Science ( IF 41.845 ) Pub Date : 2020-07-31 , DOI: 10.1126/science.aba9763 Paola H. Pinto, Alena Kroupova, Alexander Schleiffer, Karl Mechtler, Martin Jinek, Stefan Weitzer, Javier Martinez
RNA molecules are frequently modified with a terminal 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate group as a result of endonuclease cleavage, exonuclease trimming, or de novo synthesis. During pre-transfer RNA (tRNA) and unconventional messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing, 2′,3′-cyclic phosphates are substrates of the tRNA ligase complex, and their removal is critical for recycling of tRNAs upon ribosome stalling. We identified the predicted deadenylase angel homolog 2 (ANGEL2) as a human phosphatase that converts 2′,3′-cyclic phosphates into 2′,3′-OH nucleotides. We analyzed ANGEL2’s substrate preference, structure, and reaction mechanism. Perturbing ANGEL2 expression affected the efficiency of pre-tRNA processing, X-box–binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA splicing during the unfolded protein response, and tRNA nucleotidyltransferase 1 (TRNT1)–mediated CCA addition onto tRNAs. Our results indicate that ANGEL2 is involved in RNA pathways that rely on the ligation or hydrolysis of 2′,3′-cyclic phosphates.