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Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition Drives Intra-chloroplast Cargo Sorting
Cell ( IF 36.216 ) Pub Date : 2020-03-12 , DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.045
Min Ouyang; Xiaoyi Li; Jing Zhang; Peiqiang Feng; Hua Pu; Lingxi Kong; Zechen Bai; Liwei Rong; Xiumei Xu; Wei Chi; Qiang Wang; Fan Chen; Congming Lu; Jianren Shen; Lixin Zhang

In eukaryotic cells, organelle biogenesis is pivotal for cellular function and cell survival. Chloroplasts are unique organelles with a complex internal membrane network. The mechanisms of the migration of imported nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins across the crowded stroma to thylakoid membranes are less understood. Here, we identified two Arabidopsis ankyrin-repeat proteins, STT1 and STT2, that specifically mediate sorting of chloroplast twin arginine translocation (cpTat) pathway proteins to thylakoid membranes. STT1 and STT2 form a unique hetero-dimer through interaction of their C-terminal ankyrin domains. Binding of cpTat substrate by N-terminal intrinsically disordered regions of STT complex induces liquid-liquid phase separation. The multivalent nature of STT oligomer is critical for phase separation. STT-Hcf106 interactions reverse phase separation and facilitate cargo targeting and translocation across thylakoid membranes. Thus, the formation of phase-separated droplets emerges as a novel mechanism of intra-chloroplast cargo sorting. Our findings highlight a conserved mechanism of phase separation in regulating organelle biogenesis.
更新日期:2020-03-12

 

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