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Skeletal restoration by phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors in osteopenic mice: Evidence of osteoanabolic and osteoangiogenic effects of the drugs.
Bone ( IF 4.360 ) Pub Date : 2020-02-29 , DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2020.115305
Subhashis Pal,Mamunur Rashid,Sandeep Kumar Singh,Konica Porwal,Priya Singh,Riyazuddin Mohamed,Jiaur R Gayen,Muhammad Wahajuddin,Naibedya Chattopadhyay

Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) hydrolyze cyclic nucleotides and thereby regulate diverse cellular functions. The reports on the skeletal effects of PDE inhibitors are conflicting. Here, we screened 17 clinically used non-xanthine PDE inhibitors (selective and non-selective) using mouse calvarial osteoblasts (MCO) where the readout was osteoblast differentiation. From this screen, we identified sildenafil and vardenafil (both PDE5 inhibitors) having the least osteogenic EC50. Both drugs significantly increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expressions in MCO and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME completely blocked VEGF expression induced by these drugs. Sunitinib, a tyrosine receptor kinase inhibitor that also blocks VEGFR2 blocked sildenafil-/vardenafil-induced osteoblast differentiation. At half of their human equivalent doses, i.e. 6.0 mg/kg sildenafil and 2.5 mg/kg vardenafil, the maximum bone marrow level of sildenafil was 32% and vardenafil was 21% of their blood levels. At these doses, both drugs enhanced bone regeneration at the femur osteotomy site and completely restored bone mass, microarchitecture, and strength in OVX mice. Furthermore, both drugs increased surface referent bone formation and serum bone formation marker (P1NP) without affecting the resorption marker (CTX-1). Both drugs increased the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 in bones and osteoblasts and increased skeletal vascularity. Sunitinib completely blocked the bone restorative and vascular effects of sildenafil and vardenafil in OVX mice. Taken together, our study suggested that sildenafil and vardenafil at half of their adult human doses completely reversed osteopenia in OVX mice by an osteogenic mechanism that was associated with enhanced skeletal vascularity.
更新日期:2020-03-02

 

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