Asian Journal of Law and Society Pub Date : 2021-06-08 , DOI: 10.1017/als.2020.58 Nafay Choudhury
This article explores the creation, circulation, and regulation of informal trade credit or “ograyi” in Afghanistan. The practice of ograyi allows businesses to access short-term credit, from either their suppliers or third parties, to acquire specified goods. This paper provides an account of the non-legal practices that regulate ograyi transactions. Ograyi vitally depends on the development of trust between parties. Clientelism helps to maintain stable relationships that can offset market unpredictability. Widespread market norms and practices establish the general behaviour of participants. Parties also renegotiate the terms of the contract if circumstances make it impossible for the creditor to repay the loan in the agreed timeframe. Furthermore, bank credit remains largely unavailable or unappealing to many businesses, and the legal system provides limited recourse in the case of contractual breach. Thus, the non-legal practices regulating ograyi serve as a substitute for legal coercion.
阿富汗的非正规贸易信贷 (Ograyi) 监管
本文探讨了非正式贸易信贷或“ ograyi ”在阿富汗的创建、流通和监管。ograyi的做法允许企业从其供应商或第三方获得短期信贷，以购买特定商品。本文介绍了规范ograyi交易的非法律实践。奥格雷伊很大程度上取决于各方之间信任的发展。客户主义有助于维持稳定的关系，可以抵消市场的不可预测性。广泛的市场规范和实践确立了参与者的一般行为。如果情况使债权人无法在约定的时间范围内偿还贷款，双方还可以重新谈判合同条款。此外，对许多企业而言，银行信贷在很大程度上仍然无法获得或没有吸引力，而且法律制度在合同违约的情况下提供的追索权有限。因此，规范ograyi的非法律实践可以替代法律强制。