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30 Years of Atomic Force Microscopy: Creep, Hysteresis, Cross-coupling, and Vibration Problems of Piezoelectric Tube Scanners
Measurement ( IF 2.791 ) Pub Date : 2020-03-24 , DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2020.107776
H. Habibullah

This paper presents a brief history of scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) and a general insight into an atomic force microscope (AFM), including its operating principles, modes, main components and limitations for achieving high-precision nanopositioning and image scanning. A piezoelectric tube scanner (PTS) is made of a piezoelectric material (PZM) and used in an AFM to position a sample in the sub-nanometric range. As atomic force microscopes (AFMs) are becoming workhorses in investigations in the field of nanometric-range surface profiling of material and biological samples, the high-precision nano-positioning of their PTS is a major requirement for high-speed imaging. The scanning speed of a commercial AFM is limited by the positioning accuracy of its scanner which has the following problems: i) creep effect in slow-speed scanning; and ii) hysteresis effect during large-range scanning (which both result in inaccurate reference motion tracking); iii) cross-coupling effect among the axes of the scanner; and iv) vibration effect at high frequencies due to its mechanical properties. During the last three decades, high-speed imaging using an AFM has been attempted by applying a suitable controller, using alternative scanning methods or changing the hardware setup.
更新日期:2020-03-24

 

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