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Expedient behaviour and predetermination at the Ciota Ciara cave (north-western Italy) during Middle Palaeolithic
Quaternary International ( IF 2.003 ) Pub Date : 2021-01-13 , DOI: 10.1016/j.quaint.2021.01.001
Sara Daffara; Gabriele L.F. Berruti; Marta Arzarello

The Ciota Ciara cave is a Middle Palaeolithic site located in Piedmont (north-western Italy) and it is the only one systematically investigated in the region. It opens at 670 m a.s.l. on the west side of Monte Fenera and its archaeological deposit has a stratigraphic sequence documenting several and repeated human frequentations. Four archaeological layers have been identified (103, 13, 14 and 15) and are characterized by lithic assemblages where vein quartz is the main exploited raw material. The upper level (13) was already subject to technological and functional studies, but the enlargement of the excavated area made necessary a completion of the technological data.

The aim of this work is to deal with a complete technological and functional study of the lithic assemblage of the four archaeological layers of the Ciota Ciara cave to face the issues of predetermination and adaptation of the reduction sequences to the raw materials features.

The technological analysis is based on the concept of chaîne opératoire and refers to the classical definitions of the S.S.D.A., discoid and Levallois methods for the identification of the different exploitation strategies. The concepts of curated and expedient technology are also applied to the present study. We finally refer to the huge debate concerning the concept of predetermination related to cores that show reduced or none phases of core configuration for the analysis and interpretation of the considered lithic assemblage.

The results obtained show that the general behaviour can be interpreted as expedient, both from a technological and a functional point of view. The Middle Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers of the Ciota Ciara cave adapted their “technological background” to the resources available and put into action flexible adaptation strategies. Even in the shortness or absence of phases of core configuration, predetermination can be observed in the adaptation of Levallois and discoid concepts to the natural constraints of the pebbles chosen as cores. The natural convexities are exploited to obtain Levallois and discoid flakes after an intentional choice made by the knappers. In order to deeply investigate the characteristics of the technological behaviour of the hunter-gatherers that inhabited the site, the use-wear analysis is a fundamental additional source of information and it is here aimed to understand if there is or not a differential use of the lithic artefacts according to their typology and/or to the knapping method.



中文翻译:

旧石器时代中期在Ciota Ciara洞穴(意大利西北部)的权宜行为和预定

Ciota Ciara洞穴位于皮埃蒙特(意大利西北部)中古石器时代中期,是该地区唯一经过系统调查的洞穴。它在蒙特费内拉(Monte Fenera)西侧以670 m asl的高度开放,其考古沉积物具有地层序列,记录了多次重复的人类活动。已经确定了四个考古层(103、13、14和15),其特征是以岩性组合为特征,其中脉石石英是主要利用的原材料。上层(13)已经过技术和功能研究,但是挖掘区域的扩大使得必须完成技术数据。

这项工作的目的是要对Ciota Ciara洞穴的四个考古层的岩性组合进行完整的技术和功能研究,以应对还原的预先确定和适应原材料特征的问题。

技术分析是基于夏恩歌剧的概念,并参考了SSDA,盘状和Levallois方法的经典定义来识别不同的开发策略。策划和权宜之计技术的概念也适用于本研究。最后,我们将讨论有关与核有关的预确定概念的大量辩论,这些论证显示了用于分析和解释所考虑的岩性组合的核构型减少了或没有相的阶段。

获得的结果表明,从技术和功能的角度来看,一般行为都可以解释为权宜之计。Ciota Ciara洞穴的中古石器时代的狩猎者和采集者将其“技术背景”调整为可用的资源,并采取了灵活的适应策略。即使在缺少或缺少核心构型阶段的情况下,也可以在Levallois和盘状概念适应选择为核心的鹅卵石的自然约束条件下观察到预定性。敲击者故意选择后,利用自然凸度获得Levallois和盘状薄片。为了深入调查居住在该地点的狩猎采集者的技术行为特征,

更新日期:2021-01-13
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