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Effects of Different Microplastics on Nematodes in the Soil Environment: Tracking the Extractable Additives Using an Ecotoxicological Approach
Environmental Science & Technology ( IF 7.864 ) Pub Date : 2020-10-14 , DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.0c04641
Shin Woong Kim, Walter R. Waldman, Tae-Young Kim, Matthias C. Rillig

With increasing interest in the effects of microplastics on the soil environment, there is a need to thoroughly evaluate the potential adverse effects of these particles as a function of their characteristics (size, shape, and composition). In addition, extractable chemical additives from microplastics have been identified as an important toxicity pathway in the aquatic environment. However, currently, little is known about the effects of such additives on the soil environment. In this study on nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), we adopted an ecotoxicological approach to assess the potential effects of 13 different microplastics (0.001–1% of soil dry weight) with different characteristics and extractable additives. We found that poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fragments and polyacrylicnitrile (PAN) fibers show the highest toxicity, while high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS) fragments induced relatively less adverse effects on nematodes. In addition, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) induced no toxicity within our test concentration range for the acute period. Acute toxicity was mainly attributed to the extractable additives: when the additives were extracted, the toxic effects of each microplastic disappeared in the acute soil toxicity test. The harmful effects of the LDPE films and PAN fibers increased when the microplastics were maintained in the soil for a long-term period with frequent wet–dry cycles. We here provide clear evidence that microplastic toxicity in the soil is highly related to extractable additives. Our results suggest that future experiments consider extractable additives as key explanatory variables.

中文翻译:

不同微塑料对土壤环境中线虫的影响:使用生态毒理学方法跟踪可提取的添加剂

随着对微塑料对土壤环境影响的兴趣日益浓厚,有必要根据这些颗粒的特性(尺寸,形状和组成)对这些颗粒的潜在不利影响进行全面评估。此外,从微塑料中提取的化学添加剂已被确定为在水生环境中的重要毒性途径。但是,目前,关于这种添加剂对土壤环境的影响知之甚少。在这项研究中,线虫(秀丽隐杆线虫),我们采用了生态毒理学方法来评估13种具有不同特性和可提取添加剂的不同微塑料(土壤干重的0.001–1%)的潜在影响。我们发现聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯(PET)片段和聚丙烯腈(PAN)纤维显示出最高的毒性,而高密度聚乙烯(HDPE),聚丙烯(PP)和聚苯乙烯(PS)片段对线虫的不良影响相对较小。此外,在我们的测试浓度范围内,低密度聚乙烯(LDPE)在急性期没有引起毒性。急性毒性主要归因于可提取的添加剂:当提取添加剂时,每种微量塑料的毒性作用在急性土壤毒性试验中均消失了。当将微塑料长期保持在土壤中且频繁进行干湿循环时,LDPE膜和PAN纤维的有害作用会增加。我们在这里提供了明确的证据,表明土壤中的微塑性毒性与可提取的添加剂高度相关。我们的结果表明,未来的实验将可萃取添加剂视为关键的解释变量。
更新日期:2020-11-03
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