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Fate of bisphenol S (BPS) and characterization of non-extractable residues in soil: Insights into persistence of BPS
Environment International ( IF 7.577 ) Pub Date : 2020-06-29 , DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2020.105908
Siqi Cao; Songfeng Wang; Yingying Zhao; Lianhong Wang; Yini Ma; Andreas Schäffer; Rong Ji

The environmental fate and persistence of bisphenol S (BPS), a substitute for bisphenol A (BPA), are unclear. This study used 14C-labeled BPS to examine the fate, biodegradation, and residue properties of BPS incubated in an oxic soil for 28 days. BPS dissipated quickly, with a half-life of 2.8 days. Most of the BPS was mineralized (53.6 ± 0.2% of initial amount by day 28) or transformed into non-extractable residues (NERs) (45.1 ± 0.3%), with generation of minor extractable residues (3.7 ± 0.2%) containing two metabolites. NERs were formed mainly via physico-chemical entrapment (51.1 ± 2.4% of the total NERs, consisting almost exclusively of BPS) and ester-linkages (31.5 ± 3.0% of the total NERs, consisting of both BPS and polar metabolites). When mixed with fresh soil, BPS-derived NERs became unstable and bioavailable. Subsequent mineralization was determined for 19.5 ± 1.1% of the total NERs and 35.5 ± 2.6% of the physico-chemically entrapped BPS. A fate model was used to describe the kinetics of NER formation, which indicated that microbial activity in soil could have strongly reduced the kinetic rate of the release of physico-chemically entrapped NERs into free form and therefore increased the stability of this type of NERs in soil. Our results provide unique insights into the fate of BPS in soil and suggest that while BPS is biodegradable, it includes the formation of large amounts of reversibly physico-chemically entrapped and covalently bound ester-linked NERs. The instability of these NERs should be considered in assessments on environmental persistence and risks of BPS. Our study also points out the environmental importance of NERs of agrochemicals.
更新日期:2020-06-29

 

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