Neurobiology of Disease ( IF 5.160 ) Pub Date : 2019-01-17 , DOI: 10.1016/j.nbd.2019.01.007 Daniela Impellizzeri, Rosalba Siracusa, Marika Cordaro, Rosalia Crupi, Alessio Filippo Peritore, Enrico Gugliandolo, Ramona D'Amico, Stefania Petrosino, Maurizio Evangelista, Rosanna Di Paola, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Recent studies revealed that pharmacological modulation of NAE-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA) can be achieved with PEA oxazoline (PEA-OXA). Hence, the aim of the present work was to thoroughly evaluate the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of PEA-OXA in an experimental model of vascular dementia (VaD) induced by bilateral carotid arteries occlusion. At 24 h after VaD induction, animals were orally administered with 10 mg/kg of PEA-OXA daily for 15 days.
Brain tissues were handled for histological, immunohistochemical, western blot, and immunofluorescence analysis. PEA-OXA treatment evidently reduced the histological alterations and neuronal death induced by VaD and additionally improved behavioral deficits. Further, PEA-OXA decreased GFAP and Iba-1, markers of astrocytes, and microglia activation, as well as increased MAP-2, a marker of neuron development. Moreover, PEA-OXA reduced oxidative stress, modulated Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response, and inhibited the apoptotic process.
Some drugs may demonstrate their healing potential by regulating neuroinflammation, rather than by their habitually attributed actions only. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a prototype ALIAmide, well-known for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. The inhibition of PEA degradation by targeting NAAA, its catabolic enzyme, is a different approach for treating neuroinflammation. This research offers new insight into the mechanism of PEA-OXA-induced neuroprotection.
Thus, the modulation of intracellular NAAA by PEA-OXA could offer a novel means of controlling neuroinflammatory conditions associated with VaD.