Environmental Pollution ( IF 6.792 ) Pub Date : 2020-11-20 , DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115994 M. Calatayud Arroyo; T. García Barrera; B. Callejón Leblic; A. Arias Borrego; M. Collado
Xenobiotics are worldwide distributed and humans are unavoidably exposed to multiple chemical compounds during life, from preconception to adulthood. The human microbiota is mainly settled during early life and modulate host health and fitness. One of the main routes for chemical exposure is by intake of contaminated food and water. Thus, the interplay between diet-xenobiotics-microbiota during pregnancy and perinatal period may have relevant consequences for infant and adult health. Maternal exposure to metal(oid)s, persistent organic pollutants, and some food additives can modify the infant’s microbiota with unknown consequences for child or adult health. Toxicants’ exposure may also modulate the maternal transfer of microorganisms to the progeny during birth and breastfeeding; however, scarce information is available. The rapid increase in releasing novel chemicals to the environment, the exposure to chemical mixtures, the chronic/low dose scenario, and the delay in science-stakeholders action call for novel and groundbreaking approaches to improve a comprehensive risk assessment in sensitive population groups like pregnant women and neonates, with emphasis on microbiota as modulating factor and target-organ of xenobiotic’s toxicity.