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Extracellular vesicles and their roles in stem cell biology.
STEM CELLS ( IF 5.614 ) Pub Date : 2019-12-11 , DOI: 10.1002/stem.3140
Yun H Hur,Richard A Cerione,Marc A Antonyak

Stem cells use a variety of mechanisms to help maintain their pluripotency, promote self-renewal, as well as at the appropriate time, to differentiate into specialized cells. One such mechanism that is attracting significant attention from the stem cell, development, and regenerative medicine research communities involves a form of intercellular communication, specifically, the ability of cells to form and release nontraditional membrane-enclosed structures, referred to as extracellular vesicles (EVs). There are two major classes of EVs, microvesicles (MVs), which are generated through the outward budding and fission of the plasma membrane, and exosomes which are formed as multivesicular bodies (MVBs) in the endo-lysosomal pathway that fuse with the cell surface to release their contents. Although they differ in how they are formed, both MVs and exosomes have been shown to contain a diverse array of bioactive cargo, such as proteins, RNA transcripts, microRNAs, and even DNA, which can be transferred to other cells and promote phenotypic changes. Here, we will describe what is currently known regarding EVs and the roles they play in stem cell biology and different aspects of early development. We will also highlight how the EVs produced by stem cells are being aggressively pursued for clinical applications, including their potential use as therapeutic delivery systems and for their regenerative capabilities.
更新日期:2020-01-11

 

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