Nature ( IF 42.778 ) Pub Date : 2021-02-22 , DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03336-2 Chuan-Chao Wang; Hui-Yuan Yeh; Alexander N. Popov; Hu-Qin Zhang; Hirofumi Matsumura; Kendra Sirak; Olivia Cheronet; Alexey Kovalev; Nadin Rohland; Alexander M. Kim; Swapan Mallick; Rebecca Bernardos; Dashtseveg Tumen; Jing Zhao; Yi-Chang Liu; Jiun-Yu Liu; Matthew Mah; Ke Wang; Zhao Zhang; Nicole Adamski; Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht; Kimberly Callan; Francesca Candilio; Kellie Sara Duffett Carlson; Brendan J. Culleton; Laurie Eccles; Suzanne Freilich; Denise Keating; Ann Marie Lawson; Kirsten Mandl; Megan Michel; Jonas Oppenheimer; Kadir Toykan Özdoğan; Kristin Stewardson; Shaoqing Wen; Shi Yan; Fatma Zalzala; Richard Chuang; Ching-Jung Huang; Hana Looh; Chung-Ching Shiung; Yuri G. Nikitin; Andrei V. Tabarev; Alexey A. Tishkin; Song Lin; Zhou-Yong Sun; Xiao-Ming Wu; Tie-Lin Yang; Xi Hu; Liang Chen; Hua Du; Jamsranjav Bayarsaikhan; Enkhbayar Mijiddorj; Diimaajav Erdenebaatar; Tumur-Ochir Iderkhangai; Erdene Myagmar; Hideaki Kanzawa-Kiriyama; Masato Nishino; Ken-ichi Shinoda; Olga A. Shubina; Jianxin Guo; Wangwei Cai; Qiongying Deng; Longli Kang; Dawei Li; Dongna Li; Rong Lin; Nini; Rukesh Shrestha; Ling-Xiang Wang; Lanhai Wei; Guangmao Xie; Hongbing Yao; Manfei Zhang; Guanglin He; Xiaomin Yang; Rong Hu; Martine Robbeets; Stephan Schiffels; Douglas J. Kennett; Li Jin; Hui Li; Johannes Krause; Ron Pinhasi; David Reich
The deep population history of East Asia remains poorly understood due to a lack of ancient DNA data and sparse sampling of present-day people1,2. We report genome-wide data from 166 East Asians dating to 6000 BCE – 1000 CE and 46 present-day groups. Hunter-gatherers from Japan, the Amur River Basin, and people of Neolithic and Iron Age Taiwan and the Tibetan plateau are linked by a deeply-splitting lineage likely reflecting a Late Pleistocene coastal migration. We follow Holocene expansions from four regions. First, hunter-gatherers of Mongolia and the Amur River Basin have ancestry shared by Mongolic and Tungusic language speakers but do not carry West Liao River farmer ancestry contradicting theories that their expansion spread these proto-languages. Second, Yellow River Basin farmers at ~3000 BCE likely spread Sino-Tibetan languages as their ancestry dispersed both to Tibet where it forms up ~84% to some groups and to the Central Plain where it contributed ~59-84% to Han Chinese. Third, people from Taiwan ~1300 BCE to 800 CE derived ~75% ancestry from a lineage also common in modern Austronesian, Tai-Kadai and Austroasiatic speakers likely deriving from Yangtze River Valley farmers; ancient Taiwan people also derived ~25% ancestry from a northern lineage related to but different from Yellow River farmers implying an additional north-to-south expansion. Fourth, Yamnaya Steppe pastoralist ancestry arrived in western Mongolia after ~3000 BCE but was displaced by previously established lineages even while it persisted in western China as expected if it spread the ancestor of Tocharian Indo-European languages. Two later gene flows affected western Mongolia: after ~2000 BCE migrants with Yamnaya and European farmer ancestry, and episodic impacts of later groups with ancestry from Turan.