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Metagenomic analysis of viruses, bacteria and protozoa in irrigation water
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health ( IF 4.379 ) Pub Date : 2019-12-24 , DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2019.113440
Marta Rusiñol; Sandra Martínez-Puchol; Natalia Timoneda; Xavier Fernández-Cassi; Alba Pérez-Cataluña; Ana Fernández-Bravo; Laura Moreno-Mesonero; Yolanda Moreno; Jose Luís Alonso; Maria José Figueras; Josep Francesc Abril; Sílvia Bofill-Mas; Rosina Girones

Viruses (e.g., noroviruses and hepatitis A and E virus), bacteria (e.g., Salmonella spp. and pathogenic Escherichia coli) and protozoa (e.g., Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia intestinalis) are well-known contributors to food-borne illnesses linked to contaminated fresh produce. As agricultural irrigation increases the total amount of water used annually, reclaimed water is a good alternative to reduce dependency on conventional irrigation water sources. European guidelines have established acceptable concentrations of certain pathogens and/or indicators in irrigation water, depending on the irrigation system used and the irrigated crop. However, the incidences of food-borne infections are known to be underestimated and all the different pathogens contributing to these infections are not known. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) enables the determination of the viral, bacterial and protozoan populations present in a water sample, providing an opportunity to detect emerging pathogens and develop improved tools for monitoring the quality of irrigation water. This is a descriptive study of the virome, bacteriome and parasitome present in different irrigation water sources. We applied the same concentration method for all the studied samples and specific metagenomic approaches to characterize both DNA and RNA viruses, bacteria and protozoa. In general, most of the known viral species corresponded to plant viruses and bacteriophages. Viral diversity in river water varied over the year, with higher bacteriophage prevalences during the autumn and winter. Reservoir water contained Enterobacter cloacae, an opportunistic human pathogen and an indicator of fecal contamination, as well as Naegleria australiensis and Naegleria clarki. Hepatitis E virus and Naegleria fowleri, emerging human pathogens, were detected in groundwater. Reclaimed water produced in a constructed wetland system presented a virome and bacteriome that resembled those of freshwater samples (river and reservoir water). Viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens were occasionally detected in the different irrigation water sources included in this study, justifying the use of improved NGS techniques to get a comprehensive evaluation of microbial species and potential environmental health hazards associated to irrigation water.
更新日期:2019-12-25

 

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