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Who Votes Without Identification? Using Individual-Level Administrative Data to Measure the Burden of Strict Voter Identification Laws
Journal of Empirical Legal Studies ( IF 1.268 ) Pub Date : 2021-06-07 , DOI: 10.1111/jels.12283
Phoebe Henninger, Marc Meredith, Michael Morse

Legal disputes over laws that require certain forms of identification (ID) to vote mostly focus on the burden placed on people who do not possess ID. We contend that this singular focus ignores the burden imposed on people who do possess ID, but nonetheless cannot access it when voting. To measure this alternative conception of burden, we focus on Michigan, which allows anyone who lacks access to ID to vote after signing an affidavit. A sample of affidavits filed in the 2016 presidential election from a random set of precincts reveals that about 0.45 percent of voters lacked access to ID. Consistent with our broader conception of the burden of voter ID laws, nearly all voters who filed an affidavit were previously issued a still-active state ID. Importantly, we show minority voters were about five times more likely to lack access to ID than white voters. We also present survey evidence suggesting that people who live in states where voters are asked to show ID, as in Michigan, are more likely to incorrectly believe that access to ID is required to vote than are people who live in states that do not ask voters to show ID.

中文翻译:

谁在没有身份证明的情况下投票?使用个人层面的行政数据来衡量严格的选民身份识别法的负担

关于要求某些形式的身份证明 (ID) 投票的法律的法律纠纷主要集中在没有身份证件的人身上。我们认为,这种单一的关注忽略了对拥有 ID 的人施加的负担,但在投票时仍然无法访问它。为了衡量这种替代的负担概念,我们将重点放在密歇根州,它允许任何无法获得身份证明的人在签署宣誓书后投票。在 2016 年总统选举中提交的一份来自随机选区的宣誓书样本显示,大约 0.45% 的选民无法获得身份证。与我们对选民身份证法负担的更广泛概念一致,几乎所有提交宣誓书的选民之前都获得了仍然有效的州身份证。重要的,我们发现少数族裔选民无法获得身份证的可能性是白人选民的五倍。我们还提供了调查证据,表明居住在要求选民出示身份证的州(如密歇根州)的人比住在不要求选民的州的人更有可能错误地认为需要出示身份证才能投票显示身份证。
更新日期:2021-06-08
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