Quaternary Science Reviews ( IF 3.803 ) Pub Date : 2020-08-01 , DOI: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2020.106491 Liisa Nevalainen; Marttiina V. Rantala; Carsten Meyer-Jacob; E. Henriikka Kivilä; Antti E.K. Ojala; John P. Smol; Tomi P. Luoto
We investigated a Holocene (since ∼10 500 cal yr BP) sediment core from a high-altitude, UV-sensitive tundra lake in northwestern Finnish Lapland to disentangle long-term dynamics in underwater UV exposure, lake-catchment coupling processes, and aquatic community development under changing climate. We analyzed biogeochemical and paleobiological proxies indicative of catchment impact, lake production and water transparency, including inferences of lake-water total organic carbon (TOC), sediment chlorophyll-a and UV-induced cladoceran (Crustacea) melanin (ABSUV), cladoceran communities, and elemental and isotopic fingerprints of sediment organic matter (OM). The results depicted a general climate-mediated ontogeny of early, mid- and late Holocene limnological regimes. The rapid postglacial temperature increase and the regionally early Holocene temperature maximum initiated lacustrine changes with rapid community turnovers, increasing benthic-dominated autochthonous production and high UV exposure due to low input of terrestrial OM (TOC ∼1–2 mg L−1) from the deglaciated catchment. The mid-Holocene regime was characterized by a general stabilization of the catchment and a benthic-dominated aquatic community that became gradually more productive under the warm and dry climate conditions. Superimposed on late Holocene climate cooling and increasing effective moisture, TOC increased to the highest Holocene values (>3 mg L−1), which was associated with abundant aquatic macrophytes and a phytophilous Acroperus harpae dominated cladoceran community around 4500–3000 cal yr BP. Over the past three millennia, TOC declined to low modern values (∼2 mg L−1) and UV-resistant Alonopsis elongata became the dominant taxon indicating a regime of increased underwater UV exposure. ABSUV was consistently higher around ∼1500–1000 cal yr BP after the late Holocene TOC decline, suggesting a photoprotective response to the new UV regime, possibly through a reduction of available UV refugia among aquatic macrophytes. While ABSUV did not show a straightforward relationship with TOC or solar forcing over the Holocene, the cladoceran community shift suggested a clear limno-ecological response to altering TOC and underwater UV regimes.