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Synergizing systemic responses by combining immunotherapy with radiotherapy in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer: The potential of the abscopal effect.
Lung Cancer ( IF 4.599 ) Pub Date : 2020-02-24 , DOI: 10.1016/j.lungcan.2020.02.015
Willemijn Sme Theelen,Monique C de Jong,Paul Baas

Immunotherapy has obtained a secure place in the treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and has made a great impact on prognosis of responders. Unfortunately, not all NSCLC patients derive benefit from this treatment. Several immune escape mechanisms have been postulated, explaining failure of tumor immune attack. A better understanding of these mechanisms helps us to seek treatment strategies to overcome resistance to immunotherapy. Radiotherapy has immunomodulatory qualities capable of enhancing the anti-cancer immune response by tackling a number of these tumor escape mechanisms. In this review, we focus on mechanisms of off-target effects of radiotherapy, the so-called abscopal effect, by describing the current role of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in NSCLC, the possible reasons for its failures and evidence on how radiotherapy may be able to counteract these mechanisms. An oversight of pre-clinical and clinical data supporting augmentation of abscopal events by radiotherapy when combined with ICIs is presented. As much remains unclear regarding optimal dose, fractionation, target volume or timing of radiation therapy, future research will need to focus on implementing data from pre-clinical and translational findings in the development of new clinical trials in order to help optimizing the potential of the combination of immunotherapy with radiotherapy.
更新日期:2020-02-24

 

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