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Evidence of Rapid Phenocryst Growth of Olivine During Ascent in Basalts From the Big Pine Volcanic Field: Application of Olivine‐Melt Thermometry and Hygrometry at the Liquidus
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems ( IF 3.275 ) Pub Date : 2020-09-24 , DOI: 10.1029/2020gc009264
Sarah K. Brehm; Rebecca A. Lange

The Quaternary Big Pine (BP) volcanic field in eastern California is notable for the occurrence of mantle xenoliths in several flows. This points to rapid ascent of basalt through the crust and precludes prolonged storage in a crustal reservoir. In this study, the hypothesis of phenocryst growth during ascent is tested for several basalts (13–7 wt% MgO) and shown to be viable. Phenocrysts of olivine and clinopyroxene frequently display diffusion‐limited growth textures, and clinopyroxene compositions are consistent with polybaric crystallization. When the most Mg‐rich olivine in each sample is paired with the whole‐rock composition, resulting urn:x-wiley:15252027:media:ggge22329:ggge22329-math-0001(olivine‐melt) values (0.31–0.36) match those calculated from literature models (0.32–0.36). Application of a Mg‐ and a Ni‐based olivine‐melt thermometer from the literature, both calibrated on the same experimental data set, leads to two sets of temperatures that vary linearly with whole‐rock MgO wt%. Because the Ni thermometer is independent of water content, it provides the actual temperature at the onset of olivine crystallization (1247–1097°C), whereas the Mg thermometer gives the temperature under anhydrous conditions and thus allows ΔT (=TMg − TNi = depression of liquidus due to water) to be obtained. The average ΔT for all samples is ~59°C, which is consistent with analyzed water contents of 1.5–3.0 wt% in olivine‐hosted melt inclusions from the literature. Because the application of olivine‐melt thermometry/hygrometry at the liquidus only requires microprobe analyses of olivine combined with whole‐rock compositions, it can be used to obtain large global data sets of the temperature and water contents of basalts from different tectonic settings.
更新日期:2020-10-17

 

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