Psychology of Music ( IF 1.712 ) Pub Date : 2021-06-06 , DOI: 10.1177/03057356211010217 Marino Jover-Fernández, Miguel-Angel Serrano, Elena Saiz-Clar, José-Manuel Reales
Recently, it has been suggested that tonal violations produce greater skin conductance response (SCR) than timbral violations in music listening. However, it is unknown how people focus their attention during musical excerpts. The aim of this study is to replicate previous research considering two psychophysiological mechanisms: prediction error and brain stem reflex. Twenty-seven nonmusicians were instructed to listen six melodies and detect three altered conditions in one note: a dissonance (note out-of-key), a timbral change, and dissonance which changes in timbre and tone (timdis). Amplitudes of SCR, heart rate (HR), and respiration rate (RSPR) were analyzed. In addition, the frequency of SCR and the percentage of musical events detection were measured. Results showed no significant differences either on amplitude of SCR or on respiratory rate. However, perception of timdis produced an increase in HR higher than dissonance (p < .05) and the timbre condition had a higher frequency of SCR than dissonance (p < .05). In addition, participants only detected 59.3% of dissonances but they were aware of 90% of notes in-key (original melody). Finally, there was no significant correlation between percentage of detection and frequency of SCR. Results are discussed based on the prediction error mechanism, a theoretical model of expectation.
最近，有人提出，在听音乐时，音调违规比音色违规会产生更大的皮肤电导反应 (SCR)。然而，尚不清楚人们在音乐节选期间如何集中注意力。本研究的目的是复制先前的研究，考虑两种心理生理机制：预测错误和脑干反射。27 名非音乐家被要求听六首旋律，并在一个音符中检测三种变化的条件：不协和（音符失调）、音色变化以及音色和音调发生变化的不协和（timdis）。分析了 SCR、心率 (HR) 和呼吸率 (RSPR) 的幅度。此外，还测量了 SCR 的频率和音乐事件检测的百分比。结果显示在 SCR 幅度或呼吸频率上没有显着差异。然而，对timdis 的感知产生的 HR 增加高于不和谐( p < .05)，并且音色条件的 SCR 频率高于不和谐( p < .05)。此外，参与者只检测到 59.3% 的不和谐，但他们知道 90% 的音符在关键（原始旋律）。最后，检测百分比与 SCR 频率之间没有显着相关性。结果基于预测误差机制，即期望的理论模型进行讨论。