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Cutaneous intravascular epithelioid hemangioma. A clinicopathological and molecular study of 21 cases
Modern Pathology ( IF 6.365 ) Pub Date : 2020-02-24 , DOI: 10.1038/s41379-020-0505-4
Boštjan Luzar; Eleni Ieremia; Cristina R. Antonescu; Lei Zhang; Eduardo Calonje

Pure intravascular growth of epithelioid hemangioma (EH) is exceptional. Herein, we report a series of 21 intravascular EHs, representing a potential serious diagnostic pitfall by mimicking malignant vascular neoplsms with epithelioid morphology. The tumors developed in 12 males and 4 females, aged from 11 to 71 years (mean age 40.2 years) with a predilection for the extremities (13 of 21, 61.9%), followed by the head and neck (8 of 21, 38.1%). Lesions ranged in size from 2 to 30 mm (mean size 13 mm). The most common presenting feature was a slowly growing nodule. Most neoplasms were solitary (13 of 16 patients, 81.2%) but three patients developed more than one intravascular EH (3 of 16, 18.8%). Treatment consisted of complete surgical excision and was generally curative. Follow-up was available for 13 lesions that had developed in ten patients (range 4–72 months, mean 27.3 months). No recurrences or development of additional tumors were observed. All 21 lesions developed in subcutaneous veins. Two morphological patterns of intravascular epithelioid endothelial cell proliferation were observed: (1) a lobular capillary hemangioma-like proliferation with variable formation of open vascular lumina and (2) a solid proliferation generally lacking open vascular spaces. A lobular capillary hemangioma-like pattern was the sole pattern in nine lesions, a mixed lobular hemangioma-like pattern, and solid pattern in eight and a pure solid pattern in four intravascular EHs. Mitotic activity in epithelioid endothelial cells ranged from 0 to 7 mitoses per 10 high-power field (mean 2.1 mitoses per 10 HPFs). Six lesions displayed brisk mitotic activity of five or more mitoses per 10 HPF (6 of 21, 28.5%). The number of mitoses was usually more prominent in areas with solid growth. Atypical mitoses were not observed. No intratumoral necroses were seen. Cytological atypia was mild (20 out of 21 cases). By immunohistochemistry, all tumors were positive for CD31 (14 out of 14) and ERG (5 out of 5). While all tested cases were FOS negative by immunohistochemistry (6 out of 6), one out of six cases (case 6) displayed FOSB nuclear positivity in about 30% of the lesional endothelial cells. Eight cases were analysed by FISH for the presence of FOS and FOSB gene rearrangements. While all cases were negative for FOSB rearrangements, a single case proved positive for FOS gene break-apart. In conclusion, intravascular growth of EH is not associated with adverse biological behavior. Solid intravascular proliferations of endothelial cells can mimic a malignant vascular tumor with epithelioid morphology. Nevertheless, intravascular EHs display mild cytological atypia coupled with low mitotic activity, and a lack of atypical mitoses, pronounced nuclear atypia, multilayering or tumor necrosis. Finally, the FOS gene is infrequently rearranged, and there are no FOSB gene abnormalities in this subset of EHs, suggesting a potential distinct pathogenesis than most classic EHs.
更新日期:2020-02-24

 

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