Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America ( IF 9.412 ) Pub Date : 2020-10-27 , DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1915339117 Yujun Wu, Yang Gao, Yanyan Zhan, Hong Kui, Hongyan Liu, Li Yan, Birgit Kemmerling, Jian-Min Zhou, Kai He, Jia Li
Plants utilize a two-tiered immune system consisting of pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) to defend themselves against pathogenic microbes. The receptor protein kinase BAK1 plays a central role in multiple PTI signaling pathways in Arabidopsis. However, double mutants made by BAK1 and its closest paralog BKK1 exhibit autoimmune phenotypes, including cell death resembling a typical nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat protein (NLR)-mediated ETI response. The molecular mechanisms of the cell death caused by the depletion of BAK1 and BKK1 are poorly understood. Here, we show that the cell-death phenotype of bak1 bkk1 is suppressed when a group of NLRs, ADR1s, are mutated, indicating the cell-death of bak1 bkk1 is the consequence of NLR activation. Furthermore, introduction of a Pseudomonas syringae effector HopB1, which proteolytically cleaves activated BAK1 and its paralogs via either gene transformation or bacterium-delivery, results in a cell-death phenotype in an ADR1s-dependent manner. Our study thus pinpoints that BAK1 and its paralogs are likely guarded by NLRs.