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Stigma related to contraceptive use and abortion in Kenya: scale development and validation.
Reproductive Health ( IF 2.177 ) Pub Date : 2019-09-06 , DOI: 10.1186/s12978-019-0799-1
Marlene Makenzius,Grace McKinney,Monica Oguttu,Ulla Romild

BACKGROUND Stigma related to abortion and contraceptive use is a serious public health threat for young people, and validated scales to measure this stigma are scarce. The purposes of the study were to validate a newly constructed scale to measure the stigma of contraceptive use and to adapt a scale to measure the stigma of abortion. METHODS A study nested in a cluster-randomised trial. In 2017, data was collected from 633 secondary school youths, in a semi-urban setting in western Kenya. A qualitative pre-phase (face-validity) were initially utilised to draft and validate a seven-item scale to capture contraceptive use stigma (CUS) and to adapt the Stigmatizing Attitudes, Beliefs and Actions (SABA) scale (18 items), which captures aspects of abortion stigma. Statistical tests used included test-retest reliability analysis, Pearson's correlation coefficients, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Factor Analysis, Principal Component Analysis, interclass correlation and Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS For the CUS scale, paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed no significant score changed between time points (p = 0.64; 0.67). CUS had similar patterns between time points, with two relevant components: promiscuity and lack of autonomy. Cronbach's alpha indicated acceptable internal consistency between time points (0.71;0.7). The confirmatory factor loadings for each item in the modified three subscales of SABA had a similar pattern to the original SABA scale, in particularly regarding negative stereotyping and, excluding and discriminating factors. The Cronbach's alpha was adequate, although lower for the modified SABA (0.74) as compared to the original SABA (0.9). The SABA scale was renamed into Adolescents Stigmatizing Attitudes, Beliefs and Action (ASABA) scale. CONCLUSIONS The CUS scale is considered valid and reliable for measuring contraceptive use stigma, and the ASABA scale was rated as reliable for capturing abortion stigma based on negative stereotyping and excluding and discriminating factors. The CUS, up to date the first ever proposed CUS scale, and the ASABA scale can be used to measure effects of stigma reduction interventions with the aim of preventing unintended pregnancies, motherhood and unsafe abortion among adolescents in Kenya and similar low-resource settings.
更新日期:2019-09-06

 

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