Chemosphere ( IF 5.778 ) Pub Date : 2020-09-15 , DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128343 Carlos Rumbo; Cristina Cancho Espina; Vladimir V. Popov; Konstantin Skokov; Juan Antonio Tamayo-Ramos
Due to economic, environmental and geopolitical issues, the development of permanent magnets with a composition free of rare earth elements and with acceptable magnetic properties has been considered a priority by the international community, being MnAl based alloys amongst the most promising candidates. The aim of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of powders of two forms of newly developed MnAl(C) permanent magnets through exposure experiments applying three model organisms, using as a benchmark powders of a commercial rare-earth-containing magnet (Nd2Fe14B). For this purpose, the direct exposure to the different particles suspensions as well as to magnets leachates was evaluated. Both viability and oxidative stress assays were applied in an adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cell line (A549) and in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, together with the bioluminescent inhibition assay in the Gram negative bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The obtained results indicate that MnAl(C) permanent magnets, in general terms, presented similar toxicity than the Nd magnet for the selected biological models under the studied conditions. Overall, the presented data provide, for the first time, an in vitro toxicity analysis of MnAl based magnets.