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Riboflavin instability is a key factor underlying the requirement of a gut microbiota for mosquito development [Developmental Biology]
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America ( IF 9.412 ) Pub Date : 2021-04-13 , DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101080118
Yin Wang, Jai Hoon Eum, Ruby E. Harrison, Luca Valzania, Xiushuai Yang, Jena A. Johnson, Derek T. Huck, Mark R. Brown, Michael R. Strand

We previously determined that several diets used to rear Aedes aegypti and other mosquito species support the development of larvae with a gut microbiota but do not support the development of axenic larvae. In contrast, axenic larvae have been shown to develop when fed other diets. To understand the mechanisms underlying this dichotomy, we developed a defined diet that could be manipulated in concert with microbiota composition and environmental conditions. Initial studies showed that axenic larvae could not grow under standard rearing conditions (27 °C, 16-h light: 8-h dark photoperiod) when fed a defined diet but could develop when maintained in darkness. Downstream assays identified riboflavin decay to lumichrome as the key factor that prevented axenic larvae from growing under standard conditions, while gut community members like Escherichia coli rescued development by being able to synthesize riboflavin. Earlier results showed that conventional and gnotobiotic but not axenic larvae exhibit midgut hypoxia under standard rearing conditions, which correlated with activation of several pathways with essential growth functions. In this study, axenic larvae in darkness also exhibited midgut hypoxia and activation of growth signaling but rapidly shifted to midgut normoxia and arrested growth in light, which indicated that gut hypoxia was not due to aerobic respiration by the gut microbiota but did depend on riboflavin that only resident microbes could provide under standard conditions. Overall, our results identify riboflavin provisioning as an essential function for the gut microbiota under most conditions A. aegypti larvae experience in the laboratory and field.



中文翻译:

核黄素的不稳定性是蚊子发育需要肠道菌群的关键因素[发育生物学]

先前我们确定几种饮食可用来饲养埃及伊蚊蚊子和其他蚊子物种通过肠道菌群支持幼虫的发育,但不支持轴生幼虫的发育。相比之下,已证明喂食其他日粮的幼虫会发育成幼虫。为了理解这种二分法的机理,我们开发了一种明确的饮食,可以根据微生物群的组成和环境条件进行操作。初步研究表明,喂食限定饮食时,在标准的饲养条件下(27摄氏度,16小时光照:8小时黑暗光照期),幼虫幼虫无法生长,但在黑暗中饲养则可能发育。下游测定法将核黄素降解为荧光色素是阻止轴突幼虫在标准条件下生长的关键因素,而肠道菌群成员如大肠杆菌能够合成核黄素来挽救发展。较早的结果表明,在标准的饲养条件下,常规的和致病性的但未见过生的幼虫表现出中肠缺氧,这与具有基本生长功能的几种途径的激活有关。在这项研究中,黑暗中的轴突幼虫还表现出中肠缺氧和生长信号激活,但迅速转变为中肠常氧并阻止了光的生长,这表明肠道缺氧不是由于肠道菌群的有氧呼吸引起的,而是取决于核黄素。在标准条件下,只有居民微生物才能提供。总体而言,我们的研究结果表明,在大多数情况下,核黄素供应是肠道菌群在大多数情况下的必不可少的功能 幼虫在实验室和现场的经验。

更新日期:2021-04-08
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