to be a subject of debate. In this Review, we outline a brief history of the changing shape of the tree of life and examine how the recent discovery of a myriad of diverse archaeal lineages has changed our understanding of the evolutionary relationships between the three domains of life and the origin of eukaryotes. Furthermore, we revisit central questions regarding the process of eukaryogenesis and discuss what can currently be inferred about the evolutionary transition from the first to the last eukaryotic common ancestor.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Evolution and genome architecture in fungal plant pathogens
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Mareike Möller, Eva H. Stukenbrock

    Evolution and genome architecture in fungal plant pathogensEvolution and genome architecture in fungal plant pathogens, Published online: 10 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.143

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Host response: Granzyme B's roundhouse kick against bacteria
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Ursula Hofer

    Host response: Granzyme B's roundhouse kick against bacteriaHost response: Granzyme B's roundhouse kick against bacteria, Published online: 10 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.145NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup=This study identifies a new bacterial cell death pathway that is triggered by granzyme B and that can kill diverse bacteria., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Pathogenesis of HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-infection
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Lucy C. K. Bell, Mahdad Noursadeghi

    Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the leading cause of death in individuals infected with HIV-1. It has long been known that HIV-1 infection alters the course of M. tuberculosis infection and substantially increases the risk of active tuberculosis (TB). It has also become clear that TB increases levels of HIV-1 replication, propagation and genetic diversity. Therefore, co-infection provides reciprocal advantages to both pathogens. In this Review, we describe the epidemiological associations between the two pathogens, selected interactions of each pathogen with the host and our current understanding of how they affect the pathogenesis of TB and HIV-1/AIDS in individuals with co-infections. We evaluate the mechanisms and consequences of HIV-1 depletion of T cells on immune responses to M. tuberculosis. We also discuss the effect of HIV-1 infection on the control of M. tuberculosis by macrophages through phagocytosis, autophagy and cell death, and we propose models by which dysregulated inflammatory responses drive the pathogenesis of TB and HIV-1/AIDS.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • The evolution of seasonal influenza viruses
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Velislava N. Petrova, Colin A. Russell

    The evolution of seasonal influenza virusesThe evolution of seasonal influenza viruses, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.146

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Pathogenesis of HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-infection
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Lucy C. K. Bell, Mahdad Noursadeghi

    Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the leading cause of death in individuals infected with HIV-1. It has long been known that HIV-1 infection alters the course of M. tuberculosis infection and substantially increases the risk of active tuberculosis (TB). It has also become clear that TB increases levels of HIV-1 replication, propagation and genetic diversity. Therefore, co-infection provides reciprocal advantages to both pathogens. In this Review, we describe the epidemiological associations between the two pathogens, selected interactions of each pathogen with the host and our current understanding of how they affect the pathogenesis of TB and HIV-1/AIDS in individuals with co-infections. We evaluate the mechanisms and consequences of HIV-1 depletion of T cells on immune responses to M. tuberculosis. We also discuss the effect of HIV-1 infection on the control of M. tuberculosis by macrophages through phagocytosis, autophagy and cell death, and we propose models by which dysregulated inflammatory responses drive the pathogenesis of TB and HIV-1/AIDS.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • The evolution of seasonal influenza viruses
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Velislava N. Petrova, Colin A. Russell

    The evolution of seasonal influenza virusesThe evolution of seasonal influenza viruses, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.146

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Techniques & applications: Expanding the genetic toolbox for fungi
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Andrea Du Toit

    Techniques & applications: Expanding the genetic toolbox for fungi Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.141

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Viral evolution: Closely monitoring influenza virus
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Andrea Du Toit

    Viral evolution: Closely monitoring influenza virus Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.139

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • The evolution of seasonal influenza viruses
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Velislava N. Petrova, Colin A. Russell

    Despite decades of surveillance and pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions, seasonal influenza viruses continue to cause epidemics around the world each year. The key process underlying these recurrent epidemics is the evolution of the viruses to escape the immunity that is induced by prior infection or vaccination. Although we are beginning to understand the processes that underlie the evolutionary dynamics of seasonal influenza viruses, the timing and nature of emergence of new virus strains remain mostly unpredictable. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the molecular determinants of influenza virus immune escape, sources of evolutionary selection pressure, population dynamics of influenza viruses and prospects for better influenza virus control.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Genome watch: Microbiota shuns the modern world
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Nitin Kumar, Samuel C. Forster

    Genome watch: Microbiota shuns the modern world Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.136 This month's Genome Watch highlights the variation in gut microbiota across different human communities and explores how this is associated with lifestyle and diet.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Marine microbiology: Synchronized rhythms in the ocean
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Andrea Du Toit

    Marine microbiology: Synchronized rhythms in the ocean Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.140

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Microbiome: The microbiota's cryptic message
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Ursula Hofer

    Microbiome: The microbiota's cryptic message Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.138 This study shows how the crypt microbiota and the LPS that they produce alter epithelial proliferation and differentiation in the colon.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Bacterial pathogenesis: Activating Helicobacter effector delivery
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-24
    Irene Vacca

    Bacterial pathogenesis: Activating Helicobacter effector delivery Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 24 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.135 A recent study revealed how H. pylori opens cell-to-cell junctions and traverses the gastric epithelium to bind to basolateral integrins, thereby activating the assembly and function of its type IV secretion system.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Anti-CRISPR: discovery, mechanism and function
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-24
    April Pawluk, Alan R. Davidson, Karen L. Maxwell

    Anti-CRISPR: discovery, mechanism and function Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 24 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.120 CRISPR–Cas adaptive immune systems are widespread in prokaryotes. In this Progress article, Maxwell and colleagues highlight how phages and other mobile genetic elements inactivate CRISPR–Cas systems using anti-CRISPR proteins and outline evolutionary and biotechnological implications of anti-CRISPR protein activity.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Techniques & applications: Expanding the genetic toolbox for fungi
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Andrea Du Toit

    Techniques & applications: Expanding the genetic toolbox for fungi Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.141

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Viral evolution: Closely monitoring influenza virus
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Andrea Du Toit

    Viral evolution: Closely monitoring influenza virus Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.139

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • The evolution of seasonal influenza viruses
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Velislava N. Petrova, Colin A. Russell

    Despite decades of surveillance and pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions, seasonal influenza viruses continue to cause epidemics around the world each year. The key process underlying these recurrent epidemics is the evolution of the viruses to escape the immunity that is induced by prior infection or vaccination. Although we are beginning to understand the processes that underlie the evolutionary dynamics of seasonal influenza viruses, the timing and nature of emergence of new virus strains remain mostly unpredictable. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the molecular determinants of influenza virus immune escape, sources of evolutionary selection pressure, population dynamics of influenza viruses and prospects for better influenza virus control.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Genome watch: Microbiota shuns the modern world
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Nitin Kumar, Samuel C. Forster

    This month's Genome Watch highlights the variation in gut microbiota across different human communities and explores how this is associated with lifestyle and diet.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Marine microbiology: Synchronized rhythms in the ocean
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Andrea Du Toit

    Marine microbiology: Synchronized rhythms in the ocean Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.140

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Microbiome: The microbiota's cryptic message
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Ursula Hofer

    Microbiome: The microbiota's cryptic message Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.138 This study shows how the crypt microbiota and the LPS that they produce alter epithelial proliferation and differentiation in the colon.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Bacterial pathogenesis: Activating Helicobacter effector delivery
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-24
    Irene Vacca

    Bacterial pathogenesis: Activating Helicobacter effector delivery Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 24 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.135 A recent study revealed how H. pylori opens cell-to-cell junctions and traverses the gastric epithelium to bind to basolateral integrins, thereby activating the assembly and function of its type IV secretion system.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Anti-CRISPR: discovery, mechanism and function
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-10-24
    April Pawluk, Alan R. Davidson, Karen L. Maxwell

    CRISPR–Cas adaptive immune systems are widespread among bacteria and archaea. Recent studies have shown that these systems have minimal long-term evolutionary effects in limiting horizontal gene transfer. This suggests that the ability to evade CRISPR–Cas immunity must also be widespread in phages and other mobile genetic elements. In this Progress article, we discuss recent discoveries that highlight how phages inactivate CRISPR–Cas systems by using anti-CRISPR proteins, and we outline evolutionary and biotechnological implications of their activity.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Microbiome: Diving deeper into the communities
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 
    Andrea Du Toit

    Microbiome: Diving deeper into the communities Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 12 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.130

    更新日期:2017-10-12
  • Fungal physiology: Two for the price of one
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 
    Ashley York

    Fungal physiology: Two for the price of one Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 12 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.132

    更新日期:2017-10-12
  • Novel vaccine vectors for HIV-1
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 
    Dan H. Barouch, Louis J. Picker

    Novel vaccine vectors for HIV-1 Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 12 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.134

    更新日期:2017-10-12
  • Diagnosing antimicrobial resistance
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 
    Carey-Ann D. Burnham, Jennifer Leeds, Patrice Nordmann, Justin O'Grady, Jean Patel

    Diagnosing antimicrobial resistance Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 12 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.103 Antimicrobial resistance constitutes a global health burden and research efforts are aimed at combatting the emergence of resistant microorganisms. In this Viewpoint article, several experts in the field discuss the role that rapid diagnostic tests have in managing the challenge of antimicrobial resistance, the drawbacks of current diagnostic methods, novel diagnostic strategies, and how such rapid diagnostic tools can inform drug development and the surveillance of resistance evolution.

    更新日期:2017-10-12
  • Understanding drug resistance will improve the treatment of bacterial infections
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 
    Laura J. V. Piddock

    Understanding drug resistance will improve the treatment of bacterial infections Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 12 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.121 An improved understanding of the origins and spread of drug-resistant bacteria, as well as the identification of novel antimicrobial compounds and new drug combinations, will facilitate the development of better dosing regimens and novel strategies to manage drug resistance and prevent the dissemination of resistant bacteria.

    更新日期:2017-10-12
  • Biofilms: The architect of the biofilm
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 
    Ashley York

    Biofilms: The architect of the biofilm Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 12 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.127 A recent study investigated the structural dynamics of a matrix protein of Vibrio cholerae biofilms and examined how this protein modulates the architecture of the biofilm.

    更新日期:2017-10-12
  • Bacterial physiology: Making a memory
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 
    Ashley York

    Bacterial physiology: Making a memory Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 12 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.131

    更新日期:2017-10-12
  • Viral infection: Adapt or get zapped
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 
    Irene Vacca

    Viral infection: Adapt or get zapped Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 12 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.129 In a recent study, Takata et al. show that viral CG suppression is key for the replication of HIV-1 and that the zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP), by specifically binding to CG-rich RNA sequences, can identify non-self RNAs and target them for degradation.

    更新日期:2017-10-12
  • Carpe diet
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 
    Elisa Viciani

    Carpe diet Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 3 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.123 This month's Genome Watch examines how coupling deep sequencing of the gut microbiome with metabolic profiles can advance the development of microbiota-focused personalized precision nutrition.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Bacterial pathogenesis: It takes two to tango
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 
    Andrea Du Toit

    Bacterial pathogenesis: It takes two to tango Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 3 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.124 This study reveals a two-component response regulator system in enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis strains that regulates the expression of the colitis-inducing B. fragilis toxin.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Development and regulation of single- and multi-species Candida albicans biofilms
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 
    Matthew B. Lohse, Megha Gulati, Alexander D. Johnson, Clarissa J. Nobile

    Candida albicans is among the most prevalent fungal species of the human microbiota and asymptomatically colonizes healthy individuals. However, it is also an opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe, and often fatal, bloodstream infections. The medical impact of C. albicans typically depends on its ability to form biofilms, which are closely packed communities of cells that attach to surfaces, such as tissues and implanted medical devices. In this Review, we provide an overview of the processes involved in the formation of C. albicans biofilms and discuss the core transcriptional network that regulates biofilm development. We also consider some of the advantages that biofilms provide to C. albicans in comparison with planktonic growth and explore polymicrobial biofilms that are formed by C. albicans and certain bacterial species.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Targeting microbial biofilms: current and prospective therapeutic strategies
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 
    Hyun Koo, Raymond N. Allan, Robert P. Howlin, Paul Stoodley, Luanne Hall-Stoodley

    Biofilm formation is a key virulence factor for a wide range of microorganisms that cause chronic infections. The multifactorial nature of biofilm development and drug tolerance imposes great challenges for the use of conventional antimicrobials and indicates the need for multi-targeted or combinatorial therapies. In this Review, we focus on current therapeutic strategies and those under development that target vital structural and functional traits of microbial biofilms and drug tolerance mechanisms, including the extracellular matrix and dormant cells. We emphasize strategies that are supported by in vivo or ex vivo studies, highlight emerging biofilm-targeting technologies and provide a rationale for multi-targeted therapies aimed at disrupting the complex biofilm microenvironment.

    更新日期:2017-09-25
  • Parasite development: Parasites talk about growth
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-09-18
    Irene Vacca

    Parasite development: Parasites talk about growth Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 18 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.119 A recent study by Silvester et al. found that a conserved quorum sensing signalling pathway regulates interspecies crosstalk in trypanosome co-infections and provided novel insights into trypanosome virulence and transmission.

    更新日期:2017-09-20
  • Aspergillus fumigatus morphology and dynamic host interactions
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-09-18
    Frank L. van de Veerdonk, Mark S. Gresnigt, Luigina Romani, Mihai G. Netea, Jean-Paul Latgé

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an environmental filamentous fungus that can cause life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals. The interactions between A. fumigatus and the host environment are dynamic and complex. The host immune system needs to recognize the distinct morphological forms of A. fumigatus to control fungal growth and prevent tissue invasion, whereas the fungus requires nutrients and needs to adapt to the hostile environment by escaping immune recognition and counteracting host responses. Understanding these highly dynamic interactions is necessary to fully understand the pathogenesis of aspergillosis and to facilitate the design of new therapeutics to overcome the morbidity and mortality caused by A. fumigatus. In this Review, we describe how A. fumigatus adapts to environmental change, the mechanisms of host defence, and our current knowledge of the interplay between the host immune response and the fungus.

    更新日期:2017-09-20
  • Marine microbiology: Algal virus boosts nitrogen uptake in the ocean
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 
    Ashley York

    Marine microbiology: Algal virus boosts nitrogen uptake in the ocean Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 13 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.113 A recent study identified a host-derived ammonium transporter in the genome of an algal virus that increases the rate of nitrogen uptake by infected cells and changes how the host accesses diverse nitrogen sources during infection.

    更新日期:2017-09-15
  • Microbiome: Copy-catting host signalling molecules
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 
    Ashley York

    Microbiome: Copy-catting host signalling molecules Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 13 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.115

    更新日期:2017-09-15
  • Viral infection: A bacteriophage-like entry pathway in eukaryotes
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 
    Ashley York

    Viral infection: A bacteriophage-like entry pathway in eukaryotes Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 13 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.117

    更新日期:2017-09-15
  • Bacterial pathogenesis: Rewiring cellular dynamics and metabolism
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 
    Andrea Du Toit

    Bacterial pathogenesis: Rewiring cellular dynamics and metabolism Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 13 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.114 This study reports that Legionella pneumophila regulates mitochondrial dynamics to subvert mitochondrial bioenergetics of infected cells in a process that involves a bacterial T4SS effector and a host fission protein.

    更新日期:2017-09-15
  • Archaeal biology: Plasmid propagation by virus-like particles
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 
    Ashley York

    Archaeal biology: Plasmid propagation by virus-like particles Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 13 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.116

    更新日期:2017-09-15
  • Gliding motility powers invasion and egress in Apicomplexa
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-09-04
    Karine Frénal, Jean-François Dubremetz, Maryse Lebrun, Dominique Soldati-Favre

    Protozoan parasites have developed elaborate motility systems that facilitate infection and dissemination. For example, amoebae use actin-rich membrane extensions called pseudopodia, whereas Kinetoplastida are propelled by microtubule-containing flagella. By contrast, the motile and invasive stages of the Apicomplexa — a phylum that contains the important human pathogens Plasmodium falciparum (which causes malaria) and Toxoplasma gondii (which causes toxoplasmosis) — have a unique machinery called the glideosome, which is composed of an actomyosin system that underlies the plasma membrane. The glideosome promotes substrate-dependent gliding motility, which powers migration across biological barriers, as well as active host cell entry and egress from infected cells. In this Review, we discuss the discovery of the principles that govern gliding motility, the characterization of the molecular machinery involved, and its impact on parasite invasion and egress from infected cells.

    更新日期:2017-09-15
  • Microbiome: The microbiota maintains oxygen balance in the gut
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-09-04
    Irene Vacca

    Microbiome: The microbiota maintains oxygen balance in the gut Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 4 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.112 A recent study describes a new molecular mechanism used by the gut microbiota to maintain a state of homeostasis in the intestinal lumen, and highlights the importance of PPARγ signalling in this complex regulation.

    更新日期:2017-09-15
  • Bacterial evolution: Historical influences on antibiotic resistance
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-30
    Ashley York

    Bacterial evolution: Historical influences on antibiotic resistance Nature Reviews Microbiology, Published online: 30 August 2017; doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.111 A recent study investigated how the history of adaptation to a single antibiotic influences the trajectory of evolutionary dynamics during subsequent treatments with different antibiotics.

    更新日期:2017-09-15
  • Marine microbiology: Algal virus boosts nitrogen uptake in the ocean
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-09-13
    Ashley York

    A recent study identified a host-derived ammonium transporter in the genome of an algal virus that increases the rate of nitrogen uptake by infected cells and changes how the host accesses diverse nitrogen sources during infection.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Bacterial secretion: Stress-free vesicle production
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-21
    Irene Vacca

    A recent study by Florez et al. shows a direct correlation between the export of PQS and OMV biogenesis, which suggests that by modulating the export of PQS it is possible to regulate the production of OMVs.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Microbiome: The microbiota maintains oxygen balance in the gut
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-09-04
    Irene Vacca

    A recent study describes a new molecular mechanism used by the gut microbiota to maintain a state of homeostasis in the intestinal lumen, and highlights the importance of PPARγ signalling in this complex regulation.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Bacterial ecology: Cheaters take advantage
    Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 26.819) Pub Date : 2017-08-30
    Irene Vacca

    Microbial cooperation includes various behaviours, such as nutrient acquisition. However, little is known about the costs and benefits of cooperation in relation to microbial growth. A recent study by Sexton and Schuster investigated the effects of nutrient limitation on the production of the siderophore pyoverdine

    更新日期:2017-09-13
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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