Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Section A: Mathematics ( IF 1.009 ) Pub Date : 2020-09-15 , DOI: 10.1017/prm.2020.71 Masatomo Takahashi; Haiou Yu
In order to investigate envelopes for singular surfaces, we introduce one- and two-parameter families of framed surfaces and the basic invariants, respectively. By using the basic invariants, the existence and uniqueness theorems of one- and two-parameter families of framed surfaces are given. Then we define envelopes of one- and two-parameter families of framed surfaces and give the existence conditions of envelopes which are called envelope theorems. As an application of the envelope theorems, we show that the projections of singular solutions of completely integrable first-order partial differential equations are envelopes.