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People systematically overlook subtractive changes
Nature ( IF 42.778 ) Pub Date : 2021-04-07 , DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03380-y
Gabrielle S. Adams, Benjamin A. Converse, Andrew H. Hales, Leidy E. Klotz

Improving objects, ideas or situations—whether a designer seeks to advance technology, a writer seeks to strengthen an argument or a manager seeks to encourage desired behaviour—requires a mental search for possible changes1,2,3. We investigated whether people are as likely to consider changes that subtract components from an object, idea or situation as they are to consider changes that add new components. People typically consider a limited number of promising ideas in order to manage the cognitive burden of searching through all possible ideas, but this can lead them to accept adequate solutions without considering potentially superior alternatives4,5,6,7,8,9,10. Here we show that people systematically default to searching for additive transformations, and consequently overlook subtractive transformations. Across eight experiments, participants were less likely to identify advantageous subtractive changes when the task did not (versus did) cue them to consider subtraction, when they had only one opportunity (versus several) to recognize the shortcomings of an additive search strategy or when they were under a higher (versus lower) cognitive load. Defaulting to searches for additive changes may be one reason that people struggle to mitigate overburdened schedules11, institutional red tape12 and damaging effects on the planet13,14.



中文翻译:

人们系统地忽略减性变化

改善对象,构想或情境(无论是设计师寻求发展技术,作家寻求加强论据还是管理者寻求鼓励期望的行为)都需要对可能的变化1,2,3进行脑力搜索。我们调查了人们是否会考虑考虑从对象,构想或情况中减去组件的更改是否像考虑添加新组件的更改那样。人们通常会考虑数量有限的有前途的想法,以便管理通过所有可能的想法进行搜索的认知负担,但这可以使他们接受适当的解决方案,而无需考虑潜在的替代方案4,5,6,7,8,9,10。在这里,我们表明人们系统地默认搜索加法变换,因此忽略了减法变换。在八个实验中,当任务没有(相对于任务)提示他们考虑减法,只有一次机会(相对于几个机会)来认识加法搜索策略的缺点时,或者当他们意识到加法搜索策略的缺点时,参与者不太可能发现有利的减法变化。处于较高(相对较低)的认知负荷下。默认情况下不寻求加性变化的搜索,可能是人们努力减轻负担过重的时间表11,机构繁文and节12和对地球13,14造成破坏性影响的原因之一。

更新日期:2021-04-08
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