Nature ( IF 42.778 ) Pub Date : 2021-04-07 , DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03335-3 Mateja Hajdinjak, Fabrizio Mafessoni, Laurits Skov, Benjamin Vernot, Alexander Hübner, Qiaomei Fu, Elena Essel, Sarah Nagel, Birgit Nickel, Julia Richter, Oana Teodora Moldovan, Silviu Constantin, Elena Endarova, Nikolay Zahariev, Rosen Spasov, Frido Welker, Geoff M. Smith, Virginie Sinet-Mathiot, Lindsey Paskulin, Helen Fewlass, Sahra Talamo, Zeljko Rezek, Svoboda Sirakova, Nikolay Sirakov, Shannon P. McPherron, Tsenka Tsanova, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Benjamin M. Peter, Matthias Meyer, Pontus Skoglund, Janet Kelso, Svante Pääbo
Modern humans appeared in Europe by at least 45,000 years ago1,2,3,4,5, but the extent of their interactions with Neanderthals, who disappeared by about 40,000 years ago6, and their relationship to the broader expansion of modern humans outside Africa are poorly understood. Here we present genome-wide data from three individuals dated to between 45,930 and 42,580 years ago from Bacho Kiro Cave, Bulgaria1,2. They are the earliest Late Pleistocene modern humans known to have been recovered in Europe so far, and were found in association with an Initial Upper Palaeolithic artefact assemblage. Unlike two previously studied individuals of similar ages from Romania7 and Siberia8 who did not contribute detectably to later populations, these individuals are more closely related to present-day and ancient populations in East Asia and the Americas than to later west Eurasian populations. This indicates that they belonged to a modern human migration into Europe that was not previously known from the genetic record, and provides evidence that there was at least some continuity between the earliest modern humans in Europe and later people in Eurasia. Moreover, we find that all three individuals had Neanderthal ancestors a few generations back in their family history, confirming that the first European modern humans mixed with Neanderthals and suggesting that such mixing could have been common.
现代人类至少在45,000年前就出现在欧洲1,2,3,4,5，但它们与尼安德特人的互动程度在40,000年前就消失了，尼安德特人6以及它们与现代人类在外部的广泛扩展的关系对非洲知之甚少。在这里，我们介绍了三个人的全基因组数据，这些数据可追溯到45,930到42,580年前，来自保加利亚1,2的Bacho Kiro Cave 。他们是迄今已知在欧洲已被发现的最早的晚更新世现代人类，并与最初的上古旧石器时代的文物组合有关。不像罗马尼亚7和西伯利亚8的两个先前研究过的类似年龄的人这些人对后来的人口没有明显的贡献，这些人与东亚和美洲的当今和远古人口的关系要比与后来的西欧亚人口更为紧密。这表明他们属于现代人类迁徙到欧洲，以前在遗传记录中尚不了解，并提供了证据，证明欧洲最早的现代人类与后来的欧亚大陆之间至少存在某种连续性。此外，我们发现这三个人在他们的家族历史中都有尼安德特人的祖先几代人，这证实了欧洲最早的现代人与尼安德特人混合，并暗示这种混合本来是很普遍的。