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The Hague Convention and Transnational Custody Disputes
Family Court Review Pub Date : 2021-03-11 , DOI: 10.1111/fcre.12559
Justice Rosalie Silberman Abella, Jocelyn Plant

Adopted on October 24, 1980, the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction was designed to address the problem of international parental child abduction. More than 90 States are contracting parties to the Convention, making it one of the most important and successful family law instruments completed under the auspices of the Hague Convention on private international law. The Convention places a premium on prompt return in circumstances where a child was removed from one jurisdiction by a parent – the jurisdiction of “habitual residence” – in breach of the custody rights of the “left behind” parent. Once returned, custody can be determined by the relevant authorities in the jurisdiction of habitual residence. Habitual residence is central to the operation of the Convention, since the return mechanism in art. Twelve will only be triggered when a child is wrongfully removed from their State of habitual residence. The Supreme Court of Canada applies the “hybrid approach” to determining habitual residence, which treats the circumstances of the children and the intentions of the parties as factors to be considered in achieving a just result which fulfills the objectives of the Hague Convention. Under the hybrid approach, the court has the task of determining the focal point of the child's life immediately prior to the removal or retention. The child's perspective is thereby put squarely at the centre of Convention applications. Canada's approach represents an evolution from the formalism of early cases to a recognition that the best interests of children generally is not a substitute for the best interests of the particular children before the court.

中文翻译:

海牙公约与跨国羁押纠纷

1980年10月24日通过的《关于国际诱拐儿童民事方面海牙公约》旨在解决国际父母绑架儿童的问题。90多个国家是该公约的缔约国,使其成为在海牙国际私法公约的主持下完成的最重要和最成功的家庭法文书之一。该公约在儿童被父母从一个司法管辖区(“惯常居住地”管辖区)驱逐出境而违反“留守”父母的监护权的情况下,应立即支付返还金。归还后,可以由惯常居所管辖范围内的有关当局确定监护权。自从艺术返还机制以来,惯常居住对《公约》的运作至关重要。只有将儿童错误地从其惯常居住地带走时,才会触发十二。加拿大最高法院采用“混合方式”确定惯常居住地,该惯常居住地将儿童的情况和当事方的意图作为实现公正结果的考虑因素,该结果可以实现儿童的目的。海牙公约。在混合方式下,法院的任务是在被遣返或保留之前立即确定儿童生活的重点。因此,将儿童的观点置于公约申请的中心位置。加拿大的做法代表了从早期案件的形式主义到对儿童最大利益的普遍认可,而不是法庭上特定儿童最大利益的替代。
更新日期:2021-04-29
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