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Time integrative sampling properties of Speedisk and silicone rubber passive samplers determined by chemical analysis and in vitro bioassay testing
Chemosphere ( IF 5.778 ) Pub Date : 2020-06-29 , DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127498
Jasperien de Weert; Foppe Smedes; Henry Beeltje; Dick de Zwart; Timo Hamers

Compared to grab samples, passive samplers have the advantage that they sample over a longer time period and can detect lower compound concentrations in water quality monitoring campaigns. To allow the determination of time-weighted average concentrations, however, sampler uptake should remain linear in time over the entire sampling period. Therefore, the time integrative or linear uptake properties of adsorption-based Speedisks and partitioning-based silicone rubber samplers were assessed with respect to chemically analyzed single compounds and measured bioactivity in in vitro bioassays. Both sampler types were deployed in consecutive and overlapping time series in a WTTP effluent and in the river Meuse up to 105 days. Extracts were chemically analyzed for PCBs, PAHs and pesticides and tested in the Aliivibrio fischeri and DR-LUC bioassays. Speedisks showed time integrative sampling for the detected pesticides as well as for bioassay responses at both sampling locations for the entire sampling period. The silicone rubber samplers showed poor linear uptake in time for the unknown compounds causing bioassay responses. The bioassay results indicate that conversion of a bioassay response to a passive sampler extract into a time-weighted average bioactivity per liter water seems justified for Speedisks, confirming that concentrations in the samplers correspond to a single volume of sampled water for all compounds. The bioassay results also indicate that a similar conversion for silicone rubber extracts should be interpreted with caution. In principle, it is also impossible, because the concentration of each compound contributing to the bioassay response corresponds to a different sampled water volume.
更新日期:2020-06-29

 

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