Nature Reviews Physics Pub Date : 2019-11-08 , DOI: 10.1038/s42254-019-0118-3 Sandra H. Skjærvø, Christopher H. Marrows, Robert L. Stamps, Laura J. Heyderman
Artificial spin ices consist of nanomagnets arranged on the sites of various periodic and aperiodic lattices. They have enabled the experimental investigation of a variety of fascinating phenomena such as frustration, emergent magnetic monopoles and phase transitions that have previously been the domain of bulk spin crystals and theory, as we discuss in this Review. Artificial spin ices also show promise as reprogrammable magnonic crystals and, with this in mind, we give an overview of the measurements of fast dynamics in these magnetic metamaterials. We survey the variety of geometries that have been implemented, in terms of both the form of the nanomagnets and the lattices on which they are placed, including quasicrystalline systems and artificial spin systems in 3D. Different magnetic materials can also be incorporated to modify anisotropies and blocking temperatures, for example. With this large variety of systems, the way is open to discover new phenomena, and we complete this Review with possible directions for the future.