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The plight of the Endangered mountain gazelle Gazella gazella
Oryx ( IF 2.199 ) Pub Date : 2020-06-10 , DOI: 10.1017/s003060531900108x
Yoram Yom-Tov, Amir Balaban, Ezra Hadad, Gilad Weil, Uri Roll

The Endangered mountain gazelle Gazella gazella was once widespread throughout the Levant. Over the past 100 years its population fluctuated greatly as a result of various anthropogenic threats and disturbances. We review the dynamics of the mountain gazelle throughout this period in Israel, its last remaining stronghold, with c. 5,000 individuals. During the 20th century Israel's human population increased steadily at an annual rate of 2%; the population density is currently 430 persons per km2 and is forecast to increase further. This presents an array of threats to the mountain gazelle, including habitat change, fragmentation and isolation by roads, railways and fences, poaching, road kills and predation by increasing populations of natural predators and feral dogs, sustained partly by anthropogenic food waste. These threats may act in synergy to amplify their effects. We present an overview of how these factors acted in the past and are currently threatening the survival of this species. We also review the policy and management actions, both implemented and still required, to ensure the persistence of the mountain gazelle. In addition, we analyse connectivity in the landscape, highlighting highly fragmented gazelle populations, and suggest potential interventions. The mountain gazelle exemplifies an ungulate with both great vulnerability to human pressures and a large breeding potential. As more regions, in Israel and elsewhere, are converted to human dominated landscapes, pressures on wildlife are increasing, and lessons from the mountain gazelle could prove valuable.



中文翻译:

濒危山瞪羚的困境鹅喉羚

濒临灭绝的山区瞪羚瞪羚瞪羚曾经在整个黎凡特广泛分布。在过去的100年中,由于各种人为威胁和干扰,其人口大幅度波动。我们用c回顾了整个时期在以色列(最后一个据点)以色列的瞪羚的动态。5,000个人。在20世纪,以色列的人口以每年2%的速度稳定增长;人口密度目前是430人每平方公里2并预计会进一步增加。这对山瞪羚构成了一系列威胁,包括栖息地的变化,道路,铁路和围墙的破碎和隔离,偷猎,道路杀戮和自然捕食者和野狗数量的增加而造成的掠食,部分原因是人为的食物浪费。这些威胁可能协同作用以扩大其影响。我们概述了这些因素在过去的行为方式,目前正在威胁该物种的生存。我们还将审查已实施和仍需执行的政策和管理措施,以确保瞪羚的持久性。此外,我们分析了景观中的连通性,突出了高度分散的瞪羚种群,并提出了潜在的干预措施。瞪羚山是有蹄类动物的典范,它们对人的压力非常脆弱,而且繁殖潜力大。随着越来越多的地区(包括以色列和其他地区)转变为人类主导的景观,对野生动植物的压力与日俱增,瞪羚山峰的教训可能会证明是有价值的。

更新日期:2020-06-10
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