Quaternary International ( IF 2.003 ) Pub Date : 2021-01-13 , DOI: 10.1016/j.quaint.2021.01.001 Sara Daffara; Gabriele L.F. Berruti; Marta Arzarello
The Ciota Ciara cave is a Middle Palaeolithic site located in Piedmont (north-western Italy) and it is the only one systematically investigated in the region. It opens at 670 m a.s.l. on the west side of Monte Fenera and its archaeological deposit has a stratigraphic sequence documenting several and repeated human frequentations. Four archaeological layers have been identified (103, 13, 14 and 15) and are characterized by lithic assemblages where vein quartz is the main exploited raw material. The upper level (13) was already subject to technological and functional studies, but the enlargement of the excavated area made necessary a completion of the technological data.
The aim of this work is to deal with a complete technological and functional study of the lithic assemblage of the four archaeological layers of the Ciota Ciara cave to face the issues of predetermination and adaptation of the reduction sequences to the raw materials features.
The technological analysis is based on the concept of chaîne opératoire and refers to the classical definitions of the S.S.D.A., discoid and Levallois methods for the identification of the different exploitation strategies. The concepts of curated and expedient technology are also applied to the present study. We finally refer to the huge debate concerning the concept of predetermination related to cores that show reduced or none phases of core configuration for the analysis and interpretation of the considered lithic assemblage.
The results obtained show that the general behaviour can be interpreted as expedient, both from a technological and a functional point of view. The Middle Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers of the Ciota Ciara cave adapted their “technological background” to the resources available and put into action flexible adaptation strategies. Even in the shortness or absence of phases of core configuration, predetermination can be observed in the adaptation of Levallois and discoid concepts to the natural constraints of the pebbles chosen as cores. The natural convexities are exploited to obtain Levallois and discoid flakes after an intentional choice made by the knappers. In order to deeply investigate the characteristics of the technological behaviour of the hunter-gatherers that inhabited the site, the use-wear analysis is a fundamental additional source of information and it is here aimed to understand if there is or not a differential use of the lithic artefacts according to their typology and/or to the knapping method.
Ciota Ciara洞穴位于皮埃蒙特（意大利西北部）中古石器时代中期，是该地区唯一经过系统调查的洞穴。它在蒙特费内拉（Monte Fenera）西侧以670 m asl的高度开放，其考古沉积物具有地层序列，记录了多次重复的人类活动。已经确定了四个考古层（103、13、14和15），其特征是以岩性组合为特征，其中脉石石英是主要利用的原材料。上层（13）已经过技术和功能研究，但是挖掘区域的扩大使得必须完成技术数据。