Chemosphere ( IF 5.778 ) Pub Date : 2020-09-15 , DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128321 Raj Setia; Salwinder Singh Dhaliwal; Randhir Singh; Vinod Kumar; Sagar Taneja; Surinder S. Kukal; Brijendra Pateriya
We assessed the phytoavailability of heavy metals in wheat and rice grown on soils along flood plains of Sutlej river and its effects on human health. Surface soil samples along with wheat (pre-monsoon season) and rice (post-monsoon season) grain samples were collected during the years 2017 and 2018. Soil samples were analysed for total and DTPA-extractable metals and, wheat and rice grains samples for total metals. There were no significant (p<0.05) changes in total metal concentration during both the years, but the concentration of DTPA-extractable metals was higher during pre-monsoon than post-monsoon season. The concentration of Pb, Cd, and Co in wheat grains, whereas the concentration of Cr, Co, Pb and Cd in rice grains surpassed their safe limits. Both DTPA-extractable metals (water soluble plus exchangeable) and non-exchangeable fractions explained more than 80% of the variations in metal uptake by plants. The bioaccumulation factor for DTPA-extractable metals (BCF) was above one, but Pollution Load Index for these metals (PLI) was less than one. The carcinogenic risks due to ingestion of wheat and rice grains were higher for Cd. The BAF, PLI and health risks were higher along transboundary of the river. These results suggest that exchangeable and non-exchangeable fractions are contributing towards metals uptake by wheat and rice along flood plain soils of the Sutlej rive and the present study may act as a model for carrying out similar studies to find out the risks of heavy metals and it effect on human health in future.